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secondary aluminum

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Information about secondary aluminum
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Published on February 12, 2008

Author: Susann

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  Secondary Aluminum Production Industry Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Training 40 CFR Part 63 Subpart RRR Secondary aluminum plants recover aluminum from scrap such as beverage cans, foundry returns, other aluminum scrap, and dross. Air toxics are released from preprocessing operations:  Secondary aluminum plants recover aluminum from scrap such as beverage cans, foundry returns, other aluminum scrap, and dross. Air toxics are released from preprocessing operations Slide3:  such as aluminum scrap shredding, thermal chip drying, scrap drying/decoating/ delacquering; and furnace operations (i.e., melting, holding, refining, fluxing, or alloying). Secondary Aluminum Production Facility:  Secondary Aluminum Production Facility Any establishment using clean charge, post-consumer aluminum scrap, aluminum ingots, aluminum foundry returns, dross from aluminum production, or molten aluminum as the raw material and performing one or more of the following processes: :  aluminum production, or molten aluminum as the raw material and performing one or more of the following processes: Slide7:  Scrap shredding Scrap drying/delacquering/decoating Thermal chip drying Furnace operations In-line fluxing Dross cooling Example Secondary Aluminum Facility:  Example Secondary Aluminum Facility Secondary Aluminum Sectors:  Secondary Aluminum Sectors • Secondary aluminum companies • Sweat furnace operators • May include die casters & foundries Estimated Number of Secondary Aluminum Sources Potentially Affected :  Estimated Number of Secondary Aluminum Sources Potentially Affected • Approximately 400 (86 major) • 320 die casting companies • 1500 foundries • 1650 sweat furnaces Types of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP’s) Emitted :  Types of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP’s) Emitted • Organic HAP’s (e.g. benzene, styrene, dioxins, and furans) Slide14:  Inorganic gaseous HAP’s (e.g. hydrogen chloride, hydrogen flouride, and chlorine) Particulate HAP metals (e.g. arsenic, lead, and chromium) History of Secondary Aluminum Production National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP):  History of Secondary Aluminum Production National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) NESHAP was proposed, 2/11/99 Slide17:  History Cont’d.: Final rule was promulgated, 3/23/00 Direct final rule; amendments, 6/14/02 Final rule; amendments, 9/24/02 Final rule amendments 12/30/03 Regulated Entities under Current Rule:  Regulated Entities under Current Rule Facilities that perform secondary smelting and alloying of aluminum Slide20:  Secondary aluminum production facility affected sources collocated at: Aluminum sheet, plate, and foil manufacturing facilities Aluminum extruded product manufacturing facilities Slide21:  Other aluminum rolling and drawing facilities Primary aluminum production facilities Aluminum die casting facilities Aluminum foundry facilities Regulated HAPs:  Regulated HAPs Particulate matter emissions (PM) (surrogate for HAP metals) Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions - surrogate for HAP organics) Slide24:  Hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions - a HAP and a surrogate for inorganic HAP’s including hydrogen fluoride (HF) and chlorine (Cl2) Slide25:  Dioxin and furan emissions at secondary aluminum production facilities that are major or area sources Projected Environmental Benefits:  Projected Environmental Benefits Reduce HAP emissions by about 12,420 tons/year, a 70% reduction from current levels Reduce HCl emissions by 12,370 tons/year, a 73% reduction Projected Environmental Benefits (Continued):  Projected Environmental Benefits (Continued) Reduce metal emissions by 40 tons/year, a 60% reduction Reduce dioxin/furan emissions by 0.88 pounds/year, a 79% reduction Projected Environmental Benefits (Continued):  Projected Environmental Benefits (Continued) Reduce polycyclic organic matter emissions by 10 tons/year, a 25% reduction Reduce PM emissions by 3,185 tons/year, a 30% reduction Rule Requirements:  Rule Requirements Emission standards and operating requirements Monitoring and compliance provisions Notifications, reports, and records Applicability and Description of Affected Units §63.1500:  Applicability and Description of Affected Units §63.1500 Applicability and Description of Affected Units:  Applicability and Description of Affected Units • Secondary aluminum production operations • Affected sources Secondary Aluminum Website: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/alum2nd.html Secondary Aluminum NESHAPS Applicability Flowcharts:  Secondary Aluminum NESHAPS Applicability Flowcharts Secondary Aluminum Production Operations:  Secondary Aluminum Production Operations • Preprocessing of scrap aluminum (size reduction, removal of oils, coatings, and other contaminants) Slide43:  Furnace operations (melting, in-furnace fluxing/refining, tapping) Additional refining (in-line fluxing) Cooling of dross Processing of Scrap Aluminum :  Processing of Scrap Aluminum • Crushing, shredding, and grinding • Drying • Heating in a dryer or kiln • Heating in a sweat furnace Crushing, Shredding, and Grinding :  Crushing, Shredding, and Grinding To reduce the size of scrap aluminum Emissions: Particulate matter (PM) and HAP metals generated as dust from coatings & other contaminants Chip Dryers :  Chip Dryers To reduce the size of scrap aluminum Emissions: Particulate matter (PM) & HAP metals generated as dust from coatings and other contaminants Applicability and Description of Affected Units:  Applicability and Description of Affected Units • Secondary aluminum production operations Affected sources Secondary Aluminum Production Operations:  Secondary Aluminum Production Operations Preprocessing of scrap aluminum (size reduction, removal of oils, coatings, and other contaminants) Slide51:  Furnace operations (melting, in-furnace fluxing/refining, tapping) • Additional refining (in-line fluxing) • Cooling of dross Preprocessing of Scrap Aluminum:  Preprocessing of Scrap Aluminum Crushing, shredding, and grinding Drying Heating in a dryer or kiln Heating in a sweat furnace Crushing, Shredding, and Grinding:  Crushing, Shredding, and Grinding To reduce the size of scrap aluminum Emissions: Particulate matter (PM) and HAP metals generated as dust from coatings and other contaminants Chip Dryers:  Chip Dryers Evaporates oil and moisture from uncoated aluminum chips & borings Generally operate at temperatures ranging between 300oF to 750oF Emissions: Organic HAP’s including dioxins and furans Scrap Dryers/Delacquering Kilns/Decoating Kilns:  Scrap Dryers/Delacquering Kilns/Decoating Kilns Remove coatings and other contaminants that may be present in scrap prior to melting (e.g., oil, grease, lubricants, lacquers, rubber, and plastic laminates) Slide56:  Heat scrap to exit temperature of 1000 °F • Emissions: Inorganic HAP’s including particulate metal HAP’s and hydrogen chloride and organic HAP’s including dioxins and furans Charging End of Delacquering Kilns:  Charging End of Delacquering Kilns Discharge End of Delacquering Kilns:  Discharge End of Delacquering Kilns Sweat Furnaces:  Sweat Furnaces Reclaim aluminum from scrap with high levels of iron Operate in batch mode at a temperature high enough to melt the aluminum but not the iron Slide60:  Molten aluminum can be cast into sows, ingots, or T-bars used as feedstock for melting and refining furnaces Emissions: Dioxins and furans Sweat Furnace Charging:  Sweat Furnace Charging Sweat Furnace:  Sweat Furnace Uncontrolled Sweat Furnace 1:  Uncontrolled Sweat Furnace 1 Uncontrolled Sweat Furnace 2:  Uncontrolled Sweat Furnace 2 Furnace Operations:  Furnace Operations Melting Fluxing/refining Tapping Melting:  Melting • Begins with charging of scrap into furnace Chemistry of molten bath adjusted by adding selected scrap or alloying agents (e.g., silicon) Charging Sidewell Furnace:  Charging Sidewell Furnace Fluxing:  Fluxing Done to refine molten aluminum to improve product quality, achieve product specifications, or reduce material loss Slide69:  Fluxes may be added to remove impurities and reduce aluminum oxidation May be performed in the furnace or outside the furnace by an in-line fluxer Fluxing Processes:  Fluxing Processes Addition of salts (cover flux) Addition of solvents Injection of gasses (demagging and degassing) Process Furnaces:  Process Furnaces Refractory-lined metal vessels heated by oil, gas, or electricity that are used to melt scrap Slide72:  Types include melting, holding, and refining furnaces Charging of scrap can be done from the side, front, or top of the furnace Examples of Process Furnaces:  Examples of Process Furnaces Top charging and front charging furnaces Slide74:  Sidewell melting furnace – a furnace with an open well adjacent to the hearth used for charging scrap & solid flux or salt to the furnace, injecting fluxing agents, & skimming dross Transferring Molten Aluminum to Holding Furnace:  Transferring Molten Aluminum to Holding Furnace Sidewell Furnace:  Sidewell Furnace Examples of Process Furnaces - Continued:  Examples of Process Furnaces - Continued Induction furnaces – heating mechanism is electric energy Reverberatory furnaces – typically gas Process Furnace Emissions:  Process Furnace Emissions HAP emissions from scrap and fluxing agents include: • Particulate metal HAPs Hydrogen chloride Dioxins and furans Dross-only Furnaces:  Dross-only Furnaces Typically rotary barrel-designed furnaces dedicated to reclamation of aluminum from dross formed during melting, holding, alloying, or fluxing operations carried out in other process units Dross-only Furnaces Cont’d.:  Dross-only Furnaces Cont’d. Dross and salt flux are sole feedstocks Emissions: Particulate matter including metal HAPs In-line Fluxing:  In-line Fluxing Fluxing performed in a device exterior to furnace, located in a transfer line from furnace Involves injection of chlorine, argon, nitrogen, or other gases to achieve desired metal purity In-line Fluxing - Continued:  In-line Fluxing - Continued Found primarily at facilities that manufacture high quality aluminum or in facilities with no other means of degassing Emissions: Hydrogen chloride and particulate matter Tapping:  Tapping Transferring molten metal from melting furnace to molds or to a ladle Cooling of Dross:  Cooling of Dross “Dross” - slags and skimmings from melting and refining consisting of fluxing agents, impurities, and/or oxidized and non-oxidized aluminum Cooling of Dross - Continued:  Cooling of Dross - Continued Accomplished in rotating, water-cooled drums Sole feedstock to dross-only furnaces Emissions: Particulate matter including metal HAPs Rotary Dross Cooler:  Rotary Dross Cooler Affected Sources at Major Sources of HAP’s - §63.1500:  Affected Sources at Major Sources of HAP’s - §63.1500 Each new and existing: Aluminum scrap shredder Thermal chip dryer Scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln Slide89:  Each new and existing group 2 furnace: Melts, holds, or processes only clean charge, and Performs no fluxing, or Performs fluxing using only non-reactive, non-HAP-containing/non-HAP-generating gases or agents Slide90:  Each new and existing: Sweat furnace Dross-only furnace Rotary dross cooler Slide91:  Each new and existing secondary aluminum processing unit (SAPU) Group 1 furnace: processes non-clean charge; or processes clean charge with reactive fluxing Slide92:  Combination of all group 1 furnaces and all in-line fluxers within a secondary aluminum production facility Secondary Aluminum Processing Units (SAPU):  Secondary Aluminum Processing Units (SAPU) Existing SAPU – all existing group 1 furnaces and all existing in-line fluxers Slide95:  New SAPU – any combination of new group 1 furnaces and new in-line fluxers constructed after 2/11/99 Group 1 furnaces and in-line fluxers are emission units within an existing or new SAPU Affected Sources at Area Sources of HAPs:  Affected Sources at Area Sources of HAPs Emission limits for dioxins and furans and associated operating, monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements apply to affected sources located at area sources Affected Sources at Area Sources of HAPs Cont’d.:  Affected Sources at Area Sources of HAPs Cont’d. Each new and existing: Thermal chip dryer Scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln Affected Sources at Area Sources of HAPs Cont’d.:  Affected Sources at Area Sources of HAPs Cont’d. Sweat furnace SAPU with one or more group 1 furnace emission units processing other than clean charge Affected Sources:  Affected Sources Does not include aluminum die casters, foundries, or extruders that: Melt only clean charge and materials generated within the facility or returned clean materials originally from facility, and Affected Sources Cont’d.:  Affected Sources Cont’d. Do not operate a thermal chip dryer, sweat furnace, or scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln Clean Charge:  Clean Charge Molten aluminum T-bar, sow, ingot, billet, pig Alloying elements Uncoated/unpainted thermally dried chips Clean Charge - continued:  Clean Charge - continued Scrap dried at ≥ 650 °F Scrap delacquered/decoated at ≥ 900° F oil-, lubricant-free unpainted/uncoated gates and risers Clean Charge - continued:  Clean Charge - continued Oil- & lubricant-free unpainted/uncoated scrap, shapes, or products that have not been processed in such a way that causes contamination Clean Charge - continued:  Clean Charge - continued Runaround scrap Customer returns (clean material which contain no paint or other solid coatings) Runaround Scrap:  Runaround Scrap Scrap generated on-site or returned that does not contain paint or solid coating Machining chips that have not been dried ≥650° F, or by equivalent non-thermal drying method, are not runaround Emission Standards and Operating Requirements §63.1505 and §63.1506:  Emission Standards and Operating Requirements §63.1505 and §63.1506 Emission Standards and Operating Requirements:  Emission Standards and Operating Requirements Emission Standards §63.1505 Secondary Aluminum Website: www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/alum2nd/require/ requirement_tables.html Pollutants Regulated:  Pollutants Regulated PM – surrogate for particulate metal HAPs THC – surrogate for gaseous organic HAPs D/F – limits apply to a major or area source HCl – HAP & surrogate for chlorine & HF Opacity Format of Emission Standard:  Format of Emission Standard Emission limits Mass per unit (lb/ton) of feed/charge (or production) Concentration (gr/dscf) Percentage reduction Format of Emission Standard - Continued:  Format of Emission Standard - Continued Emission limits D/F in units of TEQ International method of expressing toxicity equivalents for D/F Format of Emission Standard - Continued:  Format of Emission Standard - Continued Except for D/F, apply to major sources only Apply to all new and existing affected sources and emission units Opacity Limit:  Opacity Limit Sources with a PM add-on air pollution control device -- monitored with a continuous opacity monitor (COM) Opacity Limit Cont’d.:  Opacity Limit Cont’d. Aluminum scrap shredders monitored with a COM, or monitored by visible emissions: • Opacity limit = 10 percent Aluminum Scrap Shredders:  Aluminum Scrap Shredders 0.010 grain (gr) of PM per dry standard cubic foot (dscf) Thermal Chip Dryers:  Thermal Chip Dryers 0.80 lb of total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) per ton of feed 2.50 micrograms of dioxins and furans (D/F) toxicity equivalents (TEQ) per megagram (Mg) of feed Thermal Chip Dryers Cont’d.:  Thermal Chip Dryers Cont’d. D/F limit for units at major or area sources Scrap Dryers/Delacquering Kilns/Decoating Kilns:  Scrap Dryers/Delacquering Kilns/Decoating Kilns 0.08 lb PM per ton of feed 0.80 lb HCl per ton of feed 0.06 lb THC per ton of feed 0.25 micrograms of D/F TEQ per Mg of feed Scrap Dryers/Delacquering Kilns/Decoating Kilns – Alternate Limit:  Scrap Dryers/Delacquering Kilns/Decoating Kilns – Alternate Limit Applies if afterburner has a design residence time ≥ 1 second, and operates at a temperature ≥ 1400oF 0.30 lb PM per ton of feed Scrap Dryers/Delacquering Kilns/Decoating Kilns – Alternate Limit Cont’d.:  Scrap Dryers/Delacquering Kilns/Decoating Kilns – Alternate Limit Cont’d. 1.50 lb HCl per ton of feed 0.20 lb THC per ton of feed 5.0 micrograms D/F TEQ per Mg of feed Sweat Furnaces:  Sweat Furnaces 0.80 nanograms D/F TEQ per dry standard cubic meter (dscm) at 11 percent oxygen No test required if sweat furnace has afterburner with design residence time ≥ 2 seconds and operates at ≥ 1600oF Dross-only Furnaces:  Dross-only Furnaces 0.30 lb PM per ton of feed In-line Fluxers:  In-line Fluxers Limits are used to calculate the standard applicable to secondary aluminum processing units (SAPU) 0.04 lb HCl per ton of feed 0.01 lb PM per ton of feed In-line Fluxers With No Reactive Fluxing:  In-line Fluxers With No Reactive Fluxing No HCl and PM limits apply Work practice – no reactive fluxing Rotary Dross Coolers:  Rotary Dross Coolers 0.04 gr of PM per dscf Clean Furnaces (Group 2):  Clean Furnaces (Group 2) No emission limits Work practices – clean charge only and no reactive fluxing – or else Group 1 Melting/Holding Furnaces (Clean Charge Only):  Group 1 Melting/Holding Furnaces (Clean Charge Only) Limits are used to calculate the standard applicable to secondary aluminum processing units (SAPU) 0.80 lb PM per ton of feed Group 1 Melting/Holding Furnaces (Clean Charge Only) – Cont’d.:  Group 1 Melting/Holding Furnaces (Clean Charge Only) – Cont’d. 0.40 lb HCl per ton of feed, or 10 percent of the HCl upstream of an add-on control device No D/F limit for clean charge furnaces – and only clean charge can be used Group 1 Furnaces:  Group 1 Furnaces Limits are used to calculate the standard applicable to secondary aluminum processing units (SAPU) 0.40 lb PM per ton of feed Group 1 Furnaces Cont’d.:  Group 1 Furnaces Cont’d. 0.40 lb HCl per ton of feed, or 10 percent of the HCl upstream of an add-on control device 15.0 micrograms of D/F TEQ per Mg of feed Group 1 Furnaces (Clean Charge Only):  Group 1 Furnaces (Clean Charge Only) Limits are used to calculate the standard applicable to secondary aluminum processing units (SAPU) 0.40 lb PM per ton of feed Slide148:  0.40 lb HCl per ton of feed, or 10 percent of the HCl upstream of an add-on control device No limit on D/F – clean charge only Sidewell Group 1 Furnace:  Sidewell Group 1 Furnace If reactive fluxing (except cover flux) is done - In the hearth, or - In the sidewell when metal level falls below top of passage between sidewell and hearth, then Sidewell Group 1 Furnace Cont’d.:  Sidewell Group 1 Furnace Cont’d. Then, limits for sidewell apply for combined hearth & sidewell emissions Secondary Aluminum Processing Units (SAPU):  Secondary Aluminum Processing Units (SAPU) No 3-day, 24-hour rolling average emissions of PM, HCl, or D/F in excess of the production-weighted emission limit for all units in the SAPU Secondary Aluminum Processing Units (SAPU) Cont’d.:  Secondary Aluminum Processing Units (SAPU) Cont’d. SAPU may comply by demonstrating compliance of each emission unit with its applicable emission limit Emission Standards and Operating Requirements - Continued:  Emission Standards and Operating Requirements - Continued Operating Requirements §63.1506 Capture/Collection Systems:  Capture/Collection Systems All sources and emission units with an add-on air pollution control device (APCD): Slide158:  Design and install a capture and collection system in accordance with American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) guidelines Slide159:  Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice - Chapter 3: Local Exhaust Hoods - Chapter 5: Exhaust System Design Procedure Slide160:  Vent captured emissions through a closed system (except dilution air fabric filter temperature control) Operate in accordance with operation, maintenance, and monitoring (OM&M) plan Feed/Charge Weight Measurement:  Feed/Charge Weight Measurement All sources and emission units subject to production-based (lb/ton of feed) emission limits: - Operate a device that records the weight each charge, or production weight Slide163:  Operate in accordance with OM&M plan May use production basis instead of feed if: • Production is measured for all emission units within a SAPU Slide164:  All emission limit compliance calculations for SAPUs are based on production Labeling:  Labeling Post visible labels at each: - group 1 furnace - group 2 furnace - in-line fluxer - scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln Slide167:  Labels identify emission limits and means of compliance, including: - Type of source or emission unit - Applicable operational standards and control methods - Afterburner operating temperature and residence time Affected Sources and Emission Units with Fabric Filters:  Affected Sources and Emission Units with Fabric Filters Scrap shredders Scrap dryer/delacquering kiln/decoating kiln Dross-only furnace Rotary dross cooler In-line fluxer Slide170:  Group 1 furnace Must operate a bag leak detection system or continuous opacity monitor Except scrap shredders may alternatively choose to monitor VE Fabric Filter with Bag Leak Detector:  Fabric Filter with Bag Leak Detector Initiate corrective action within 1 hour of alarm Follow OM&M plan Operate so that alarm does not sound more than 5% of operating time in 6-month period Fabric Filter with COM:  Fabric Filter with COM Initiate corrective action within 1 hour of a 6-minute average opacity  5% Complete corrective actions in accordance with OM&M plan Aluminum Scrap Shredder with Fabric Filter – VE Alternative:  Aluminum Scrap Shredder with Fabric Filter – VE Alternative Initiate corrective action within 1 hr of any observed VE Complete corrective action in accordance with OM&M plan Thermal Chip Dryer with Afterburner:  Thermal Chip Dryer with Afterburner Maintain average operating temperature for each 3-hr period  average operating temperature during performance test Slide177:  Operate afterburner in accordance with OM&M plan Operate dryer using only unpainted aluminum chips Scrap Dryer/Delacquering Kiln/Decoating Kiln - Afterburner and Lime-injected Fabric Filter:  Scrap Dryer/Delacquering Kiln/Decoating Kiln - Afterburner and Lime-injected Fabric Filter Slide180:  Maintain afterburner average operating temperature for each 3-hr period  than average operating temperature from performance test Slide181:  Operate afterburner in accordance with OM&M plan Maintain average fabric filter inlet temperature for each 3-hr period  average temperature during performance test (+ 25oF) Slide182:  For continuous lime injection systems: Maintain free-flowing lime in the hopper or silo at all times Maintain lime feeder at setting established during performance test Sweat Furnace with Afterburner:  Sweat Furnace with Afterburner If performance tested, maintain each 3-hr. average temperature  operating temperature of performance test Slide185:  If not tested, afterburner design residence time must be  2 seconds and operate at  1600oF Existing sweat furnaces must meet operating requirements by the compliance date Slide186:  New sweat furnaces must meet operating requirements by March 23, 2000 or upon startup, whichever is later Operate in accordance with OM&M plan Dross-only Furnace with Fabric Filter:  Dross-only Furnace with Fabric Filter Must have bag leak detector or COM Operate using only dross as feed material In-line Fluxer with Lime-injected Fabric Filter :  In-line Fluxer with Lime-injected Fabric Filter For continuous lime injection systems: - Maintain free-flowing lime in the hopper or silo at all times for continuous injection systems Slide191:  - Maintain lime feeder at setting established during performance test Maintain reactive flux injection rate  performance test rate for each operating cycle or time period used in performance test In-line Fluxer Using No Reactive Flux Material:  In-line Fluxer Using No Reactive Flux Material Use no reactive flux Group 1 Furnace with Lime-injected Fabric Filter:  Group 1 Furnace with Lime-injected Fabric Filter Maintain average fabric filter inlet temperature for each 3-hr period  average temperature during performance test (+ 25oF) Slide196:  Maintain reactive flux injection rate at or below performance test rate for each furnace cycle Slide197:  For continuous injection systems: • Maintain free-flowing lime in the hopper or silo at all times Maintain lime feeder at setting established during performance test Slide198:  For sidewell furnaces: - Operate so level of molten aluminum is above the top of passage between sidewell and hearth during reactive flux injection, unless hearth is also controlled Slide199:  For sidewell furnaces Cont’d.: Add reactive flux only to sidewell of the furnace unless the hearth is also controlled Group 1 Furnace Without Add-on Controls:  Group 1 Furnace Without Add-on Controls Maintain reactive flux injection rate  performance test rate for each operating cycle or time period used in performance test Slide202:  Operate furnace within range of charge materials, contaminant levels, and parameter values established in site-specific monitoring plan Use only clean charge (melting/holding furnace) Site-specific Monitoring Plan:  Site-specific Monitoring Plan For group 1 furnaces without control devices - OM&M plan must include a section that documents work practices and pollution prevention measures, including procedures for scrap inspection Slide205:  Site-specific monitoring plan and testing to demonstrate adequacy of the monitoring plan must be developed in coordination with, and approved by, the permitting authority Clean (Group 2) Furnace:  Clean (Group 2) Furnace Use only clean charge Use no reactive flux

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