semantic web applications

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Information about semantic web applications
Travel-Nature

Published on March 25, 2008

Author: WoodRock

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Semantic Web Technologies for Real World Applications :  Semantic Web Technologies for Real World Applications Ulrich Reimer Institute for Information and Process Management University of Applied Sciences St. Gallen Switzerland Overview:  Overview Introduction Application Areas for Semantic Web Technology 2.1 Content-Oriented Retrieval 2.2 Reference Modeling & Model-Driven Development 2.3 Information & Process Integration 2.4 Flexible Business Transactions Opportunities, Barriers, and Future Development Slide3:  get information provide information, affect the world Information Retrieval Web Services The Web: Information retrieval and web services What characterizes a Semantic Web application?:  What characterizes a Semantic Web application? An application employing Semantic Web technology contains a model of the application domain: an ontology, i.e. concepts, their properties, relationships, axioms rules representing regularities, constraints, norms of the domain Overview:  Overview Introduction Application Areas for Semantic Web Technology 2.1 Content-Oriented Retrieval 2.2 Reference Modeling & Model-Driven Development 2.3 Information & Process Integration 2.4 Flexible Business Transactions Opportunities, Barriers, and Future Development Time-consuming information search (1):  Time-consuming information search (1) Many studies show: A large percentage of daily work deals with information (search, obtain, transform, distribute, file):  about 6 weeks/year for administrative workers  60 – 80% for knowledge workers Recent study of a DMS company: 80% of interviewed companies need a whole day to find relevant information (although the DMS offers a search engine). Reason: In many cases there are no guidelines for how to file documents. Time-consuming information search (2):  Consequences of inefficient and insufficient information provision:  higher costs  longer process durations  longer time to market  important information is not found:  inferior quality of decisions, processes, etc.  compliance violations  reinventing the wheel Time-consuming information search (2) Information search with search engines:  Information search with search engines “tanker accident” atlantic . . . words contained in the documents On 19 July 1979, the Atlantic Empress and the Aegean Captain collided with each other in the Caribbean Sea, off Tobago island. ... The tanker accident … A single oil tanker accident could destroy the entire coastline. ... Two tankers passed the coast every week, transporting oil across the Atlantic to the USA. ... The leaking oil tanker Prestige sinks off Spain's north-western coast ... Slide9:  Using meta data to describe document contents words contained in meta data The leaking oil tanker Prestige sinks off Spain's north-western coast ... “tanker accident” atlantic Slide10:  Different terms in meta data and query formulation words contained in meta data “tanker accident” atlantic Slide11:  words contained in meta data Different vocabulary for indexing and querying “tanker accident” atlantic Slide12:  tanker accident accident is-a ship accident is-a train accident . . . is-a water inland water is-a is-a sea Pacific Ocean is-a Atlantic Ocean is-a . . . Ontology Controlled vocabulary for indexing and querying Ontology: controlled vocabulary “tanker accident” atlantic Slide13:  Using background knowledge to extend query tanker accident Atlantic Ocean tanker collision Carribean Sea Bermuda Sea part-of part-of synonymy Gulf of Biscay part-of (tanker collision OR tanker accident) AND (Atlantic Ocean OR Carribean Sea OR Bermuda Sea OR ...) Ontology Ontology: background knowledge automatic query extension “tanker accident” atlantic Slide14:  tanker accident Atlantic Ocean tanker collision part-of part-of synonymy part-of Ontology Semantics of relations automatic query extension (tanker collision OR tanker accident) AND (Atlantic Ocean OR Carribean Sea OR Bermuda Sea OR ...) Ontology: background knowledge Using background knowledge to extend query Carribean Sea Bermuda Sea Gulf of Biscay “tanker accident” atlantic Slide15:  Required background knowledge can be complex automatic query extension The leaking oil tanker Prestige sinks off Spain's north-western coast ... document still not found (tanker collision OR tanker accident) AND (Atlantic Ocean OR Carribean Sea OR Bermuda Sea OR ...) “tanker accident” atlantic Technical realisation:  Technical realisation What is needed: assign meta data to information objects content description with concepts and relations between them provision of background knowledge provision of the semantics of relations for query extension, ontology integration, etc. RDF RDF Schema, OWL, Rules Ontology-based skills management:  Ontology-based skills management description of skills Ontology Slide20:  Architecture Slide21:  An ontology itself does not guarantee good query results  Semantic query extension: descend the concept hierarchy: described skill: WLAN queried skill: LAN ascend the concept hierarchy: described skills: LAN queried skills: WLAN Query extension (1) LAN WLAN is-a Slide22:  include siblings: described skill: Linux queried skill: BSD Unix include synonyms: described skill: Voice over IP queried skill: VoIP Query extension (2) VoIP Voice over IP synonymy operating system Linux is-a BSD Unix is-a Slide23:  an ontology is absolutely needed ontology development requires strong guidance by ontology experts keep ontology as small as possible query extension very important Conclusion to ontology-based skills management Overview:  Overview Introduction Application Areas for Semantic Web Technology 2.1 Content-Oriented Retrieval 2.2 Reference Modeling & Model-Driven Development 2.3 Information & Process Integration 2.4 Flexible Business Transactions Opportunities, Barriers, and Future Development Slide25:  Tool for Project Management Logout Administration Controlling P-Office Search Monitoring Planning Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 Portfolio E-Gov-Project Process analysis SOA Web Services Registry Orchestration Ontology GUI Project information system Save Edit Cancel Slide26:  Modelling vs. Programming etc. hard-wired: generic: Project ontology Contracts ontology Slide27:  Project ontology Modelling vs. Programming Portfolio Project Sub-project Workpackage Milestone Document Issue Client status Responsible Person is-a contains has-part has-part Slide28:  Tool for Project Management Logout Administration Controlling P-Office Search Monitoring Planning Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 Portfolio E-Gov-Project Process analysis SOA Web Services Registry Orchestration Ontology GUI How to present objects at the user interface? Save Edit Cancel Slide29:  Tool for Project Management Logout Administration Controlling P-Office Search Monitoring Planning Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 Portfolio E-Gov-Project Process analysis SOA Web Services Registry Orchestration Ontology GUI How to present objects at the user interface? Save Edit Cancel Navigation Functions Slide30:  Closure Controlling Planning Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 Issues Milestones Documents Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Monitoring Sub-Projects Project: E-Gov-Project 2006/05/18 Controlling Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 GUI Ontology Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Process analysis Status Report Date Responsible Start End Budget April 06 Johnny B. Good 1 March 2006 8 kEuro l Workpackages: Web Services Registry Orchestration SOA Presenting subprojects and workpackages differently versus Project: E-Gov-Project Slide31:  Closure Controlling Planning Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 Issues Milestones Documents Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Monitoring Sub-Projects Project: E-Gov-Project 2006/05/18 Controlling Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 GUI Ontology Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Process analysis Status Report Date Responsible Start End Budget April 06 Johnny B. Good 1 March 2006 8 kEuro l Workpackages: Web Services Registry Orchestration SOA Presenting subprojects and workpackages differently versus Project: E-Gov-Project Slide32:  Portfolio Project Sub-project Workpackage Milestone Document Issue Client status Responsible Person is-a contains has-part has-part Navigation tree proj-root proj-node-l1 proj-node-l2 proj-tree “Portfolio” is-a has-root has-successor has-successor label Information objects GUI objects position size has-size has-position Mapping GUI objects to information objects Slide33:  Portfolio Project Sub-project Workpackage Milestone Document Issue Client status Responsible Person is-a contains has-part has-part Navigation tree proj-root proj-node-l1 proj-node-l2 proj-tree “Portfolio” is-a has-root has-successor has-successor label Information objects GUI objects position size has-size has-position Mapping GUI objects to information objects: Rule Slide34:  Portfolio Project Sub-project Workpackage Milestone Document Issue Client status Responsible Person is-a contains has-part has-part proj-tree root-1 node-1 node-12 tree-1 “Portfolio” “E-Gov-Project” “Process analysis” instance-of has-root has-successor label has-successor label label e-gov-project sp-1 has-part instance-of instance-of Information objects GUI objects position size has-size has-position Mapping GUI objects to information objects top-left has-position Slide35:  Closure Controlling Planning Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 Issues Milestones Documents Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Monitoring Sub-Projects Project: E-Gov-Project 2006/05/18 Controlling Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 GUI Ontology Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Process analysis Status Report Date Responsible Start End Budget April 06 Johnny B. Good 1 March 2006 8 kEuro l Workpackages: Web Services Registry Orchestration SOA Presenting subprojects and workpackages differently versus Project: E-Gov-Project Slide36:  Portfolio Project Sub-project Workpackage Milestone Document Issue Client status Responsible Person is-a contains has-part has-part Tab sequence tab-11 tab-sequence-1 “Sub-Projects” “SOA” instance-of first label e-gov-project sp-1 has-part instance-of instance-of Information objects GUI objects position size has-size has-position tab-sequence-2 tab-21 first label “Process analysis” tab-22 has-successor label Mapping GUI objects to information objects Slide37:  Project Milestone Issue Client Document Milestone Issue Client Document Project 1 Relationships in ontology: Navigation hierarchy: Navigation hierarchy from relations between concepts Milestone 1 Milestone 2 Slide38:  Project Milestone Issue Client Document Milestone Issue Client Document Project 1 Relationships in ontology: Navigation hierarchy: Navigation hierarchy from relations between concepts Milestone 1 Milestone 2 instance Slide39:  Project Sub-project Workpackage has-part has-part Navigation hierarchy from instances of related concepts Sub-project 1 Sub-project 3 Sub-project 4 Sub-project 2 Project 1 Workpackage 11 Workpackage 12 Relationships in ontology: Navigation hierarchy: Slide40:  Project Sub-project Workpackage has-part has-part Navigation hierarchy from instances of related concepts Sub-project 1 Sub-project 3 Sub-project 4 Sub-project 2 Project 1 Workpackage 11 Workpackage 12 Relationships in ontology: Navigation hierarchy: instance Slide41:  Project Project Navigation hierarchy from attribute values: classification Attribute in ontology: Navigation hierarchy: Projects: in time Projects: delayed delay: { yes, no } Slide42:  Project Project Navigation hierarchy from attribute values: classifiction Attribute in ontology: Navigation hierarchy: Projects: in time Projects: delayed delay: { yes, no } concept Slide43:  Project Project Navigation hierarchy from type of related instance Relationships in ontology: Navigation hierarchy: Client: Insurance Client: Bank Client Bank Insurance is-a is-a Slide44:  Project Project Navigation hierarchy from attribute values Relationships in ontology: Navigation hierarchy: Client: Insurance Client: Bank Client concept Bank Insurance is-a is-a Slide45:  applicational GUI Many aspects to model domain ontology rules workflows functions roles & rights GUI ontology Some aspects are declarative (i.e. model elements), some are procedural (i.e. pieces of code). Slide46:  Reference modelling Project information system for Automotive Project ontology for Automotive Project ontology Reference Project Model Generic project information system Project information system for Acme Inc. Project ontology for Acme Inc. Reference Automotive Project Model Specialization Specialization Slide47:  Holistic Project Information System Project Info System: Basic Project Info System: Milestones Project Info System: Budget etc. Aggregation of sub-models: Holistic vs. modular Modular Project Information System applicational GUI domain ontology rules workflows functions roles & rights GUI ontology applicational ontologies GUI ontology applicational ontologies GUI ontology applicational ontologies GUI ontology Slide48:  Reference modelling: Specialization Project information system for Automotive Project ontology for Automotive Project ontology Reference Project Model Generic project information system Project information system for Acme Inc. Project ontology for Acme Inc. Reference Automotive Project Model Controlling information system for Automotive Controlling ontology for Automotive Controlling ontology Reference Controlling Model Generic controlling information system Controlling information system for Acme Inc. Controlling ontology for Acme Inc. Reference Automotive Controlling Model Specialization Specialization Slide49:  Reference modelling: Specialization and Aggregation Project information system for Automotive Project ontology for Automotive Project ontology Reference Project Model Generic project information system Project information system for Acme Inc. Project ontology for Acme Inc. Reference Automotive Project Model Controlling information system for Automotive Controlling ontology for Automotive Controlling ontology Reference Controlling Model Generic controlling information system Controlling information system for Acme Inc. Controlling ontology for Acme Inc. Reference Automotive Controlling Model Specialization Specialization Slide50:  Reference modelling: Specialization and Aggregation Project information system for Automotive Project ontology for Automotive Project ontology Reference Project Model Generic project information system Reference Automotive Project Model Controlling information system for Automotive Controlling ontology for Automotive Controlling ontology Reference Controlling Model Generic controlling information system Reference Automotive Controlling Model Specialization Specialization Project information system for Acme Inc. Project ontology for Acme Inc. Controlling ontology for Acme Inc. Slide51:  project project manager project staff sub-project workpackage employee assignment task Ontology for Resource Management has-part has-part has-part has for is-resp has-assigned Basic Project Ontology Different concepts for same/similar things hamper integration Slide52:  project project manager project staff sub-project workpackage employee assignment task has-part has-part has-part has for is-resp has-assigned project task employee is-a is-a is-a is-a is-a Ontology for Resource Management Basic Project Ontology Extension of sub-ontologies destroys independence project task is-a Slide53:  project project manager project staff sub-project workpackage employee assignment task has-part has-part has-part has for is-resp has-assigned project task employee is-a is-a is-a is-a is-a is-a is-a Ontology for Resource Management Basic Project Ontology Upper-Level Ontology Instead relate sub-ontologies to an upper-level-ontology Slide54:  Project Info System: Basic Project Info System: Milestones Upper-level ontology facilitates aggregation of sub-models Upper-Level Ontology Project Info System: Milestones Project Info System: Basic Upper-Level Ontology Aggregated model + = applicational ontologies GUI ontology applicational ontologies GUI ontology applicational ontologies GUI ontology applicational ontologies GUI ontology Slide55:  Configuration workbench Model-driven development: From models to code Generic information system Project ontology for Automotive Generic information system Project ontology for Acme Inc. Reference Project Model Project information system for Acme Inc. Compilation Specialization Run-time system Overview:  Overview Introduction Application Areas for Semantic Web Technology 2.1 Content-Oriented Retrieval 2.2 Reference Modeling & Model-Driven Development 2.3 Information & Process Integration 2.4 Flexible Business Transactions Opportunities, Barriers, and Future Development Slide57:  A-Bank Trustee Company Revenue tax declaration: Chaotic process with many media breaks B-Bank Tax authority 1 Tax authority 2 Slide58:  tax documents Process & information integration A-Bank Company B-Bank Tax authority 1 Tax authority 2 Trustee Slide59:  Different process for each province A-Bank Company B-Bank Tax authority 1 Tax authority 2 Trustee tax documents Slide60:  tax documents Reference process model for revenue tax declaration A-Bank Tax authority 1 Company B-Bank Tax authority 2 Reference Model: Revenue tax declaration Trustee generic process model Slide61:  tax documents Reference process model plus specializations of it A-Bank Trustee Company B-Bank Reference Model: Revenue tax declaration Specialized model for Province 1 Specialized model for Province 2 Tax authority 1 Tax authority 2 Slide62:  Different vocabulary for each province A-Bank Company B-Bank Tax authority 1 Tax authority 2 Trustee tax documents Ontology 1 Ontology 2 Slide63:  Reference ontology with mappings to local ontologies A-Bank Company B-Bank Tax authority 1 Tax authority 2 Trustee tax documents Ontology 1 Ontology 2 Reference Ontology Slide64:  Process participants can get different views Reference Model: Revenue tax declaration Law & regulations Process descriptions Ontology Specialized model for Province 1 Law & regulations Process descriptions Ontology Specialized model for Province 2 Law & regulations Process descriptions Ontology specialization specialization Company Tax authority 1 Tax authority 2 Slide65:  How to get from models to IT systems? ? ? ? ? Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology Process descriptions Ontology Ontology Law & regulations Reference model with all specializations Slide66:  Process control WS Company WS Tax authority WS Bank WS Trustee electronic tax documents Orchestration Engine Web Services Orchestrated Web Services (BPEL) Rule Engine Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology Process descriptions Ontology Ontology Law & regulations Reference model with all specializations Model-driven development: From the model to SOA Service- oriented architecture Slide67:  WS WS WS WS Web Services / SOA: legacy independence reusability integration Model-driven development: The ideal case Business process view: application-driven Slide68:  WS WS WS WS Model-driven development: The ideal case Top-down: From process model to orchestrated web service Web Services / SOA: legacy independence reusability integration Business process view: application-driven Slide69:  WS WS Top-down: From process model to orchestrated web service WS WS WS WS Model-driven development: The ideal case Web Services / SOA: legacy independence reusability integration Business process view: application-driven Slide70:  WS WS WS WS Model-driven development: The reality Web Services / SOA: legacy independence reusability integration Business process view: application-driven semantic gap Slide71:  WS WS WS WS Model-driven development: The reality It does not fit! Web Services / SOA: legacy independence reusability integration Business process view: application-driven Slide72:  WS WS WS WS Model-driven development: The solution Top-down: From the model to orchestrated web service Bottom-up: Build the model from the existing web services Web Services / SOA: legacy independence reusability integration Business process view: application-driven Slide73:  WS WS WS WS Model-driven development: The solution Top-down: From the model to orchestrated web service Bottom-up: Build the model from the existing web services WS WS Web Services / SOA: legacy independence reusability integration Business process view: application-driven Overview:  Overview Introduction Application Areas for Semantic Web Technology 2.1 Content-Oriented Retrieval 2.2 Reference Modeling & Model-Driven Development 2.3 Information & Process Integration 2.4 Flexible Business Transactions Opportunities, Barriers, and Future Development Slide75:  Travel industry: Emergence of new business models after: M.Y. Kabbaj: Strategic and Policy Prospects for Semantic Web Services Adoption in US Online Travel Industry. M.Sc. Thesis. June 2003. . . . . . . . . . Current business models: manual bundling pre-fabricated travel packages Advantages of travel packages: higher margins simple business processes Disadvantages: fixed itineraries inflexible dates limited options Slide76:  . . . . . . . . . Dynamic Packaging: New business model Advantages: single point of contact satisfaction of individual customer needs increased revenues by revenue management Slide77:  Traditional Distribution Model Travel Supplier / Inventory Owner Tour Operator / Wholesaler Retailer / Sales Order Processing Consumer New distribution model needed Current distribution model impedes dynamic packaging Slide78:  Retailer Travel Supplier / Inventory Owner Travel Supplier / Inventory Owner Consumer Electronic Demand-driven Marketplace Sales Order Processing New distribution model: Combine information from distributed sources Slide79:  Requirements for dynamic packaging: • reach across multiple markets, countries, currencies, suppliers • automatic comparison of products automatic aggregation of products automatic negotiation of discounts trustworthy transactions  With current technology not efficient and not profitable! Electronic marketplace needs Semantic Web Services Slide80:  car rentals hotels airlines conventional registries require programming railway Dynamic information gathering and transactions needed Slide81:  machine understandable service descriptions car rentals hotels airlines Dynamic information gathering and transactions needed railway Slide82:  Input: <place> Output: bag-of( url( <car-rentals>) ) Precondition:  r: ( known( car-rental( r )  place-of( r ) = <place> )  known( r: car-rental( r )  place-of( r ) = <place> ) Postcondition:  r: ( known( car-rental( r )  place-of( r ) = <place> )  known( r: car-rental( r )  place-of( r ) = <place> ) Ontology Semantic Web Services: Ontology-based service description Slide83:  Travel Supplier / Inventory Owner Electronic Demand-driven Marketplace Sales Order Processing business logic represented internally business logic as rule markup Business logic needed for negotiation and aggregation The full potential of the Semantic Web:  The full potential of the Semantic Web Dynamic Static Web Services UDDI, WSDL, SOAP WWW URI, HTML, HTTP Semantic Web Services OWL-S, WSMF, etc. Semantic Web RDF Schema, OWL Semantic Texts, images, Web Service descriptions Overview:  Overview Introduction Application Areas for Semantic Web Technology 2.1 Content-Oriented Retrieval 2.2 Reference Modeling & Model-Driven Development 2.3 Information & Process Integration 2.4 Flexible Business Transactions Opportunities, Barriers, and Future Development Semantic Web Technologies: Opportunities:  Alleviation of information overload Querying facts instead of searching texts Integration of heterogeneous information sources Process integration Dynamic formation of business transactions Model-driven development of information systems Specialization and aggregation of reference models Semantic Web Technologies: Opportunities Semantic Web Technologies: Barriers:  Semantic Web Technologies: Barriers Where do the ontologies come from? But: Many ontologies already exist Where do the semantic content descriptions come from? Ontology development is expensive. Not many people have the expertise to build ontologies. How to achieve good cost/benefit ratio? Many ontologies or predecessors already exist:  UMLS (Unified Medical Language System): semantically related medical terms terms from ca. 100 heterogeneous classification systems and medical terminologies in 15 languages UNSPSC (United Nations Standard Products and Services Code): hierarchical classification system for products and services Geneontology: controlled vacabulary to describe genes and proteins 19’000 concepts is-a and part-of relationships and many more  Ontologies do not necessarily need to be big! Many ontologies or predecessors already exist Conclusion:  Conclusion Semantic Web  Semantic Web technology Modeling will gain in importance over programming. Models will be ubiquitous because they are easier to create, modify, maintain they are easier to exchange and adapt (specialized, aggregated) versions can be better maintained (changes propagated top-down) Practical applications mostly need lightweight semantics, whereas most research is about heavy-weight semantics. Slide91:  Tool for Project Management Logout Administration Closure Monitoring P-Office Search Controlling Planning Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 How to present objects at the user interface? TOP 30 Projects Group and BPM Region Overall Status Reported Date Project name Project Start Project End Strategic objective Group Global April 06 ITM Security Project "SAFE" 21.04.2004 8 BPM Asia Pacific l 02.04.2004 Great Wall Project (China) Support set-up of company operations 01.10.2003 01.12.2005 1 Asia Pacific l March 06 Support of SOA (Japan) Bridging process design gaps for SOA. 01.11.2003 31.12.2004 1 Asia Pacific l March 06 COB@ARIS (Japan) Implementation of COB@ARIS, start for Wholesale Fin. 01.11.2003 31.12.2004 1 Asia Pacific l March 06 Continous Process Improvement (CPI) initiative Preparing for start of measuring first process KPI`s, incl. MD information and workshop 01.12.2003 01.12.2005 1 Asia Pacific March 06 South-Korea process mapping Map and document the processes in SK 01.05.2004 31.12.2004 1 l l Tool for Project Management Logout Administration Controlling P-Office Search Monitoring Planning Execution Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 11/07/2003 11/07/2003 Welcome Mr. John Q. Public 2004/05/18 Portfolio Save Edit Cancel Slide92:  Application Areas for Semantic Web Technology Fact retrieval instead of document retrieval: published on web pages, crawled and made available by search engines like financial infos, musems, companies Informationssuche erfolgt oft indirekt:  Informationssuche erfolgt oft indirekt “zeitgenössiche amerikanische Maler” Ausstellung USA Eigentliches Informationsproblem: Wo in USA hängen Gemälde zeit- genössischer amerikanischer Maler? Und wie komme ich dorthin? Faktenretrieval statt Dokumentenretrieval:  Faktenretrieval statt Dokumentenretrieval „Welches waren die grössten Schadenereignisse im 2005?“ „Welche Weisungen sind bei der Vergabe dieser Kredite relevant?“ „Welche Offerten habe wir für diese Firma schon gemacht?“ „Welche Enzyme werden durch Levamisol unterdrückt?“ Hintergrundwissen nötig: „Mark Rothko ist ein zeitgenössischer amerikanischer Maler.“ „Ein Erdbeben ist ein Schadenereignis.“ „Endosome sind Zellkomponenten.“ „Eine Zelle besteht aus Zellkomponenten.“ Fakten statt Dokumente ablegen.

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