SECTORS OF INDIAN ECONOMY

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Published on June 29, 2012

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SECTORS OF INDIAN ECONOMY: SECTORS OF INDIAN ECONOMY PowerPoint Presentation: Classification of Indian economic sectors Indian economy can be classified into three types of sectors….. PRIMARY SECTOR: PRIMARY SECTOR Activities undertaken by directly using natural resources. Example—Agriculture , Mining, Fishing, Forestry, Dairy etc. It is called primary sector because it forms the base for all other products that we subsequently make. Since most of the natural products we get are from agriculture, dairy, forestry, fishing it is also called Agriculture and related sector . SECONDARY SECTOR: SECONDARY SECTOR It covers activities in which natural products are changed into other forms through ways of manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity. It is a next step after primary, where the product is not produced by nature but has to be made. Some process of manufacturing is essential, it could be in a factory, a workshop or at home. Example : Using cotton fibre from plant, we spin yarn and weave cloth; using sugarcane as a raw material we make sugar or gur; we convert earth into bricks. Since this sector is associated with different kinds of industries, it is also called industrial sector . TERTIARY SECTOR: TERTIARY SECTOR These are the activities that help in the development of the primary & secondary sector. These activities by themselves do not produce good but they are an aid and support to the production process. Example: a)Transportation--Goods that are produced in the primary sector need to be transported by trucks or trains and than sold in the wholesale and retail shops; b ) Storage--at times it is necessary to store these products in godowns , which is also a service made available. c)Communication --talking to others on telephone ); d ) Banking--borrowing money from the banks. Since these activities are generate services rather than goods it is also called Service sector . PowerPoint Presentation: Service sector include………………. How do we count the various goods and services and know the total production in each sector?: How do we count the various goods and services and know the total production in each sector ? GDP: GDP Gross domestic production The value of final goods and services produced in each sector during a particular year provides the total production of the sector for that year. And sum of production in three sectors give Gross Domestic Production—GDP of the country. It is the value of all final goods and services produced within the country during a particular year. GDP shows how big the economy is . Measuring GDP is undertaken by by the Central government ministry , with the help of various govt. Departments of Indian states and union territories . Historical change in the sectors: three stages.: Historical change in the sectors: three stages . INITIAL STAGE: INITIAL STAGE After observing the changes that have come in the development patterns of the sectors, it has been found that in the Initial stages of the development the Primary Sector was the most important sector of economic activity . As the methods of farming changed and agricultural sector began to prosper, it produced much more food than before and many people could take-up many other activities which led to the increase in number of activities. However at this stage most of the goods produced were natural products from the primary sector, hence most people were employed in this sector . SECOND STAGE: SECOND STAGE Over a long time(more than hundred years or so) because new methods of manufacturing were introduced, factories came up and started expanding. -People began to work in factories in large numbers, and also people started using factory goods in large numbers as they were cheap. -Secondary sector gradually became the most important in total production and employment. There was a shift and the importance of the sectors also changed . THIRD STAGE In past hundred, there has been a further shift from Secondary to Tertiary sector in the developed countries. -The service sector has become the most important in terms of total production. Most of working people are also employed in the service sector. Rising importance of tertiary sector in production: Rising importance of tertiary sector in production Over thirty years between 1973 and 2003, production in the tertiary sector has increased the most, and it has emerged as the largest producing sector in India replacing the primary sector . role of tertiary sector in India transition shows level of country development, it improves specialization but it's better to avoid extending service part in economy over 40~50% of GDP. WHERE ARE MOST OF THE PEOPLE EMPLOYED? WHY?: WHERE ARE MOST OF THE PEOPLE EMPLOYED? WHY ? The primary sector employs the largest number of people in India. --It is because not enough jobs were created in the secondary and tertiary sectors . UNDER-EMPLOYMENT: UNDER-EMPLOYMENT It is a situation, where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential. if few people move out , it will not effect the production. --it is hidden in contrast to the open unemployment where a person is clearly or visibly without job. --it is also called disused unemployment. --this underemployment also happens in the other sectors for example there are thousands of casual workers in service sector in the urban areas as painters, plumbers, repair persons etc. NREGA: NREGA National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005. started by the Central govt. made a law implementing Right to work in 200 districts of India. all those who are in need of work will get guaranteed 100 days work and if the govt. fails to do so, it will give unemployment allowances to them the work will of the type which will in future help to increase the production from land . PowerPoint Presentation: Organised and unorganised sector ORGANISED SECTOR: ORGANISED SECTOR Terms of employment are regular, so people have assured work. Registered by the government. Follows rules and regulations given in various laws Has some formal processes and procedures. Benefits from the employers: B enefits from the employers Paid leave Payment during holidays Provident fund Gratuity Medical benefits Workers get pension after retirement Unorganised sector: Unorganised sector Characterised by Small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. There are rules and regulations but these are not followed. Low paid jobs and are not regular. Disadvantages from the employers: Disadvantages from the employers There is no provision for overtime, paid leave, holidays, leave due to sickness….. Employment is not secure Example: farmers work on their own and hire labourers as and when they require. Some people can also be asked to leave the job . How to protect workers in the unorganised sector?: How to protect workers in the unorganised sector? Setting up small scale industries in semi-rural areas. Implementing many programmes such as NREGA 2005. Creating job opportunities in service sector [schools, tourism, hospitals ] Allow credits at a lower rate. PowerPoint Presentation: Sectors in terms of ownership: Public and private sectors Public sector: Public sector Organised by government provides facilities to the workers like - Fixed employment , Fixed working hours. main aim is to provide public welfare. Examples of Public sector are - Indian Railways, hospital, parks, libraries etc. Some public services by the government are: : Some public services by the government are: Private sector: Private sector organised by private individuals. does not provide fixed employment & fixed working hours to workers . main aim is to make many profits for themselves . Examples of Private sector are - Birla Company , Reliance etc. Qualities of private sector: Qualities of private sector Job security Generous benefits More relaxed atmosphere Qualities of public sector More opportunities for promotion as the company grows These jobs tend to pay higher More prestige, and the private sector is supposedly more efficient Less bureaucracy PowerPoint Presentation: Th e end! By komal.s Class X ‘D’

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