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Information about secession

Published on October 17, 2007

Author: Lindon


Slide1:  Executive Master Intercultural Communication Lugano 2006 Modul Fleiner Class 3: Secession Cases Slide2:  Creating a new canton by secession Slide4:  Berne Jura CH Creating a new Canton Jura out of secession and self-de- termina- tion Slide5:  French German Along language lines? Slide6:  Catholic Protestant Or along religious lines? Slide7:  d) that in the case of a federal-type state, which embraces communities that possess a degree of autonomy and, moreover, participate in the exercise of political power within the framework of institutions common to the Federation, the existence of the state implies that the federal organs represent the components of the Federation and wield effective power; Badinter Arbitration Case Slide8:  b) - The composition and workings of the essential organs of the Federation, be they the Federal Presidency, the Federal Council, the Council of the Republics and the Provinces, the Federal Executive Council, the Constitutional Court or the Federal Army, no longer meet the criteria of participation and representatives inherent in a federal state; Slide9:  Ethiopian Constitution Article 39 The Right of Nations, Natio- nalities and Peoples Every nation, nationality or people in Ethiopia shall have the unrestricted right to self determination up to secession. Slide10:  Secession Procedure 4. The right to self determination up to seces- sion of nation, nationality and peoples may be exercised:- where the demand for secession is appro- ved by a two thirds (2/3rds) majority of the legislature of the nation, nationality or people concerned. (b) where the Federal Government within three years upon receipt of the decision of the legis- lature of the nation, nationality or people de- manding secession, organises a referendum for the nation, nationality or people demanding secession. Slide11:  (c) where the demand for secession is suppor- ted by a simple majority vote in the referendum. (d) where the Federal Government transfers power to the parliament of the nation, nationality or people which has opted for secession. (e) where property is partitioned in accordance with the law. Slide12:  New Swiss Constitution: Art. 53 Existence and Territory of the Cantons 1 The Confederation shall protect the Existence and the territory of the Cantons 2 Modifications of the number of the Cantons of the Cantons or their status are subject to the assent of the population concerned, of the Cantons concerned, and of the People and the Cantons. Slide13:  Québec Secession Case Slide16:  Highlights of The Decision of The Canadian Supreme Court On the Secession Of Queébec Slide17:  Question 1: Under the Constitution of Canada, can the National Assembly, legislature or government of Quebec effect the secession of Quebec from Canada unilaterally? Slide18:  No explicit regulation Of the Consitution Only procedures for Amendement Slide19:  Constitutional Amendments Act 1982 Section 41 [Highly Qualified Proceedings] An amendment to the Constitution of Canada in relation to the following matters may be made by proclamation issued by the Governor General under the Great Seal of Canada only where authorized by resolutions of the Senate and House of Commons and of the legislative assemblies of each province: Slide20:  The Constitution is more than a written text. It embraces the entire global system of rules and principles which govern the exercise of constitutional authority. It is necessary to make a more profound inve- stigation of the underlying principles anima- ting the whole of the Constitution, including the principles of federalism, democracy, constitutionalism and the rule of law, and respect for minorities. Slide21:  Arguments against unilateral secession Slide22:  Democracy, however, means more than simple majority rule. Constitutional jurisprudence shows that democracy exists in the larger context of other constitutional values. Since Confederation, the people of the provin- ces and territories have created close ties of interdependence (economic, social, political and cultural) based on shared values that inclu- de federalism, democracy, constitutionalism and the rule of law, and respect for minorities The Constitution which safes order and stabili- ty, and accordingly secession of a province "under the Constitution" could not be achie- ved unilaterally, that is, without principled ne- gotiation with other participants in Confedera- tion within the existing constitutional framework. Slide23:  Arguments for Secession Procedure not provided In the Constitution Slide24:  Our democratic institutions necessarily ac- commodate a continuous process of dis- cussion and evolution, which is reflected in the constitutional right of each partici- pant in the federation to initiate constitu- tional change. This right implies a reciprocal duty on the other participants to engage in discussions to address any legitimate initiative to change the constitutional order. Slide25:  Legitimacy A clear majority vote in Quebec on a clear question in favour of secession would confer democratic legitimacy on the secession initia- tive which all of the other participants in Confederation would have to recognize Slide26:  Effects of a clear Vote Quebec could not, despite a clear referendum re- sult, purport to invoke a right of self-determina- tion to dictate the terms of a proposed secession to the other parties to the federation. The demo- cratic vote, by however strong a majority, would have no legal effect on its own and could not push aside the principles of federalism and the rule of law, the rights of individuals and minori- ties, or the operation of democracy in the other provinces or in Canada as a whole. Democratic rights under the Constitution cannot be divorced from constitutional obligations No direct legal effect Slide27:  Non legal effects Nor, however, can the reverse proposition be ac- cepted: the continued existence and operation of the Canadian constitutional order could not be indifferent to a clear expression of a clear ma- jority of Quebequers that they no longer wish to re- main in Canada. The other provinces and the fede- ral government would have no basis to deny the right of the government of Quebec to pursue se- cession should a clear majority of the people of Quebec choose that goal, so long as in doing so, Quebec respects the rights of others. The ne- gotiations that followed such a vote would add- ress the potential act of secession as well as its possible terms should in fact secession proceed. There would be no conclusions predetermined by law on any issue. Negotiations would need to address the interests of the other provinces, the federal government and Quebec and indeed the rights of all Canadians both within and outside Quebec, and specifically the rights of minorities. Slide28:  Why Negotiations? The negotiation process would require the re- conciliation of various rights and obligations by negotiation between two legitimate majori- ties, namely, the majority of the population of Quebec, and that of Canada as a whole. Slide29:  The main constitutional Principles: History Federalism Democracy Constitutionalism And Rule of Law Protection of Minorities Slide30:  History: Quebec Conference 1864 Theses: These included guarantees to protect French language and culture, both directly (by making French an official language in Quebec and Canada as a whole) and indirectly (by allocating jurisdiction over education and "Property and Civil Rights in the Province" to the provinces). The protection of minorities was thus reaffirmed. Slide31:  We are of different races, not so that we can wage war on one another, but in order to work together for our well-being. Slide32:  Federalism: Diversity Autonomy Democratic Participation Slide33:  Democracy Procedural: Process of Government Substantive: Promotion of Self-government Dignity of Human Person Slide34:  Rule of Law and Constitutionalism that the law is supreme over the acts of both government and private persons. the creation and maintenance of an actual order of positive laws which preserves and embodies the more general principle of normative order" the exercise of all public power must find its ultimate source in a legal rule". Slide35:  Protection of Minorities We emphasize that the protection of minority rights is itself an independent principle underlying our constitutional order. Consistent with this long tradition of respect for minorities, which is at least as old as Ca- nada itself, the framers of the Constitution Act, 1982 included in s. 35 explicit protection for existing aboriginal and treaty rights, and in s. 25, a non-derogation clause in favour of the rights of aboriginal peoples Slide36:  Question 2: Does international law give the National Assembly, legislature or government of Quebec the right to effect the secession of Quebec from Canada unilaterally? Slide37:  Right of Self-determination where "a people" is governed as part of a colonial empire; where "a people" is subject to alien subjugation, domination or exploitation; and possibly where "a people" is denied any meaningful exercise of its right to self-determination within the state of which it forms a part. Slide38:  People? While much of the Quebec population certain- ly shares many of the characteristics (such as a common language and culture) that would be considered in determining whether a specific group is a "people", as do other groups within Quebec and/or Canada, it is not necessary to explore this legal characte- rization to resolve Question 2 appropriately. Slide39:  Self-determination Internal The recognized sources of international law esta- blish that the right to self-determination of a people is normally ful-fil- led through internal self- determination – a peo- ple's pursuit of its political, economic, so- cial and cultural develop- ment within the framework of an existing state. external A right to external self-determination (which in this case potentially takes the form of the assertion of a right to unilateral secession) arises in only the most extre- me of cases and, even then, under carefully defined circumstances. Slide40:  There is no necessary incompatibility bet- ween the maintenance of the territorial integrity of existing states, including Cana- da, and the right of a "people" to achieve a full measure of self-determination. A state whose government represents the whole of the people or peoples resident within its territory, on a basis of equality and without discrimination, and respects the principles of self-determination in its own internal arrangements, is entitled to the protection under international law of its territorial integrity. Slide41:  Principle of Effectivity while international law may not ground a posi- tive right to unilateral secession in the con- text of Quebec, international law equally does not prohibit secession and, in fact, interna- tional recognition would be conferred on such a political reality if it emerged, for example, via effective control of the territory of what is now the province of Quebec. It is, however, quite another matter to sug- gest that a subsequent condonation of an initially illegal act retroactively creates a legal right to engage in the act in the first place. Slide42:  First Question: Has the legislature the jurisdiction to rule secession procedures without explicit provision of the constitution? If the answer is yes, would it then also have the competence modify substantially the procedures provided by the court in the Québec case? Slide43:  Second Question: The bill provides that the secession is decided by a popular referendum. However the question to be decided on has to be clear, and it is up to the Canadian House of Commons to decide, weather the question is clear enough in order to know weather the people wants a secession. Would the court consider that a popular referen- dum is indispensable? Would the decision to divi deTchequoslovakia in two sovereign states only by parliament be constitutional? Was the German decision to unite the country only based on a electoral vote constitutional? Is the competence of the Commons to decide, what wording of the question is clear enough constitutional? Slide44:  Question 3: The bill does not determine the percentage needed in order to obtain the majority neces- sary to initiate negotiations for secession. This has to be decided by the Commons. Does the court consider that a bill, which con- veys such a far reaching competence to the Commons is constitutional? How should the Commons decide if for instan- ce two third of the French speaking people decide positive and two third of English spea- king and two third of the aborgigins decided negative that is against secession? Slide45:  Question 4: What is the the constitutional status of minorities living within the seceding territory? Do those minorities enjoy the same rights as the majority? Do those rights have a constitutional value, is it linked to the human rights, and or to collective rights?

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