Sensing and processing of Bio metric signals for Low cost Bio Robotic systems

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Information about Sensing and processing of Bio metric signals for Low cost Bio Robotic...

Published on October 18, 2016

Author: DEVANANDPPRABHU

Source: slideshare.net

1. Sensing and Processing of Bio-metric Signals for use in Low Cost Bio-robotic Systems

2. What is Bio-Metrics?  Biometry − Bio (Greek word for Life)+ Metrics (Measurements)  Biometrics is the science of measuring and analyzing biological data.  Biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics such as DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hand measurements.

3. How Bio-Metrics work?

4. • Input Interface (Sensors)- It is the sensing component of a biometrics system that converts human biological data into digital form. • Processing Unit- microprocessor, Digital Signal Processor (DSP), or computer that processes the data captured from the sensors. • Database Store- The database stores the enrolled sample. • Output Interface- The output interface communicates the decision of the biometric system to perform a task.

5. Need for Bio-Robotic Systems? • To replace Humans in Hazardous Working Conditions. • Recovery of Human Organ Functions. • To perform high Precision tasks ,such as Surgeries. • As Exoskeletons for paralyzed people.

6. Prosthetics • Prosthetics are artificial devices that replace injured or diseased body parts • There are two types of Prosthetics- 1. Passive Prosthetics 2. Active Prosthetics

7. Requirements of a good Prosthetic • Should match the real Limb as close as possible • Same Size as the Limb • Low Weight • Economical • Long Lasting

8. Existing Prosthetics 1. Passive Prosthetics: They do not have sensors or any control mechanisms. They are cheap. 2. Active Prosthetics: They use sensors and Control mechanisms to mimic the actions of the real limb. They are far more expensive than Passive Prosthetics.

9. Sensing Technologies 1. Electromyography(EMG):  Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.  An EMG signal is the electrical activity of a muscle’s motor units  Most commonly used control method for Bio robotic systems (Prosthetics)  EMG frequency spectrum falls in the 0-500Hz range

10. 2. Electroencephalography(EEG):  An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a technique used to track and record electrical activity of the brain.  EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current within the neurons of the brain.

11. Invasive Vs Non-Invasive 1. Invasive –  Requires Surgery or Implantation  Risk of Infection or Electrode rejection  High resolution of the obtained Signals  More Expensive  Used in special cases 2. Non-Invasive-  Doesn’t require Surgery or Implantation  Low resolution of the obtained Signals  Less Expensive  Commonly used

12. Choice of Sensing Technology Advantages of EMG: • Low cost • Simplicity: Most times, surface electrodes are sufficient to collect adequate data. • Prediction: In most muscles, the EMG activity precedes the motion of the actuated limb.

13. Circuit Design • Sensing Circuit Comprises of 3 stages 1. Input Amplification 2. Filtering 3. MAV(Mean Average Voltage) Circuit

14. Input stage • Consists of Sensory Circuits • Sensory Circuits comprises of a set of Silver Chloride Electrodes attached to person’s skin • One electrode is placed at core of the target muscle • Other electrode is placed at a remote location • An instrumentation amplifier is used to amplify signal by x1000

15. Filtering Stage • Filtering stage consists of High Pass and a Low Pass Filter • More Dominant frequencies are identified after Fourier analysis and rest are filtered out • Frequencies 20Hz to 400 Hz are allowed to pass

16. MAV Circuit • MAV (Mean Average value) circuit consists of 1. Peak Detector 2. Clipping Circuit 3. Integrator • Peak detector converts signal to a series of Peak spikes • Then Peak values are cut off at a safe Voltage level

17. • Integrator provides a slow signal that rise and fall with the amount of muscles activity.

18. Conclusion • Prosthetics based on EMG offers an effective low cost solution for amputees. • Prosthetics based on EMG have the following disadvantages: 1. Injuries are not same for every amputee, so Prosthetics have to be customized. 2. EMG signal strength depends on many factors, such as Muscle size ,Skin type etc, some of which may vary with time.

19. THANK U

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