SELinux Kernel Internals and Architecture - FOSS.IN/2005

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Published on June 30, 2009

Author: jamesmorris

Source: slideshare.net

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SELinux Kernel Internals and Architecture - FOSS.IN/2005

Presentation given in Bangalore, India.

SELinux Kernel Internals and Architecture James Morris jmorris@namei.org FOSS.IN/2005 Bangalore, India

SELinux Overview ● Mandatory Access Control (MAC) ● Policy­flexible ● Kernel mediation of access between subjects and objects ● Several security models – Type Enforcement (TE) – Role Based Access Control (RBAC) – Multilevel Security (MLS)

Interesting Files Files related to this talk. Kernel (typically under /usr/src/linux): LSM API: include/linux/security.h security/ (top level) SELinux: security/selinux/ (everything under here) security/selinux/hooks.c (especially) Policy (Fedora­specific): /etc/selinux/targeted/ Install package selinux­policy­targeted­sources (or equivalent).

Object Labeling ● Important objects in the OS are labeled – Processes, files, inodes, superblocks etc. ● Files persistently labeled via extended attributes ● Labels are called security contexts ● They contain all SELinux security information:

SELinux Policy ● Labeling rules – Describe how objects are to be labeled ● Access rules – Describe how subjects access objects (and  subjects) ● Compiled into binary form and loaded into kernel ● Enforced by the kernel

Kernel Hooks ● SELinux hooks into security­critical operations – System calls, network flow etc. ● Linux Security Modules (LSM) ● Netfilter

Kernel Diagram ­ Simplified

Hook Example – LSM fs/ioctl.c: asmlinkage long sys_ioctl(unsigned int fd, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg) { struct file * filp; int error = -EBADF; int fput_needed; filp = fget_light(fd, &fput_needed); if (!filp) goto out; error = security_file_ioctl(filp, cmd, arg); if (error) goto out_fput; error = vfs_ioctl(filp, fd, cmd, arg); out_fput: fput_light(filp, fput_needed); out: return error; }

Hook Example ­ SELinux security/selinux/hooks.c static int selinux_file_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg) { int error = 0; switch (cmd) { case FIONREAD: case FIBMAP: case FIGETBSZ: case EXT2_IOC_GETFLAGS: case EXT2_IOC_GETVERSION: error = file_has_perm(current, file, FILE__GETATTR); break; [...] case EXT2_IOC_SETFLAGS: case EXT2_IOC_SETVERSION: error = file_has_perm(current, file, FILE__SETATTR); break; [...] default: error = file_has_perm(current, file, FILE__IOCTL); } return error; }

Hook Example ­ Policy Domain of sysadm_t type is allowed to perform “getattr” on object of type shadow_t and class “file”: allow sysadm_t shadow_t:file getattr; Types: # ls -Z /etc/shadow -r-------- root root system_u:object_r:shadow_t /etc/shadow # id -Z root:system_r:sysadm_t

Logging ● AVC denials are logged by default ● Integrated with CAPP Audit subsystem ● auditallow ● auditdeny

selinuxfs ● Mechanism to control and monitor SELinux # tree /selinux /selinux |-- access |-- avc | |-- cache_stats | |-- cache_threshold | `-- hash_stats |-- booleans | |-- NetworkManager_disable_trans | |-- allow_execmem [...] |-- checkreqprot |-- commit_pending_bools |-- context |-- create |-- disable |-- enforce |-- load |-- member |-- mls |-- null |-- policyvers |-- relabel `-- user

Procattr API ● Refers to /proc/[PID]/attr ● Per­task extended security API ● Can be re­used by other security modules Under SELinux: # tree /proc/self/attr /proc/self/attr |-- current |-- exec |-- fscreate `-- prev

Netlink Notifications ● Netlink sockets are for kernel­user communication ● SELinux sends event notifications to userspace – Policy load with serial number – Set enforcing mode ● Synchronize state with userspace security servers – DBUS, X

Resources ● /usr/src/linux/security/selinux ● NSA SELinux Pages http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/ ● Mailing Lists (see above) ● IRC: irc.freenode.net #selinux ● SELinux Symposium 2006 (Feb/Mar) http://www.selinux­symposium.org/

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