Sec2 Chap7 Syonan[1]

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Information about Sec2 Chap7 Syonan[1]

Published on August 15, 2007

Author: donaldleo

Source: slideshare.net

THE FALL OF SINGAPORE World War II

Major areas of attack : Tengah Airfield, Kranji, Bukit Timah, City areas Surrender of the British 15 Feb 1942 – "Black Sunday"

Major areas of attack : Tengah Airfield, Kranji, Bukit Timah, City areas

Surrender of the British

15 Feb 1942 – "Black Sunday"

NAVAL BASE SURRENDER PERIMETER MANDAI/NEE SOON BUKIT TIMAH PASIR PANJANG 15 FEB 1942 TENGAH SELETAR SEMBAWANG 2 1 3 4

15 FEB 1942 bLACK sUNDAY

THE SYONAN YEARS

Coming under New Masters Meeting Their Fates Living the Days of Darkness Fighting against the Japanese Lessons from the Japanese Occupation SINGAPORE DURING THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION

Coming under New Masters

Meeting Their Fates

Living the Days of Darkness

Fighting against the Japanese

Lessons from the Japanese Occupation

COMING UNDER NEW MASTERS Singapore – Renamed ‘Syonan-To’ Syonan = Light of the South People suffered great hardships Lived in constant fear of the Japanese

Singapore – Renamed ‘Syonan-To’

Syonan = Light of the South

People suffered great hardships

Lived in constant fear of the Japanese

MEETING THEIR FATES The Allied POWs The Local Civilians

The Allied POWs

The Local Civilians

MEETING THEIR FATES The Allied POWs British, Australian and Allied Europeans, including women and children, were imprisoned became POWs Changi Prison, Selarang Barracks numbered more than 50,000

The Allied POWs

British, Australian and Allied Europeans, including women and children, were imprisoned

became POWs

Changi Prison, Selarang Barracks

numbered more than 50,000

MEETING THEIR FATES The Allied POWs Indians soldiers and Gurkhas asked to pledge loyalty to Japan asked to join the Indian National Army (INA) set up by CPT Mohan Singh, a surrendered officer from the British Indian Army those who refused were tortured, imprisoned or killed

The Allied POWs

Indians soldiers and Gurkhas

asked to pledge loyalty to Japan

asked to join the Indian National Army (INA)

set up by CPT Mohan Singh, a surrendered officer from the British Indian Army

those who refused were tortured, imprisoned or killed

MEETING THEIR FATES The Local Civilians Japanese took action to place locals under control determined to wipe out those who might threaten their rule The Chinese became the main target Wipe out all those considered to be anti-Japanese Operation Sook Ching

The Local Civilians

Japanese took action to place locals under control

determined to wipe out those who might threaten their rule

The Chinese became the main target

Wipe out all those considered to be anti-Japanese

Operation Sook Ching

 

Singapore Under Japanese Rule

Singapore Under Japanese Rule

Japanese soldiers using a prisoner as a live target to practise bayonet fighting A Japanese soldier torturing a prisoner

THE PRICE OF PEACE

THE WATER TREATMENT “… ..our captors beat us up, subject us to electric shocks and pumped us up with water as part of the interrogation routine. The feeling of having one’s belly pumped full of water and then seeing the water gushing out of the body was hardly bearable.”

ELECTRIC SHOCKS “… ..when my interrogators could not get information out of me, they dragged my husband from Outram Prison, tied him up and made him kneel beside me. Then, in his full view, they stripped me to the waist and applied electric currents to me.”

ELECTRIC SHOCKS “… ..the electric shocks sent my whole body into spasms; my tears and mucus flowed uncontrollably. The pain was indescribable, but it must have been thousands of times worse for my husband who had to see me being tortured.” “ A Shameful Past in Human Memory : A Verbal Account by Elizabeth Choy” by Jane Thum Soon Kun in The Price of Peace

MEETING THEIR FATES The Japanese regarded the Chinese as their arch enemies. Why? 1. Strong Chinese resistance during Japanese invasion of China 2. Chinese in S’pore actively helped China in its fight against Japan’s attack 3. In the Battle of Bukit Timah, the Chinese volunteers put up a fierce resistance against the invading Japanese troops

MEETING THEIR FATES Mass Screening All Chinese men 18-50 years old report to Mass screening centres Questioned by Japanese or singled out by hooded local informers More fortunate ones allowed to go home “ EXAMINED” stamped on a small piece of paper sometimes stamped onto shirts or arms Those accused of being anti-Japanese were brought to remote areas of Singapore and killed

Mass Screening

All Chinese men 18-50 years old

report to Mass screening centres

Questioned by Japanese or singled out by hooded local informers

More fortunate ones allowed to go home

“ EXAMINED” stamped on a small piece of paper

sometimes stamped onto shirts or arms

Those accused of being anti-Japanese were brought to remote areas of Singapore and killed

MEETING THEIR FATES Eurasians suffered - related to Europeans Japanese thought the Eurasians saw themselves as superior to the Asians Many belonged to the Singapore Volunteer Corps and fought against the Japanese Those suspected of helping the British were shot Others were imprisoned

Eurasians

suffered - related to Europeans

Japanese thought the Eurasians saw themselves as superior to the Asians

Many belonged to the Singapore Volunteer Corps and fought against the Japanese

Those suspected of helping the British were shot

Others were imprisoned

MEETING THEIR FATES Malays and Indians Japanese did not see them as a threat Tried to win the support of the Malays and convince them that Japan would free them from Japanese rule Persuaded Indians that Japan would free India from Britain Both races not entirely spared though, esp if they did not obey Japanese orders

Malays and Indians

Japanese did not see them as a threat

Tried to win the support of the Malays and convince them that Japan would free them from Japanese rule

Persuaded Indians that Japan would free India from Britain

Both races not entirely spared though, esp if they did not obey Japanese orders

LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS FEAR Harsh action taken to establish control Looters were shot and beheaded, public display of heads Barbed wires to form road blocks Bowing as a sign of respect

FEAR

Harsh action taken to establish control

Looters were shot and beheaded, public display of heads

Barbed wires to form road blocks

Bowing as a sign of respect

LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS FEAR Close watch over the people Documents - work badges, vehicle and radio passes Families had to be registered Surprise checks

FEAR

Close watch over the people

Documents - work badges, vehicle and radio passes

Families had to be registered

Surprise checks

THE KEMPEITAI Most feared of all Japanese Spies all over the island encouraged people to supply them with info by giving rewards and privileges Anti-Jap suspects beaten and tortured until they reveal the info the Japs wanted Nobody knew whom to trust Anti-Japanese suspects were tortured to make them confess or to extract information from them Often people were punished for crimes they did not commit

Most feared of all Japanese

Spies all over the island

encouraged people to supply them with info by giving rewards and privileges

Anti-Jap suspects beaten and tortured until they reveal the info the Japs wanted

Nobody knew whom to trust

Anti-Japanese suspects were tortured to make them confess or to extract information from them

Often people were punished for crimes they did not commit

LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS Hardship and Suffering Life of POWs in prison camps Death Railway

Hardship and Suffering

Life of POWs in prison camps

Death Railway

DEATH RAILWAY

LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS Hardship and Suffering Local civilians - serious shortage of food and other goods Essential foodstuffs like rice, salt and sugar were controlled Ration cards : Limit amount of food for each person Coping with shortages : Simple diets; substitutes; improvise Malnutrition and diseases Shortage of medicine

Hardship and Suffering

Local civilians - serious shortage of food and other goods

Essential foodstuffs like rice, salt and sugar were controlled

Ration cards : Limit amount of food for each person

Coping with shortages : Simple diets; substitutes; improvise

Malnutrition and diseases

Shortage of medicine

LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS Black Market Not only basic necessities but all sorts of goods Because of shortages Banana notes - worthless

Black Market

Not only basic necessities but all sorts of goods

Because of shortages

Banana notes - worthless

BANABA NOTES

LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS Propaganda To influence the minds of the people to show loyalty to Japan 1. Learn the Japanese language 2. Influence school children 3. Controlled radio stations and radio sets 4. Only Japanese movies and propaganda shown in cinemas 5. Chinese and English newspapers controlled strictly by Japanese

Propaganda

To influence the minds of the people to show loyalty to Japan

1. Learn the Japanese language

2. Influence school children

3. Controlled radio stations and radio sets

4. Only Japanese movies and propaganda shown in cinemas

5. Chinese and English newspapers controlled strictly by Japanese

ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS MPAJA : Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army sudden attacks on Japanese troops Hid in the Malayan jungles Life was hard there tried to stir up anti-Japanese feelings among the people by distributing newspapers

MPAJA : Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army

sudden attacks on Japanese troops

Hid in the Malayan jungles

Life was hard there

tried to stir up anti-Japanese feelings among the people by distributing newspapers

ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS Force 136 Secret British organisation to organise sabotage activities locals were also recruited trained secretly in India and sent to Malaya to help MPAJA Lim Bo Seng was one of the leaders Captured in Mar 1944 and tortured to death

Force 136

Secret British organisation to organise sabotage activities

locals were also recruited

trained secretly in India and sent to Malaya to help MPAJA

Lim Bo Seng was one of the leaders

Captured in Mar 1944 and tortured to death

LESSONS Defeat of the British poor preparations for war underestimation of enemy always be prepared to defend one’s country Respect for British dipped after the war People’s suffering need to rid Singapore of foreign masters

Defeat of the British

poor preparations for war

underestimation of enemy

always be prepared to defend one’s country

Respect for British dipped after the war

People’s suffering

need to rid Singapore of foreign masters

LEE KUAN YEW “ M y colleagues and I are of that generation of young men who went through the Second World War and the Japanese Occupation and became determined that no one - neither the Japanese nor the British - had the right to push and kick us around. We were determined that we could govern ourselves and bring up our children in a country where we can be a self-respecting people.”

CHANGI PRISON CHAPEL

CHANGI MURALS

 

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