Sec2 Chap8 Postwar Problems[1]

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Information about Sec2 Chap8 Postwar Problems[1]

Published on September 11, 2007

Author: donaldleo

Source: slideshare.net

Chap 7 : End of War and Post-War Problems 1. End of War 2. Period of Uncertainty 3. Return of the British 4. Post-war Problems

End of War 1. Germany’s Surrender

1. Germany’s Surrender

End of War 2. End of War in Asia and the Pacific Region

2. End of War in Asia and the Pacific Region

End of War 2. End of War in Asia and the Pacific Region Enormous atomic cloud About one hour after the bombing on 6 August 1945. Photo: the U.S. Army.

2. End of War in Asia and the Pacific Region

Victims

Victims

Victims

Victims

Period of Uncertainty Anxiety and Uncertainty 15 Aug 1945 : Japanese Emperor announced end of war 17 Aug 1945 announcement over radio that Japan had surrendered rush to get rid of Japanese currency Looting of shops, especially Japanese shops Revenge Killings revenge against informers

Anxiety and Uncertainty

15 Aug 1945 : Japanese Emperor announced end of war

17 Aug 1945 announcement over radio that Japan had surrendered

rush to get rid of Japanese currency

Looting of shops, especially Japanese shops

Revenge Killings

revenge against informers

Warning: for Mature adults only! Pls prepare puke bags! Boy suffering 70% burns over his body when the bomb explode 1.6miles from the hypocentre

Return of the British 3 Sep 1945 British troops returned to Singapore 12 Sep 1945 grand victory parade at the Padang surrender document was signed in the City Hall between Lord Mountbatten and the Japanese Commander

3 Sep 1945

British troops returned to Singapore

12 Sep 1945

grand victory parade at the Padang

surrender document was signed in the City Hall between Lord Mountbatten and the Japanese Commander

Return of the British British Military Administration (BMA) took charge of governing Singapore until 1 Apr 1946 That’s when the British Govt took over help to maintain law and order Re-construct Singapore in the immediate post-war years Many problems Attitude of the people towards the British had changed

British Military Administration (BMA)

took charge of governing Singapore until 1 Apr 1946

That’s when the British Govt took over

help to maintain law and order

Re-construct Singapore in the immediate post-war years

Many problems

Attitude of the people towards the British had changed

During the Japanese occupation, many locals were alerted to the quick pace of British withdrawal This made them aware of not relying on others but being masters of their own fates They also demanded more equal treatment, a dream which Communists “promised”. Post-war thoughts

During the Japanese occupation, many locals were alerted to the quick pace of British withdrawal

This made them aware of not relying on others but being masters of their own fates

They also demanded more equal treatment, a dream which Communists “promised”.

Post-war Problems Shortage of food Disruption of Water, Electricity and Gas Supplies Change of Currency Unemployment Shortage of Housing Poor Health Conditions Disruption of Education

Shortage of food

Disruption of Water, Electricity and Gas Supplies

Change of Currency

Unemployment

Shortage of Housing

Poor Health Conditions

Disruption of Education

Shortage of Food Most urgent problem rice-producing countries had no extra rice to sell War destroyed merchant ships Sunken ships blocked the harbour few warehouses left Created a severe shortage of food Cause & Effect : Effect - high prices Creation of a black market

Most urgent problem

rice-producing countries had no extra rice to sell

War destroyed merchant ships

Sunken ships blocked the harbour

few warehouses left

Created a severe shortage of food

Cause & Effect : Effect - high prices

Creation of a black market

Shortage of Food Solutions/Measures taken 1. Harbour was cleared Wharves repaired; warehouses built 2. Food rationing Price control for essential foodstuffs Heavy punishments for profiteering Because of these measures, difficult for poor to obtain food People’s Restaurants provided affordable meals

Solutions/Measures taken

1. Harbour was cleared

Wharves repaired; warehouses built

2. Food rationing

Price control for essential foodstuffs

Heavy punishments for profiteering

Because of these measures, difficult for poor to obtain food

People’s Restaurants

provided affordable meals

Shortage of Food Solutions/Measures taken 3. Setting up of Family Restaurants to help the very poor who could not even afford cheap meals Opened by Social Welfare Dept in Dec 1946 8-cent meals : rice, fish, vegetables, gravy and iced water or Chinese tea Food supplies slowly increased more food produced by other countries trade between S’pore and other countries resumed Despite this, starvation still occurred Improvisation

Solutions/Measures taken

3. Setting up of Family Restaurants

to help the very poor who could not even afford cheap meals

Opened by Social Welfare Dept in Dec 1946

8-cent meals : rice, fish, vegetables, gravy and iced water or Chinese tea

Food supplies slowly increased

more food produced by other countries

trade between S’pore and other countries resumed

Despite this, starvation still occurred

Improvisation

Disruption of water, electricity and gas supplies Water shortage due mainly to faulty supply pipes British - repair / chlorine Gas, electricity and phones services were disrupted Situation improved when Jap POWs made to help repair the water mains and machinery in power stations

Water shortage due mainly to faulty supply pipes

British - repair / chlorine

Gas, electricity and phones services were disrupted

Situation improved when Jap POWs made to help repair the water mains and machinery in power stations

Change of currency Japanese currency not legal tender Most did not have British currency BMA issued special relief grants to people ie gave money to tide over the difficult period also high unemployment

Japanese currency not legal tender

Most did not have British currency

BMA issued special relief grants to people

ie gave money to tide over the difficult period

also high unemployment

Unemployment High unemployment after the war Jobs created by Japanese disappeared with the return of the British Many forced to take up odd jobs and any jobs that came along SITUATION Everyday, BMA refer many to the Labour Exchange in Havelock Road Match skills to needs Long queues were a common sight 60,000 found jobs with the help of the Labour Exchange within the first few months

High unemployment after the war

Jobs created by Japanese disappeared with the return of the British

Many forced to take up odd jobs and any jobs that came along

SITUATION

Everyday, BMA refer many to the Labour Exchange in Havelock Road

Match skills to needs

Long queues were a common sight

60,000 found jobs with the help of the Labour Exchange within the first few months

Many houses were destroyed during the war Resulted in rapid rise in rentals Those who could not afford squeezed into small overcrowded buildings 1947 - many still living in overcrowded rooms and cubicles Some moved out and became squatters Shortage of Housing

Many houses were destroyed during the war

Resulted in rapid rise in rentals

Those who could not afford squeezed into small overcrowded buildings

1947 - many still living in overcrowded rooms and cubicles

Some moved out and became squatters

Solutions/Measures Law on rent control Government built some flats Unsuccessful at solving the housing problem Overcrowded and unhygienic conditions prevailed Problem made worse with increase in population in the 1950s Shortage of Housing

Solutions/Measures

Law on rent control

Government built some flats

Unsuccessful at solving the housing problem

Overcrowded and unhygienic conditions prevailed

Problem made worse with increase in population in the 1950s

Poor Health Conditions Death rate in 1945 double that in pre-war level Hospitals short of equipment, medicine, furniture and bedding Malnutrition and smallpox were common Health Campaign in Oct 1945 Free medical services Vaccinations against infectious diseases

Death rate in 1945 double that in pre-war level

Hospitals short of equipment, medicine, furniture and bedding

Malnutrition and smallpox were common

Health Campaign in Oct 1945

Free medical services

Vaccinations against infectious diseases

Poor Health Conditions Unfortunately, these steps were still inadequate Poor health conditions made worse by overcrowded living conditions Diseases like TB were widespread SATA was formed to combat TB still exists today

Unfortunately, these steps were still inadequate

Poor health conditions made worse by overcrowded living conditions

Diseases like TB were widespread

SATA was formed to combat TB

still exists today

Disruption of Education Schools faced many problems as a result of the Japanese Occupation BMA was quick to re-open schools in Oct 1945 Places needed for normal intake as well as over-aged children Those who went back to school found a different problem No proper facilities and teaching materials Shortage of textbooks, most desks and chairs badly damaged

Schools faced many problems as a result of the Japanese Occupation

BMA was quick to re-open schools in Oct 1945

Places needed for normal intake as well as over-aged children

Those who went back to school found a different problem

No proper facilities and teaching materials

Shortage of textbooks, most desks and chairs badly damaged

Disruption of Education Solutions/Measures Orders for teaching materials and other essentials were placed BMA helped to get needy children back to school - how? No school fees if parents are receiving emergency relief Mar 1946 - 62,000 children attending school

Solutions/Measures

Orders for teaching materials and other essentials were placed

BMA helped to get needy children back to school - how?

No school fees if parents are receiving emergency relief

Mar 1946 - 62,000 children attending school

CONCLUSION We have learnt some of the main problems people faced in post-war years In spite of the efforts by the BMA, many were inadequate and ineffective Rapid population growth, food shortage, unemployment and poor housing continued well into the 1950s Caused discontent and many became increasingly unhappy with British rule Next chapter : The Communists

We have learnt some of the main problems people faced in post-war years

In spite of the efforts by the BMA, many were inadequate and ineffective

Rapid population growth, food shortage, unemployment and poor housing continued well into the 1950s

Caused discontent and many became increasingly unhappy with British rule

Next chapter : The Communists

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