Published on March 15, 2014
Innovation LAB 2014 Master MAINS A.A. 2013/2014 BOZZA
Lab goals To understand the present and future impact of microgrids, it ought to understand the current regulatory, market and business structure of the power industry and project with reasonable certainty its future. While we will not be able to predict exactly how the future would look like, we must develop strategies that would allow us to migrate from where we are today. Starting from a generic Business models definition, this lab theme is aimed at finding the more appealing and sustainable business model for the proposition of microgrid. – It will start with a complete assessment of the current Italian regulations finding the more effective tools and models to address innovative project with the Public Administration and private customers. – Finally the resulting models might be “mapped” to the sponsor industries solutions and might steer their strategy in successive roadmaps 2
What is a microgrid 3 A large number of microgrid definitions exist from industry, government, and academia. The closest to a U.S. Government–approved microgrid definition is that developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Microgrid Exchange Group: “A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. A microgrid can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-connected and island-mode[*].” We got three major messages delivered from this definition: • Integration platform for supply-side (micro-generators) and demand-side resources (storage units and (controllable) loads) located in the same local distribution grid. • Capability of handling both normal state (grid-connected) and emergency state (islanded) operations • Capability of handling conflicting interests of different stakeholders so as to arrive at a globally optimal operation decision for all players involved [*] Office of Electricity Deliver and Energy Reliability, Smart Grid R&D Program. 2011. DOE Microgrid Workshop Report, San Diego, CA
EU extension of the NIST Model for the microgrid 4
Microgrid value chain 5 HAN Enterprise s/s Energy Market s/s AMI s/s Distribution Automation s/s Field Force s/s Electric system operation s/s Distributed Energy s/s Industrial s/s E-mobility s/s Commercial s/s BackboneBackhaulAN Distribution DER Customer MarketEnterpriseOperationStationFieldProcess
Microgrid Use Cases 6 uc People & Organizations Microgrid Operator Overlay Grid Operator Prosumer Service Provider DER Owner Consumer Storage Owner Retailer Aggregator System Operator DSO Operator TSO Operator Retail Market Operator
Microgrid Use Cases 7 iness UC Microgrid Boundary Sells balancing and ancillary services Provides island mode Microgrid Operator (from People & Organizations) Selling/Buying energy Overlay Grid Operator (from People & Organizations) Prosumer (from People & Organizations) uc C&M UC Microgrid Boundary Balancing supply and demand Storage Management Autoconfiguration Black Start DER Owner (from People & Organizations) Microgrid Operator (from People & Organizations) Service Provider (from People & Organizations) Storage Owner (from People & Organizations) Consumer (from People & Organizations) Overlay Grid Operator (from People & Organizations) Demand side Management Supply side management «include» «include»«include»
Benefits for the stakeholders 8 Category Benefit Receiving Benefit Economic Reduced Energy Purchased Cost • Microgrid Owner, • Microgrid Consumer Technical Reduced System Loading • Microgrid Owner, • Microgrid Consumer, • Overlay Grid Operator Improved Reliability • Microgrid Consumer, • Microgrid Owner, • Overlay Grid Operator Ancillary Service Provision • Microgrid Owner, • Microgrid Consumer, • Overlay Grid Operator Social Reduced Pollutant Emissions • Microgrid Owner, • Overlay Grid Operator
Microgrids Business models 9 Utility Non utility Owns wires Own use Own use with some merchant sales Merchant only Owns generation Non utility generation One owner Multiple ownerManage controls May/may not manage controls Vertically integrated Unbundled Landlord Cooperative Model Customer-generator Utility Aggregator Non Utility Aggregator • Utility model – the distribution utility owns and manages the microgrid to reduce customer costs and provide special services (e.g. high power quality and reliability) to customers on the system. • Non-Utility model . • Landlord model – a single landlord installs a microgrid on-site and provides power and/or heat to tenants under a contractual lease agreement (e.g. smart building use case). • Cooperative model – multiple individuals or firms cooperatively own and manage a microgrid to serve their own electric and/or heating needs. Customers voluntarily join the microgrid and are served under contract. • Customer-generator model – a single individual or firm owns and manages the system, serving the electric and/or heating needs of itself and its neighbors. Neighbors voluntarily join the microgrid and are served under contract. • Aggregation model – power and/or thermal energy is produced and sold among different users using the existing utility distribution infrastructures
Potential activities • Study of Italian regulatory framework • Identification of the most suitable business model for the Italian market (if any) • Choice of business model • Business model definition for stakeholders • Simulation 10
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