Published on December 3, 2007
Seduction of the Swarm Understanding patterns of online participation
Hello University of Maryland College Park
Sousveillance Lifecasting as grassroots surveillance
What’s the big deal? It’s like ﬁring up all the light bulbs at once.
That “Web 2.0” idea Web 1.0 = Browsing (passive) Web 2.0 = Participating (active)
Collective Intelligence “the capacity of a human community to evolve toward higher order complexity thought, problem-solving and integration through collaboration and innovation.” - George Por
On Coordination the folksonomy example
Taxonomy Dewey Decimal System: Religion • 292 Classical • 293 Germanic religion • 294 Indic origin • 295 Zoroastrianism • 296 Judaism • 297 Islam • 298 Not assigned • 299 Other religions • … What about Buddhism?
Taxonomy • From the quot;to classify” Greek verb: tassein = nomos = law, science, quot;economyquot; • The science of classifying things • Hierarchical tree-like structure • Requires planning and expertise
Folksonomy how photo tagging works
Folksonomy photos tagged as “gadget”
Folksonomy tagcloud of LibraryThing’s books Source: http://www.librarything.com/tagcloud.php
Folksonomy • Folksonomy = folk + taxonomy • Open, democratic form of organization • Tags bridge structure and meaning • Tags reﬂect the social fabric • “It’s like 90% of10 ‘proper’ a taxonomy but times simpler” (Butterﬁeld, 2004)
On Cooperation the wiki example
FluWiki the bird ﬂu pandemic
The New PR / Wiki public relations industry wiki
What is a Wiki? • The ﬁrst Wiki, WikiWikiWeb, was created by Ward Cunningham in 1995 • Named after Hawaiian bus service,Wiki Wiki • “The simplest online database that could possibly work” - Ward • Allows users to easily create and edit Web pages using any Web browser • Encourages democratic use of Web • Source: http://wiki.org/wiki.cgi?WhatIsWiki
Wikipedia vs. Britannica • Among 42 entries tested in both encyclopedias, the difference in accuracy was not great. • On the topical area of science: • Wikipedia had 4 inaccuracies • Britannica had 3 inaccuracies
On Cognition the wisdom of the crowds example
Wisdom of the Crowds • Francisat a county fair accurately Galton's surprise that the crowd guessed the weight of an ox when their individual guesses were averaged • The average was closer to the ox's true butchered weight than the estimates of most crowd members, and also closer than any of the separate estimates made by cattle experts
Wisdom of the Crowds • Marketocracy.com’s community of 60,000 online stock traders tracks the decisions of its top 100 portfolios to set the investment strategy for its mutual fund. • Its index in 11outperformed the has S&P 500 of the past 17 quarters.
Beneﬁts of Participation • collective intelligence - collaborative • transparent - instant gratiﬁcation • non-hierarchical - democratic • potential for passion - ownership • open to public - reputation • permanence - searchable resource
What make online communities unique?
Motivations of the Gift Economy • • Need Reciprocity One may produce and The most anticipated factor that contribute a public good for the motivates people to give. simple reason that a person or the groups as a whole has a • Reputation need for it. The willingness to help others can all work to increase one's prestige • Attachment in a community. The commitment one has to the group, one’s utility. • Sense of Efﬁcacy The feeling an individual has that • Side-effect makes them feel that they have Private behavior makes cost of some effect on the environment sharing near zero. around them.
Nature of Digital Goods • In an online community, the setting is a network of digital information. • Possible to produce an inﬁnite number of perfect copies of a piece of information. • Information is being produced in a deeply interwoven network of actors.
Nature of Public Goods • Indivisible A person's consumption of the good does not reduce the amount available to another. e.g. watching ﬁreworks display • Non-excludable When it is difﬁcult to exclude individuals from beneﬁting from the good. e.g. national defense system • In most cases a public good will exhibit these two qualities to some degree only; pure public goods are the exception.
Digital + Public Goods • Information or “digital goods” are uniquely suited to be exchanged in a gift economy • “Pure indivisibility” – my use of information does not reduce your ability to use • Information on the internet becomes a “public good”
But wait... What qualities enable some web services to be more pervasive than others?
Using Game Mechanics • “Applying Games Mechanics To Functional Software” by Amy Jo Kim, Creative Director of ShufﬂeBrain • Five Game Mechanics 1. Collecting 2. Earning Points 3. Feedback 4. Exchanges 5. Customization
On Ambient Intimacy • Leisa Reichelt coined the term “ambient intimacy” • Describes the genreby Twitter, of social computing apps led Jaiku, and Pownce. • Refers to the constant sense of closeness users feel with their circle of friends through technologies that informally reveal us to each other.
On Walled Gardens • A socialbuilding and verifying of network service focuses on the online social networks for communities of people who share interests and activities • Mostare “walled social networking traditional sites gardens” (e.g. Facebook) • Trap user content to derive ad revenue • Can’t leave? Loss of coordination.
On Future social cyborg = the human platform
Doom ﬁrst person shooter + cinema-verite
Strange Days personal experiences for sale
Gordon Bell of Microsoft (memory prosthetic)
Steve Mann world’s ﬁrst known cyborg
Jennifer Ringley (JenniCam) 1996 - 2003
Justin Kan (justin.tv) lifecasting goes commercial
Testing wearable video over EVDO... (Samsung EVDO phone, Sony Vaio UX, Logitech cam)
ZaoBao newspaper (July 2007)
On You what do you want to know?
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