Section 3 And 4 Chap 13

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Information about Section 3 And 4 Chap 13

Published on May 4, 2008

Author: cuevasl

Source: slideshare.net

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Life before the civil war; events that lay the foundation to the war

Section 3 Southern Cotton Kingdom

Where ya’ll from…. Upper South Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina

Upper South

Maryland, Virginia,

North Carolina

Deep South Georgia, South Carolina Alabama, Mississippi Louisiana, Missouri Arkansas Texas

Georgia,

South Carolina

Alabama, Mississippi

Louisiana, Missouri

Arkansas

Texas

Rise of the Cotton Kingdom Tobacco had once been the cash crop Colonial times in Virginia depended on foreign markets, not $ stable Stripped land of its nutrients, wearing it out South Carolina produced rice and indigo Depended on foreign markets, not $ stable Couldn’t be grown in dry, inland climates Sugarcane- “Rich man’s crop” Grown in southeastern Louisiana Farmers invested $$ in irrigation canals and machinery

Tobacco had once been the cash crop

Colonial times in Virginia

depended on foreign markets, not $ stable

Stripped land of its nutrients, wearing it out

South Carolina

produced rice and indigo

Depended on foreign markets, not $ stable

Couldn’t be grown in dry, inland climates

Sugarcane- “Rich man’s crop”

Grown in southeastern Louisiana

Farmers invested $$ in irrigation canals and machinery

The Cotton Gin Cotton demand was increasing It is difficult to process Workers must separate plants “sticky” seeds from cotton fibers.

Cotton demand was increasing

It is difficult to process

Workers must separate plants “sticky” seeds from cotton fibers.

Cotton Gin

Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin Causes and Effects Invented in 1793 Cause: Machine that separated the seed from the fiber Effect: dramatically increased amount of cotton that could be processed by 50 to 1 Cause: Processed cotton so quickly Effect: Farmers wanted more cotton planted Cause: Increase in field size and production Effect: More slave labor was needed

Invented in 1793

Cause: Machine that separated the seed from the fiber

Effect: dramatically increased amount of cotton that could be processed by 50 to 1

Cause: Processed cotton so quickly

Effect: Farmers wanted more cotton planted

Cause: Increase in field size and production

Effect: More slave labor was needed

New land for cotton Because of the Native American Removal Act, cotton production expanded in deep south Alabama, Mississippi Climate was good for cotton Smaller farmers could make $ Didn’t have to own a gin, could rent it Could rent slaves from slaveholders Larger plantations made money too Slavery was a big part of plantation life

Because of the Native American Removal Act, cotton production expanded in deep south

Alabama, Mississippi

Climate was good for cotton

Smaller farmers could make $

Didn’t have to own a gin, could rent it

Could rent slaves from slaveholders

Larger plantations made money too

Slavery was a big part of plantation life

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dS4OxoebcSQ

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dS4OxoebcSQ

Them Ol’ Cotton Fields back home …. The fields...

Cotton Rules the Deep South Large demand for cotton in Great Britain Kept prices up Upper South and Deep South were economically different Both still agricultural Upper south produces tobacco,hemp,wheat and veggies Became the center for the sale and transport of enslaved people Deep South produces cotton and some rice and sugarcane Enslaved people played a key role in the cotton producing business

Large demand for cotton in Great Britain

Kept prices up

Upper South and Deep South were economically different

Both still agricultural

Upper south produces tobacco,hemp,wheat and veggies

Became the center for the sale and transport of enslaved people

Deep South produces cotton and some rice and sugarcane

Enslaved people played a key role in the cotton producing business

Industry’s Leading Role South prospered economically from 1820-1860 Stayed rural, not like the North Manufactured very little compared to North Produced fewer goods then entire state of Massachusetts

South prospered economically from 1820-1860

Stayed rural, not like the North

Manufactured very little compared to North

Produced fewer goods then entire state of Massachusetts

Why just cotton? Cotton was booming! “ If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” Lack of capital (money to invest in business) $ tied up in land and slaves Would have to sell slaves to start business Not willing to do it Market for manufactured goods low in South compared to the North Large population in South were slaves with no money who could not buy goods They really didn’t want business there

Cotton was booming!

“ If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it”

Lack of capital (money to invest in business)

$ tied up in land and slaves

Would have to sell slaves to start business

Not willing to do it

Market for manufactured goods low in South compared to the North

Large population in South were slaves with no money who could not buy goods

They really didn’t want business there

Southern Factories Some southerners wanted develop industry in the South Thought they relied too much on the North for manufactured goods Said factories would revive upper South economy which was lagging William Gregg-Merchant from Charleston, S. Carolina;opened a textile mill there, modeling those from New England Joseph Reid Anderson turned Tredegar Iron Works into nation’s leading producers of iron During the war he supplied artillery and other iron products to the Southern forces

Some southerners wanted develop industry in the South

Thought they relied too much on the North for manufactured goods

Said factories would revive upper South economy which was lagging

William Gregg-Merchant from Charleston, S. Carolina;opened a textile mill there, modeling those from New England

Joseph Reid Anderson turned Tredegar Iron Works into nation’s leading producers of iron

During the war he supplied artillery and other iron products to the Southern forces

Southern Transportation Natural waterways were primary means for transporting goods most towns located on waterways:seacoast or rivers Few canals Roads were poor Did not experience the RR boom like the North Connections were short; no real network established Southern cities grew slower than their Northern counterpart because of this 1/3 of the nation’s RR was located in the South This would have a negative effect during the war

Natural waterways were primary means for transporting goods

most towns located on waterways:seacoast or rivers

Few canals

Roads were poor

Did not experience the RR boom like the North

Connections were short; no real network established

Southern cities grew slower than their Northern counterpart because of this

1/3 of the nation’s RR was located in the South

This would have a negative effect during the war

Section 4 The South’s People

The South’s People

Terms to Know Yeoman Tenant farmer Fixed cost Credit Overseer Spiritual Slave code

Yeoman

Tenant farmer

Fixed cost

Credit

Overseer

Spiritual

Slave code

The “Glorious South” Novels and films glamorized the “deep South” Rich, white slaveholders Stately mansions Reality Small farmers without slaves Planters with a few slaves Handful of planters had several slaves and fancy “mansions”

Novels and films glamorized the “deep South”

Rich, white slaveholders

Stately mansions

Reality

Small farmers without slaves

Planters with a few slaves

Handful of planters had several slaves and fancy “mansions”

Categories of Southerners Yeomen Tenant farmers The rural poor Plantation owners

Yeomen

Tenant farmers

The rural poor

Plantation owners

Tenant farmers Rented land on other’s estates Rural Poor Lived in crude cabins in wooded areas Grew gardens, kept a few farm animals Hunted and fished for food All of the poor in the South were independent Refused to take any job that resembled slave work Rural poor were proud of being self-sufficient Looked down upon by other Whites

Tenant farmers

Rented land on other’s estates

Rural Poor

Lived in crude cabins in wooded areas

Grew gardens, kept a few farm animals

Hunted and fished for food

All of the poor in the South were independent

Refused to take any job that resembled slave work

Rural poor were proud of being self-sufficient

Looked down upon by other Whites

Yeomen Largest group of whites in the South Owned land Mainly lived in upper South/hilly rural areas of deep South 50-200 acre farms Crops were for self and sale Traded crops to locals for goods/services

Yeomen

Largest group of whites in the South

Owned land

Mainly lived in upper South/hilly rural areas of deep South

50-200 acre farms

Crops were for self and sale

Traded crops to locals for goods/services

Plantations Cover several thousand acres Lived in comfortable, not luxurious farmhouses Measured wealth by the number of slaves owned and possessions like homes, clothes, furniture etc. 12% of plantation owners held more than ½ of all the slaves ½ of planters held fewer than 5 slaves

Plantations

Cover several thousand acres

Lived in comfortable, not luxurious farmhouses

Measured wealth by the number of slaves owned and possessions like homes, clothes, furniture etc.

12% of plantation owners held more than ½ of all the slaves

½ of planters held fewer than 5 slaves

Life on a Plantation The Movie “ Oh, Rhett, Rhett, I’ll just think about it tomorrow”—Gone with the Wind

“ Oh, Rhett, Rhett, I’ll just think about it tomorrow”—Gone with the Wind

Main goal Earn money/profits Fixed costs-regular expenses- stayed same Housing Feeding workers Maintaining gin, machinery

Main goal

Earn money/profits

Fixed costs-regular expenses- stayed same

Housing

Feeding workers

Maintaining gin, machinery

Market varies Price for cotton changes Sold it to agents in New Orleans, Charleston for best price-Cotton Exchange Agents extend credit (loan) to planters to hold cotton until prices rose Planters stayed in debt, not paid until cotton sold

Market varies

Price for cotton changes

Sold it to agents in New Orleans, Charleston for best price-Cotton Exchange

Agents extend credit (loan) to planters to hold cotton until prices rose

Planters stayed in debt, not paid until cotton sold

The Woman’s Role Plantation wives were in charge of the enslaved workers in her home Tended to the sick slaves Supervising plantation buildings, fruit/veggie gardens Some kept financial records Spent much of the time alone

Plantation wives were in charge of the enslaved workers in her home

Tended to the sick slaves

Supervising plantation buildings, fruit/veggie gardens

Some kept financial records

Spent much of the time alone

Workin’ on the Plantation Needed different types of workers Enslaved Cleaning, cooking, laundry, sewing, serving meals—domestic slaves Blacksmiths, carpenters, shoemakers, weavers Farm hands, pastures, farm animals etc. Field hands—planting, cultivating, picking cotton; supervised by an overseer (plantation manager)

Needed different types of workers

Enslaved

Cleaning, cooking, laundry, sewing, serving meals—domestic slaves

Blacksmiths, carpenters, shoemakers, weavers

Farm hands, pastures, farm animals etc.

Field hands—planting, cultivating, picking cotton; supervised by an overseer (plantation manager)

 

 

Life Under Slavery Worked hard, earned no money, little hope of freedom What do you think was their biggest fear? Being sold to another planter and being separated from family Tried to make what they could of a family life Looked forward to the day they would be free

Worked hard, earned no money, little hope of freedom

What do you think was their biggest fear?

Being sold to another planter and being separated from family

Tried to make what they could of a family life

Looked forward to the day they would be free

 

Enslaved Workers Up before dawn, back after the sun came down Men as well as women did heavy work Children carried water to the fields At age 10, they began work in the fields At age 60, they were given lighter work or cared for the kids

Up before dawn, back after the sun came down

Men as well as women did heavy work

Children carried water to the fields

At age 10, they began work in the fields

At age 60, they were given lighter work or cared for the kids

 

 

Home, Sweet, Home Life in the Slave Cabins “ We lodged in log huts and on the bare ground. Wooden floors were an unknown luxury. In a single room were huddled, like cattle, ten or a dozen person, men, women, and children . . . Our beds were collections of straw and old rags, thrown down in the corners and boxed in with boards, a single blanket the only covering . . . The wind whistled and the rain and snow blew in through the cracks, and the damp earth soaked in the moisture till the floor was [filthy] as a pigsty”—Josiah Henson, escaped slave

“ We lodged in log huts and on the bare ground. Wooden floors were an unknown luxury. In a single room were huddled, like cattle, ten or a dozen person, men, women, and children . . . Our beds were collections of straw and old rags, thrown down in the corners and boxed in with boards, a single blanket the only covering . . . The wind whistled and the rain and snow blew in through the cracks, and the damp earth soaked in the moisture till the floor was [filthy] as a pigsty”—Josiah Henson, escaped slave

 

Pass the steak please, don’t think so! Diet consisted of cornmeal, pork fat and molasses Did have their own gardens Grew yams and greens Did not have a balanced diet

Diet consisted of cornmeal, pork fat and molasses

Did have their own gardens

Grew yams and greens

Did not have a balanced diet

Family Life as a Slave No laws protecting slaves Husband or wife could be sold at any time Death of slaveholder could split up a family Marriage not recognized by law, married anyway Marriage vow included “till death or separation do us part” Established networks of relatives/friends Care for each other’s children in case of separation

No laws protecting slaves

Husband or wife could be sold at any time

Death of slaveholder could split up a family

Marriage not recognized by law, married anyway

Marriage vow included “till death or separation do us part”

Established networks of relatives/friends

Care for each other’s children in case of separation

A Slave Wedding

Imagine How would your life change if you were forced to move to say … India?

How would your life change if you were forced to move to say … India?

African American Culture Had to fuse their African culture with American culture to make a new culture Growth of African American Culture came from children 1808 slave trade was banned Slavery still legal in South By 1860 almost all slaves had been born in America

Had to fuse their African culture with American culture to make a new culture

Growth of African American Culture came from children

1808 slave trade was banned

Slavery still legal in South

By 1860 almost all slaves had been born in America

Audio interview with a former slave http://memory.loc.gov/service/afc/afc9999001/5091b.mp3 Alice Gaston

http://memory.loc.gov/service/afc/afc9999001/5091b.mp3

Alice Gaston

American born slaves retained African customs Practiced African music and dance Passed folk stories to children Some accepted Christianity Some kept to their ancestors beliefs Wrapped their heads in colorful cloths in African style

American born slaves retained African customs

Practiced African music and dance

Passed folk stories to children

Some accepted Christianity

Some kept to their ancestors beliefs

Wrapped their heads in colorful cloths in African style

 

 

 

African American Christianity Christianity became their hope Prayed for the day they would be free Expressed themselves through “spirituals” Combined Christian faith with laments about suffering Also allowed them to communicate with one another

Christianity became their hope

Prayed for the day they would be free

Expressed themselves through “spirituals”

Combined Christian faith with laments about suffering

Also allowed them to communicate with one another

http://youtube.com/watch?v=bfaAsU7J81k Swing low, sweet chariot, Coming for to carry me home, Swing low, sweet chariot, Coming for to carry me home. I looked over Jordan, and what did I see? Coming for to carry me home, A band of angels coming after me, Coming for to carry me home. Refrain If you get there before I do, Coming for to carry me home, Tell all my friends I’m coming, too. Coming for to carry me home.

Swing low, sweet chariot, Coming for to carry me home, Swing low, sweet chariot, Coming for to carry me home.

I looked over Jordan, and what did I see? Coming for to carry me home, A band of angels coming after me, Coming for to carry me home.

Refrain

If you get there before I do, Coming for to carry me home, Tell all my friends I’m coming, too. Coming for to carry me home.

Slave Codes Laws that controlled the slaves 1830-1860 laws became more severe Owners were afraid of slave rebellion Prohibited slaves from gathering in large groups Could not leave their master’s property without a written pass Crime to teach a slave to read and write Thought they were less likely to rebel if illiterate

Laws that controlled the slaves

1830-1860 laws became more severe

Owners were afraid of slave rebellion

Prohibited slaves from gathering in large groups

Could not leave their master’s property without a written pass

Crime to teach a slave to read and write

Thought they were less likely to rebel if illiterate

 

Resistance to Slavery Some rebelled openly to their masters Nat Turner—Religious leader Self-taught reader and writer 1831 led group of followers on deadly rampage; Southampton County, VA Killed 55 whites Turner was hung Scared white Southerners, led to stricter codes

Some rebelled openly to their masters

Nat Turner—Religious leader

Self-taught reader and writer

1831 led group of followers on deadly rampage; Southampton County, VA

Killed 55 whites

Turner was hung

Scared white Southerners, led to stricter codes

Nat Turner

Other ways to resist slavery Working slowly Pretending to be ill Setting fire to a plantation building Breaking tools Did this to endure their lives Way of striking back that whites would prevent

Other ways to resist slavery

Working slowly

Pretending to be ill

Setting fire to a plantation building

Breaking tools

Did this to endure their lives

Way of striking back that whites would prevent

 

Escaping Slavery Some tried to escape; with success Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass Escaping from the upper south was easier than the deep south Underground Railroad Network of safe houses owned by free blacks and whites who opposed slavery Some ran away simply to find family, not headed north

Some tried to escape; with success

Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass

Escaping from the upper south was easier than the deep south

Underground Railroad

Network of safe houses owned by free blacks and whites who opposed slavery

Some ran away simply to find family, not headed north

Frederick Douglas Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman

Underground Railroad

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