Semantic Annotation for WSDL

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Information about Semantic Annotation for WSDL

Published on September 23, 2008

Author: taisie_jp


Semantic Annotations for WSDL and XML Schema : Semantic Annotations for WSDL and XML Schema Presented by: James P Taisie Date: 10.12.2007 Terminology : Terminology Some basic definitions for the terminology used in this document. Semantic Model (SM) A set of machine-interpretable representations used to model an area of knowledge or some part of the world, including software. Examples of such models are ontologies that embody some community agreement Concept Is an element of a semantic model. A concept can for example be a classifier in some language, a predicate logic relation, the value of the property of an ontology instance, some object instance or set of related instances, an axiom, etc. Semantic Annotation (SA) In a document, it is the additional information that identifies or defines a concept in a semantic model in order to describe part of that document. In SAWSDL, semantic annotations are XML attributes added to a WSDL or associated XML Schema document, at the XML element they describe. Semantics refers to sets of concepts identified by annotations. Annotation Mechanisms : Annotation Mechanisms Two basic SA constructs that SAWSDL provides Components dealing with abstract definition of a service to enable dynamic discovery, composition and invocation of services Element Declaration, Type Definition, Interface Components dealing with service implementation Binding Service Extension attributes defined by SAWSDL modelReference, specifies the association between a WSDL or XML Schema component and a concept in semantic model. Used to annotate XML Schema type definitions, element declarations, and attribute declarations as well as WSDL interfaces, operations, and faults. liftingSchemaMapping and loweringSchemaMapping are added to XML Schema element declarations and type definitions for specifying mappings between semantic data and XML. SAWSDL Model Reference : SAWSDL Model Reference modelReference: A (URI ) pointer to a concept in a semantic representation languages. Defines its meaning only for wsdl:interface, wsdl:operation, wsdl:fault, xs:element, xs:complexType, xs:simpleType xs:attribute. Allows multiple annotations to be associated with a given WSDL or XML Schema component via a set of URIs. SAWSDL does not define any particular way to dereference model references Can be used to help determine if a service meets the requirements of a client …… <xs:attribute name="modelReference" type="listOfAnyURI" /> <xs:simpleType name="listOfAnyURI"> <xs:list itemType="xs:anyURI"/> </xs:simpleType> …… SAWSDL Schema Mapping : SAWSDL Schema Mapping Introduces schema mapping annotations to address post-discovery issues in using a WS liftingSchemaMapping and loweringSchemaMapping: In general, lifting schema mappings lift data from XML to a semantic model, lowering schema mappings lower data from a semantic model into an XML structure. ……. <xs:attribute name="liftingSchemaMapping" type="listOfAnyURI" /> <xs:attribute name="loweringSchemaMapping" type="listOfAnyURI" /> <xs:simpleType name="listOfAnyURI"> <xs:list itemType="xs:anyURI"/> </xs:simpleType> ……. I may use WSDL with SA to describe the service am expecting! BUT my XML structures and the service I wanted to access differ, how can I access the service? Schema mappings can translate the XML structures into the semantic model where any mismatches can be understood and resolved. I‘m a bad client! Embedding Semantic Models : Embedding Semantic Models SA mechanism only requires identifiable semantic concepts defined in it via URI references (doesn’t rely on other semantic modeling language ) URIs typically refer to concepts in a semantic model that is external to the WSDL document URIs can also refer to elements within the WSDL document if semantic information is included in the document via WSDL extension elements SAWSDL doesn’t define additional container element for embedding semantic models Since, WSDL already allows extension elements within a wsdl:description element Embedding Semantic Models : Embedding Semantic Models 01 <wsdl:description … > 02 03 <rdf:RDF 04 xmlns:rdf="" 05 xmlns:rdfs="" 06 xmlns:owl="" 07 xml:base=""> 08 <owl:Class rdf:ID="OrderRequest"/> 09 <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="has_items"> 10 <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#OrderRequest"/> 11 <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Item"/> 12 </owl:ObjectProperty> 13 <owl:Class rdf:ID="Item"/> 14 </rdf:RDF> 15 16 <wsdl:types> 17 <xs:element name="OrderRequest" 18 sawsdl:modelReference=""> 19 … 20 </xs:element> 21 … 22 </wsdl:types> 23 24 <wsdl:interface name="Order"> 25 … 26 </wsdl:interface> 27 </wsdl:description> URIs referring to elements within the WSDL Doc. via WSDL extension language expressing the semantic model uses the RDF ID mechanism External Annotations : External Annotations XSLT Pre-processing: XPath is use to identify the supposed to be annotated elements in the external document . Done by mostly copying its I to its O and add the appropriate annotation attributes. XSLT stylesheet O is the annotated version of the external document, ready for being processed Using RDF: provides all the annotations for the components imported from the external document. SAWSDL In Picture : SAWSDL In Picture Provides sematics info provides classification I/O data of WSDL Definition Point to a concept Semantic model provides high level description of SA xs:simpleType element XML Schema component model WSDL component model bottom level element Translation etc... Annotating WSDL Documents : Annotating WSDL Documents Annotating Interfaces with Model Reference Categorize annotation of interface element according to some model Points to a concept or concepts in a semantic model that describe the Interface. Annotating Operations with Model Reference. Closer categorization, indicating functionality Operation element points to a concept in a semantic model that provides a high level description of the operation … <wsdl:interface name="Order“ sawsdl:modelReference=""> … </wsdl:interface> … The modelReference in this example points to a category concept "electronics" in some semantic model … <wsdl:operation name="order" pattern="" sawsdl:modelReference=""> <wsdl:input element="OrderRequest"/> <wsdl:output element="OrderResponse"/> </wsdl:operation> … Annotating XML Schema Documents : Annotating XML Schema Documents fault element is the meaning of the “fault” itself Use to help determine if a service meets the requirements of a client Additional semantics for the annotated XML Schema components Annotating Simple Types with Model Reference … <wsdl:interface name="Order"> <wsdl:fault name="ItemUnavailableFault" element="AvailabilityInformation" sawsdl:modelReference=""/> … </wsdl:interface> E.g.: "ItemUnavailable" concept in the referenced semantic model as a description of the fault "itemUnavailableFault." Annotating Faults with Model Reference … <xs:simpleType name="Confirmation" sawsdl:modelReference=""> … </xs:simpleType> … E.g.: attribute of type Confirmation is described by the OrderConfirmation concept in the referenced semantic model Slide 12: Annotating Complex Types with Model Reference Bottom Level Annotation: Annotating at the member element or attribute level in complex type Top Level Annotation: Complex Types are themselves annotated with the model reference Annotating XML Schema Documents (1) … <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:integer" sawsdl:modelReference=""/> <xs:element name="UPC" type="xs:string" sawsdl:modelReference=""/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> … … <xs:complexType sawsdl:modelReference=""> <xs:sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:integer" <xs:element name="UPC" type="xs:string" </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> … Grouping Annotation to the OrderRequest concept. Groups "quantity" and "UPC" elements make up the complex type Slide 13: Annotating Elements with Model Reference Very similar to a top-level complexType annotation Annotating Attributes with Model Reference annotated by including a modelReference on the xs:attribute element … <xs:element name="OrderRequest" sawsdl:modelReference=""> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="customerNo" type="xs:integer" /> <xs:element name="orderItem" type="item" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded" /> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> … Annotated element is defined in terms of a complexType and the annotation describes the "OrderRequest" as a whole … <xs:attribute name="quantity" type="xs:integer" sawsdl:modelReference=""/> … Annotating XML Schema Documents (2) Slide 14: All mechanism of SA in WSDL 2.0 is supported in WSDL 1.1 WSDL 2.0 introduced new element to facilitate operational annotations of WSDL 1.1 operations SAWSDL attrExtensions Element WSDL 1.1 Annotations portTypes Input and Output Faults (are specified as messages within operations) Operations (does not allow attribute extensibility) WSDL 1.1 Support … <xs:element name="attrExtensions"> <xs:complexType> <xs:anyAttribute namespace="##any" processContents="lax" /> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> … adds extension attributes where attribute extensibility is not allowed Slide 15: Resource Description Framework: Integration of variety of applications from library catalogs and WW-Directories, syndication and aggregation of news, software, content to personal collections of music, photos, The RDF specifications provide lightweight ontology system to support the exchange of knowledge on the Web. Only model reference properties are mapped into an RDF form compatible with the WSDL 2.0 RDF Mapping lifting schema mapping lowering schema mapping in RDF (within a hypothetical RDF mapping of XML Schema) using the properties sawsdlrdf:liftingSchemaMapping <URI> URI = "" sawsdlrdf:loweringSchemaMapping <URI> URI = Mapping SAWSDL into RDF (1) And events using XML as an interchange syntax. Not supported...! BUT how is it possible? Slide 16: WSDL 2.0 RDF mapping does not provide an RDF form for the element declaration and type definition components are currently not represented in the RDF form of WSDL documents References: [SAWSDL Document] [W3C] [XML Schema Tutorial] [WSDL 2.0 Specification ] Mapping SAWSDL into RDF (2)

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