Sensors for Robots 3

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Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Junyo

Source: authorstream.com

Sensors:  Sensors Definition:  Definition Sensor: A device which provides information about the physical world. Transducers:  Transducers Convert of energy from one form to another. e.g. microphone and speakers convert between acoustic and electrical energy. Many transducers are bidirectional. Some sensors are transducers; almost all involve transduction. What can be sensed?:  What can be sensed? Direct Transduction: e.g., electric and magnetic fields, mechanical strain, temperature, electromagnetic energy... Derived quantities: e.g. distance, human presence, heading, air flow, molecular concentrations, air pressure, color... Common Animal Sensors:  Common Animal Sensors Unusual Animal Sensors:  Unusual Animal Sensors Magnetoreceptor: Sensing of earth’s magnetic field. Seen in newts, birds, rats and maybe humans. Electric field sensing: Seen in a variety of fish. Cerci: Cockroach airflow sensors Body as eye: Brittlestar covered with optically perfect lenses Biological Rotation Sensor:  Biological Rotation Sensor semicircular canals detect angular acceleration 3 canals: one per plane inertia of fluid causes deflection of sensory element Robot design as creature design:  Robot design as creature design Animal sensory systems adapted to functional needs and environment. Robots can use non-biological sensors which suit them to their ‘ecosystems’ e.g., neutron-sniffing robodog, UAV with weather radar, etc. Sensors for dead reckoning:  Sensors for dead reckoning Typical sensor: optical encoder One type found in standard computer mouse Quadrature encoding Sensors for orientation/heading:  Sensors for orientation/heading Use: orientation/heading Options: gyroscope, geomagnetic sensors Issues: gyro drift, B-field distortion Sensors for obstacle detection:  Sensors for obstacle detection e.g., where are walls? Options: ultrasonic TOF, lateral-effect photodiode (PSD) Sensors for detecting humans:  Sensors for detecting humans Options: computer vision, pyroelectric sensor pyroelectric sensors detect far-IR radiation can also detect heat, fire standard alarm sensor (cheap)

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