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Secure Checkpointing Approach for Mobile Environment

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Information about Secure Checkpointing Approach for Mobile Environment
Education

Published on February 17, 2014

Author: idescitation

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Mobile nodes such as mobile phones, laptops etc are widely used nowadays. The
services must be always available, reliable and uninterrupted. The communication must be
secure. Fault tolerance is the most important feature of these systems. To make a system
fault tolerant at operating system level we apply check pointing. Security threats like
information leakage, information theft, information change can be done by a malicious node
at the time of communication between two legitimate nodes. Elliptic curve cryptography is
used to provide authentication, confidentiality, non repudiation etc. Main objective of our
work is to design a low overhead secured fault tolerant system which makes the
computation and communication secure. The saving of system state is needed to recover
from failure. The reliable backing store is also needed for recovery from failure.
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Proc. of Int. Conf. on Recent Trends in Communication and Computer Networks Secure Checkpointing Approach for Mobile Environment Tanima Sadhukhan1, Anupam Saha2 West Bengal University of Technology/ Department of CSE Kolkata, India Email: tanima.sadhukhan@gmail.com it.anupam.saha@gmail.com Abstract— Mobile nodes such as mobile phones, laptops etc are widely used nowadays. The services must be always available, reliable and uninterrupted. The communication must be secure. Fault tolerance is the most important feature of these systems. To make a system fault tolerant at operating system level we apply check pointing. Security threats like information leakage, information theft, information change can be done by a malicious node at the time of communication between two legitimate nodes. Elliptic curve cryptography is used to provide authentication, confidentiality, non repudiation etc. Main objective of our work is to design a low overhead secured fault tolerant system which makes the computation and communication secure. The saving of system state is needed to recover from failure. The reliable backing store is also needed for recovery from failure. Index Terms— Cryptography. Fault Tolerance, Checkpointing, Mobile Computing, Security, I. INTRODUCTION For the last few years applications are converted to wireless from wired application increasingly, according to the requirements of the users. Nowadays distributed systems are used for the applications mainly. Wireless communication suffers from security threats and vulnerabilities. Resource limitations regarding limited computational capabilities, limited storage, and limited battery power. Users mainly concentrate on the flexibility and the functionality of the application. To make these applications user-friendly security measures must be provided. The communication security is described as confidentiality, authentication, integrity and non repudiation of transmitted data. To provide network security a low overhead cryptosystem ECC[13] is used in our work. Mobility of the devices makes the system failure prone for which the system needs to be fault tolerant. To make the system fault tolerant recovery is needed from failure. So there is a need to save the system states. When a failure occurs of a component it will roll back to previously saved correct state and continue from there. A saved state with recovery information is known as checkpoint. Using checkpoint the system can be fault tolerant. There is a need for secure checkpointing to make the system secure, fault tolerant and reliable[11]. II. RELATED WORK In [1] by E.N. Elnozahy et. al. described the details of different type of checkpointing. In uncoordinated checkpointing or independent checkpointing each process may take a checkpoint when it is most convenient. During failures the recovering process broadcast the dependency request message to get the dependency DOI: 03.LSCS.2013.7.27 © Association of Computer Electronics and Electrical Engineers, 2013

information. After getting the information the initiator calculate the recovery line and broadcast a rollback request message along with recovery line. After receiving it the process whose current state belongs to the recovery line simply resumes execution or roll it back to earlier checkpoint as indicated at recovery line. Some important standards for data communications and its security associations are introduced in [3]. The network provider identifies the user. The network provider checks if the user knows the IMSI and the user key Ki. Many times the user sends the TIMSI (temporary IMSI) to the base station, to hide the identity of the MS. Though data is transferred through the air, there is a high chance to attack the data using radio receiver by the attacker. So encryption of data is needed to make it secure during communication. Confidentiality, integrity, authentication and non-repudiation of transmitted data define the communication security in [5]. The authentication protocols are discussed in [6]. Vulnerability can be defined as a flaw or weakness in system security procedures, design, implementation, or internal controls as [4]. In [4] Bharat Bhargava et. al. discussed 4 mechanisms to reduce the vulnerabilities and threats of a system. To recover from security attacks at the time of communication we have concentrate on some cryptography[12] mechanisms. One of the Public key cryptosystem ECC is a low overhead cryptography technique. According to the works presented in [8], [9], [10] it is proved that ECC has better performance than other public key cryptography. In [8] software implementations of DSA and RSA digital signature scheme is compared with ECDSA. Experiments were performed on both PC’s and mobile devices. A signature operation includes key generation, sign of document, and verification of signature. This is concluded from [8] by Wendy Chou that verification process of RSA is faster than ECDSA, but signature operation of ECDSA is faster than RSA and DSA. For DSA verification process itself is much longer than the total process time of ECDSA. ECDSA performs well for mobile environment than other public key cryptography. Our main attention is on secure checkpointing. Two models of secure checkpointing are discussed, one is distributed checkpointing [2] and another model is probabilistic checkpointing [7]. In [7] the described model is a combination of key agreement model and the secure probabilistic checkpointing scheme. There are two types of nodes, checkpoint nodes and recovery nodes. Number of recovery node is small and used for recovery when checkpoint nodes fail. Here DES algorithm is used for authentication and cryptography. III. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION Studying related papers discussed so far existing secure checkpointing algorithm [7] implements secret key cryptography. Secret key cryptography ensures authentication and data confidentiality. Security threats to data integrity and non repudiation are a big concern. We address all these issues in our work. As a solution we combine Elliptic curve cryptography with checkpointing. We chose ECC because it is a low overhead public key cryptography algorithm which is suitable for resource constrained mobile computing system. A. Design Issues Design of low overhead secure fault tolerant mobile computing system includes following design issues: To reduce computation and storage overhead of mobile nodes: calculations related to cryptography are shifted to base stations, recovery information, checkpoints logs are saved in base stations To secure communication: always encrypted data is transferred through wired and wireless links To ensure trusted computing: trust = fault tolerance (checkpointing) + secure(cryptography) Mobile nodes save checkpoint and transfers to current base stations. IV. THE PROPOSED SECURE CHECKPOINTING ALGORITHM A. System Model And Assumptions In system model (Fig. 1) there are large number of mobile nodes and few base stations. The mobile nodes communicate through a wireless network. There is no concept of shared memory. The mobile nodes communicate with others through message passing. The mobile nodes communicate, send and receive message through the base stations. The base stations are more secure than the mobile nodes .A mobile node is indicated by a process running on it. The assumptions of the system model are: Failures can be link failure, node failure etc. Here failure is mainly node failure until stated otherwise. Mobile nodes connected to same base station are local to each other and mobile nodes connected to different base stations are remote to each other. 12

Fault tolerance is considered here at operating system level only. B. Data Structure And Notation Sn: sender; Rc: receiver; pb: public key; pr: private key; pbsn: public key of sender; prsn: private key of sender; pbrc: public key of receiver; prrc: private key of receiver; pr1, pr2, pr3,…,pri: i number of processes; BSq: qth base station; MNoq: oth mobile node of qth base station; BS[u]: array of u number of element maintained by base station,(BS[1]=keep the base station number; BS [2, 3, 4, 5,…,u]=keep the track of mobile nodes attached with it); MNpri[v]: array of v number of elements maintained by each mobile node,(MNpri[1]=keep its own base station number; MNpri[2, 3,…,v]: hold its base station number it traversed already); IDMNoq: identification number of oth mobile node of qth base station; PWDMNoq: password of oth mobile node of qth base station; RP(pri): set of restart points; T= (p, a, b, G, n, h) or (m, f(x), a, b, G, n, h): Domain parameter of ECC over prime field or binary field; Figure 1. System Model p: specifying the number of element of finite field; m: defined the finite field over (2m); f(x): irreducible polynomial; a and b: two elements specifying elliptic curve; G: generator point [(xg, yg) a point on the elliptic curve for cryptographic operation]; n: order of elliptic curve; h: cofactor [ h= #E(p)/n; #E(p) = number of points on elliptic curve]; F(p): the finite field; Fp: prime field; F2m: binary field; P: point of elliptic curve; O: point of elliptic curve which is in infinity; Msg: message (contain: sender, MNpri[v], receiver, MNpri[v], message body); Cpt: chipertext; E_msg: encrypted form of Msg; MAC: chosen MAC scheme [SHA-1-160 or SHA-1-180]; En_schm: symmetric encryption scheme such as AES or DEC; Mc_schm: message authentication code algorithm such as HMAC; Dn_schm: symmetric decryption scheme; enky: encryption key; dcky: decryption key; mcky: MAC key; tg: tag; Hash: chosen hash function SHA1;CP: checkpoint; TCPprijk: jth temporary checkpoint of process pri of base station k; PCPprijk: jth permanent checkpoint of process pri of base station k; CPprijk-1-CPprijk: checkpoint interval; Ip_I_Tprik: Input information table of process pri of base station k; tlpri: local clock; Thrl: threshold value of local clock; Thrc: a constant threshold value of each process; snd_sq_noprik: send sequence number; rcv_sq_noprik: receive sequence number; Mlog_T: table to maintain the send sequence number along with receive sequence number. C. Secure Checkpointing Algorithm Secure_checkpointing_algorithm () Step1: the processes are authenticated using Authenticate(). Step2: after authentication the processes start communication by sending messages and logging messages in its volatile memory and maintain snd_sq_noprik. Step3: check If MNpri[1] of sender is equal to MNpri[1] of receiver Then the process encrypt the message using Encrypt_msg() and send; Else the process will generate signature for that message using Signature_gn() and send; Step 4: when a process receive a message it return an acknowledgement along with rcv_sq_noprik. Step5: if MNpri[1] of receiver is equal to MNpri[1] of sender Then the process decrypts the message using Decrypt_msg() and save it to local stable storage; 13

Else the base station will verify the signature of the message Verify_sig() and then send the encrypted message to the process and the process decrypt the message using Decrypt_msg() and save it in stable storage; Step6: the processes will take checkpoint using Checkpoint (). Authenticate () Note: the message digests form of passwords will be saved in the base station’s database. Step1: before starting communication the MNoq will send it IDMNo q and PWDMNoq to the attached base station BSq. Step2: the BSq will check its own database to find the PWDMNoq which is sent by MNoq. If PWDMNoq is present in its own database Then BSq will send an authentication successful message to MNoq; Else the BSq will broadcast that PWDMNoq to other base stations; step3: if PWDMNoq is present in database of other base stations Then they will send a positive message to the sender base station and BSq will send an authentication successful message to MNoq; Else they will send a negative message to the sender base station and BSq will send an authentication unsuccessful message to MNoq; Encrypt_msg () INPUT: Domain parameters T= (p, a, b, G, n, h), public key pbsn, plaintext Msg. OUTPUT: Encrypted message E_msg. Step1: Select prsn from [1, n-1]. Step2: Compute pbsn=prsn.G and Z= h.prsn.pbsn. If Z= Step3: (enky, mcky) coordinate of Z. Z , pbsn), where xZ is the xStep4: Compute Cpt = En_schmenky(Msg) and tg = Mc_schmmcky(Cpt). Step5: Return E_msg = (pbsn, Cpt, tg). Decrypt_msg () INPUT: Domain parameters T= (p, a, b, G, n, h), private key prrc, Encrypted message E_msg. OUTPUT: Plaintext Msg or rejection of the ciphertext. Step1: Perform an embedded public key validation of pbsn. If the validation fails then return (“Reject the ciphertext”). Step2: Compute Z= h.prrc.pbsn. If Z = the ciphertext”). Step3: (enky, mcky) coordinate of Z. Z , pbsn), where xZ is the xStep4: Compute tg `= MACmcky(Cpt). If tg` return (“Reject the ciphertext”). Step5: Compute Msg = Dn_schm(Cpt). Step6: Return (Msg). Signature_gn () INPUT: domain parameters T=(p, a, b, G, n, h), public key pb and private key pr, the message Msg . OUTPUT: the signature along with the message. – 1] Step2. Computes Point kG = (x, y) and r = x mod n, if r = 0 then go to 1. Step3: Compute t = k–1 mod n. Step4: Compute e = SHA-1(m), where SHA-1 denotes the 160 bit hash function. Step5: Compute s = k– 1 (e + prsn *r) mod n, if s = 0 goto Step 1. Step6: The signature of message Msg is the pair (r, s). Step7: Sends (Msg, r, s). Verify _sig() INPUT: (receiver knows the domain parameters T and sender’s public key pb ). OUTPUT: accept message if valid signature. Step1: Verify r and s are integers in the range [1, n – 1]. Step2: Compute e = SHA-1(Msg). Step3: Compute w = s–1 mod n. Step4: Compute u1 = e.w and u2 = r.w . Step5: Compute Point X = (x1, y1) = u1G + u2pb. Step6: If X = O, then reject the signature Else compute v = x1 mod n. 14

Step7: Accept signature iff v = r. Checkpoint() { For each process pr1, pr2, pr3… pri { Initiate local clock t lpri; Execute normal execution; If (tlpri = = Thrl) { Take checkpoint TCPprijk; Maintain Ip_I_Tprik; } } Choose initiator from base stations let say pr1 For each TCPpr1 jk = Thrc { Broadcast TCPpr1jk as tentative checkpoint to all other processes; If all other processes send reply { Then pr1 broadcast commit message and take TCPpr1jk as PCPpr1jk; Refresh Ip_I_Tprik; Discard all previous temporary checkpoints; } Else continue normal execution; } } D. Recovery Algorithm If a process fails, recovery is needed to resume computation from last saved state. If process pri fails before taking TCPprijk, it restore the checkpoint TCPpri(j-1)k and include it to RP(pri) maintained by its respective base station BSq. Base station sends the failure message to the communicating processes through their base stations. Those processes stop execution and send their Ip_I_Tprik to their respective base stations. These base stations send all these tables to BSq of failed process. BSq draws a dependency graph using the information of Ip_I_Tprik and calculate the restart point and include it in RP(pri). BSq of failed process send the rollback message to the communicating processes along with RP(pri). These processes will rollback and resume execution. E. Working Example In the Fig. 2 there are four processes. Each process sends messages, logs messages, takes tentative checkpoints and makes tentative checkpoints permanent. Every process pr1, pr2, pr3, pr4 first send their identification number and password to their corresponding base stations. After successful authentication they start their execution. The local clocks t lpri also start for each process. Process pr1 generate snd_sq_noprik and logged message Msg1 to its volatile log. Msg1 consist (pr1, MNpr1[v], pr3, MNpr3[v], message body). Then sender pr 1 check if MNpr1[1]= MNpr3[1], if they are equal then encrypt the message and send the message to pr3. If they are not equal then pr1 generate the signature and encrypt the message and send the encrypted message along with signature to pr3. After receiving Msg1 process pr3 send rcv_sq_noprik to pr1. Then receiver pr 3 check if MNpr3[1] = MNpr1[1], if they are equal receiver decrypt the message and save into its stable storage. If they are not equal then the respective base station of pr3 verifies the signature and sends the encrypted message to pr3. Then pr3 decrypts the message and saves into its stable storage. In this way all the messages send and received. After receiving message input information table is updated by the receiver. The columns of the table are the processes and the rows contain the checkpoints of that process. For example the Ip_I_Tprik is given above for processes pr1. In the meantime when the local clock value of each process meets the 15

Figure 2. Checkpointing Process Figure 3. Calculation of restart point threshold value of local clock take tentative checkpoint TCPprijk. Process pr1 take the temporary checkpoint TCPpr111 which means that it is a 1st temporary checkpoint of process 1 of base station 1. After taking TCPpr121 process pr1 send a request to all other processes to take that tentative checkpoint as permanent checkpoint. When all other processes send reply message to pr1 then TCPpr121 becomes PCPpr121 and TCPpr221 becomes PCPpr221 and so on and refresh the input information table and discard the previous temporary checkpoints. If pr1 did not get the reply message from all other processes the temporary checkpoint is not changed into permanent checkpoint. Calculation of restart point is shown in Fig. 3. The process pr 1 fails after TCPpr114 and sends the failure message to its base station BS1. After receiving the failure message from pr1, BS1 calculates a dependency graph based on Input Information Table of pr1 (Table I) .After getting the information it will rollback the message to process previous temporary checkpoint. In the Fig. 3 process pr1 fails after TCPpr114 so all the information available till that point. The message will be rolled back to this checkpoint and it will be treated as rollback point. Similarly for pr3 lost Msg8 because of pr1 failure so it will also treat TCPpr334 as rollback point. Hence, both TCPpr114 and TCPpr334 together treated as restart point. We have shown here a single failure. Our system is can recover from multiple failures which are described following. 16

TABLE I. EXAMPLE OF INPUT INFORMATION TABLE OF PR1 Pr 1 Processes Pr2 Pr3 Pr4 CPpr101 CPpr111 CPpr121 CPpr131 CPpr141 CPpr231 Figure 4. Checkpointing Process Figure 5. Calculation of restart point (multiple failure) In Fig. 4 there are four processes, each process sends messages, logs messages, takes tentative checkpoints and makes tentative checkpoint permanent as described earlier. In Fig. 5 we describe multiple failures, process pr1 and pr3 fail and it is denoted as F1 and F2. The process pr1 fails after TCPpr114 and pr3 fails after TCPpr334. Both of them send failure message to their respective Base station. After getting the information Base station will calculate the dependency graph based on Input Information table. The Input Information table of different process is shown following. Table II, Table III, Table IV, and Table V is describing input information for process pr1, pr2, pr3, pr4 respectively. In Fig. 5 it shows that process pr1 fails after TCPpr114 so all the information is still available to this temporary checkpoint. The process will be rolled back to this point and this will be treated as rollback point for this process. Similarly for process pr 3 TCPpr334 temporary checkpoint will be treated as rollback point. In the Fig. 5 it shows that process pr4 sends a message Msg5 to pr3 but it lost due to pr 3 failure so pr4 also lost the message after TCPpr444. Hence pr4 will rollback to TCPpr444 and this temporary checkpoint will be treated as rollback point for this process. This three temporary checkpoint TCPpr114, TCPpr334 and TCPpr444 together called as restart point for this multiple failure. TABLE II. EXAMPLE OF INPUT INFORMATION TABLE OF pr1 TABLE III. EXAMPLE OF INPUT INFORMATION TABLE OF pr2 Processes Processes Pr1 Pr2 Pr3 Pr1 Pr4 Pr2 Pr3 Pr4 CPpr202 CPpr101 CPpr111 CPpr111 CPpr212 CPpr2 31 CPpr1 CPpr131 CPpr141 17 22 CPpr2 CPpr121 32 CPpr242 13 CPpr3

T ABLE IV. E XAMPLE OF INPUT INFORMATION TABLE OF PR3 TABLE V. OF PR4 Processes Pr1 Pr2 EXAMPLE OF INPUT INFORMATION TABLE Processes Pr3 Pr4 Pr1 Pr2 CPpr303 Pr3 Pr4 CPpr404 CPpr313 CPpr414 CPpr323 CPpr222 CPpr424 CPpr333 CPpr434 43 CPpr3 CPpr232 CPpr444 V. CONCLUSIONS In recent day use of mobile devices are increasing in applications such as e-commerce, banking, stock trading etc. So to provide the proper functionality and provide the security is an alarming issue. To make a system fault tolerant checkpointing is used. Here we are concentrating on the secure checkpointing methods. We are proposing a secure checkpointing algorithm which mainly concentrates on the communication security. Our algorithm used more consistent checkpointing processes and low overhead public key cryptosystem. We are not comparing our algorithm with any existing work because there is no such existing work of secure checkpointing using public key cryptosystem. Our algorithm is based on coordinated checkpointing along with low overhead public key cryptosystem ECC. So we can conclude that secure checkpointing with public key cryptosystem is possible in mobile environment. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] E.N. (Mootaz) Elnozahy, L.Alvisi, Yi-min Wang and D. B. Johnson, “A Survey of Rollback Recovery Protocol in Message Passing System,” ACM Comput. Surv., Vol. 34, No.3. pp. 375-408 September 2002. S. Zang and T. Yuan, “Secure Fault Tolerance in Wireless Sensor Network,” Proc. IEEE 8th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology Workshops, IEEE Computer Society Washington, DC, USA, 2008, pp. 477-482, doi 10.1109CIT.2008.Workshop.26. J. Pelzl and T. Wollinger, “Security Aspect of Mobile Communication Systems,”2005 pp.168-185. Bhargava and L. Lilien, “Vulnerabilities and Threats in Distributed Systems,” Distributed Computing and Internet Technology, First International Conference, ICDCIT 2004, Bhubaneswar, India, LNCS 3347, pp.146-157, 2004. A. Josang and G. Sanderud, “Security in Mobile Communication: Challenges and Opportunities,” Proc. of the Australasian information security workshop conference on ACSW frontiers 2003, Volume 21. H. Lin, L. Harn and V. Kumar, “Authentication Protocols in Wireless Communications,” 1995. H. Nam, J. Kim, S.J. Hong, and S. Lee, "Secure checkpointing", presented at Journal of Systems Architecture, pp.237-254, 2003. W. Chou, “Elliptic curve cryptography and its application to mobile devices”, Federal Information Processing Standards Publications, Prentice Hall, 2003. N. Gura, A. Patel, A. Wander, H. Eberle, and S. C. Shantz, “Comparing Elliptic curve cryptography and RSA on 8bit CPUs”, Proc. CHES, pp.119-132 2004. A. Wander, N. Gura, H. Eberle, V. Gupta and S. C. Shantz, “Energy analysis for public key cryptography for Wireless Sensor Network” Proc. IEEE 3rd International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communication, pp. 324-328, March 2005. Mobile Communications by Jochen Schiller, Second Edition, Pearson Education 2003 edition. Cryptography and Network Security by Atul Kahate, Second Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited,2007 publication. Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography by Darrel Hankerson, Alfred Menezes, Scott Vanstone, Springer,2004 publication. 18

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