Published on February 18, 2014
• Science is the systematic study of nature and how it affects us and our environment. • Science can explain natural phenomena that happen in our environment. • How? – Through careful observations, studies and scientific investigations. firstname.lastname@example.org 2
Environmentalist Archeologist email@example.com Forensic technician Science teacher Doctor 4
VARIOUS FIELDS IN SCIENCE • Science covers a very wide area of study and is divided into various fields, such as: – Biology: the study of living things – Physics : the study of interaction of matter and energy – Chemistry : the study of composition and chemical properties of substances, their reactions and uses – Geology : the study of rocks and minerals – Astronomy : the study of the stars and planets – Meteorology : the study of weather and climate firstname.lastname@example.org 5
• Wearing goggles • Carrying bottles by the body; not the neck email@example.com 7
Bunsen burner Test tube Tripod stand and wire gauze firstname.lastname@example.org Crucible 9
Syringe Test tube holder Retort stand and clamp email@example.com 10
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Identifying problem Forming a hypothesis Planning the experiment Controlling the variables Collecting data Analysing and interpreting data Drawing a conclusion Writing a report firstname.lastname@example.org 12
1. List the steps of scientific investigation. email@example.com 13
2. Write down a report on Simple pendulum experiment. firstname.lastname@example.org 14
• To investigate how the length of the pendulum string affect the time for 10 complete swings of the pendulum. • How the length of the pendulum string affect the time for 10 complete swings of the pendulum? email@example.com 17
• If the length of the pendulum is longer, the time taken for 10 complete swing of the pendulum is longer. firstname.lastname@example.org 18
• Manipulated (what to change) : the length of the pendulum • Responding (what is observed) : time taken for 10 complete swings • Constant (kept the same) : mass of the pendulum bob email@example.com 19
• Pendulum bob, string/thread, retort stand and clamp, stop watch • Apparatus set-up: firstname.lastname@example.org 20
1. Prepare the simple pendulum with a 10cm long thread. 2. Pull the pendulum bob to one side, then release. 3. Record the time taken for 10 complete oscillations in a table. 4. Repeat the experiment using a simple pendulum of different lengths, e.g. 20cm, 30cm, 40cm and 50cm. 5. Draw a graph showing the time taken versus length of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations. email@example.com 21
1. A simple pendulum with a 10 cm long thread was prepared. 2. The pendulum was pulled to one side, and then was released. 3. The time taken for 10 complete oscillations was recorded in a table. 4. The experiment was repeated using a simple pendulum with 20cm, 30cm, 40 and 50cm long. 5. A graph showing the time taken versus length of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations was drawn. firstname.lastname@example.org 22
1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 email@example.com 10 13 15 18 20 23
1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 10 13 15 18 20 firstname.lastname@example.org 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 24
• Graph of time taken for 10 complete oscillations versus length of simple pendulum. email@example.com 25
From the graph, we can say that: 1. The pendulum with a longer string takes longer time to oscillate than the pendulum with a shorter string. 2. The time taken for the pendulum to make one complete oscillation will increase when the pendulum string is longer. firstname.lastname@example.org 26
• From the results, the hypothesis is accepted . • The time taken for the simple pendulum to make one complete oscillation increases with the length of the pendulum. email@example.com 27
• Measurement is important because: –It helps to describe things everyday; –It is a part of the scientific investigation process (e.g: simple pendulum experiment) firstname.lastname@example.org 29
Can be measured Cannot be measured How far is your house to How beautiful a person the school? is? How long does you take How does a durian to finish your taste? homework? How hot is a glass of How soft a pillow is? water? How a flower smell? email@example.com 30
• A physical quantity is something that can be measured. • There are five basic quantities: length, time, mass, temperature and electric current. • Measurement of physical quantities consist of two parts: – A number indicating value or how much; – A unit of measurement. firstname.lastname@example.org 31
• Unit is a scale that helps you understand a particular measurement. • S.I units: International standard unit of measurement (Systeme International d’ Unites). email@example.com 32
Allow us to analyse data and compare information easily and more accurately; No confusion because there is specific symbols for each unit; Allow us to solve problems related to measurement. firstname.lastname@example.org 33
Physical quantities Length Mass Time Temperature Electric current SI units Symbols Definition Metre m A measurement of how long something from one point to another Kilogram kg A measurement of how much matter there is in an object Second s A measurement of the interval between two events Kelvin K A measurement of the warmness or coldness in any object Ampere A A measurement of the rate flow of electric charges through a circuit email@example.com 34
• Prefixes are added to units like meter and gram when we need to state values that are too small or too large. Prefix Multiplier Symbol Micro Milli Centi X 10-6 X 10-3 X 10-2 µ m c Numerical value 0.000001 0.001 0.01 Kilo Mega X 103 X 106 k M 1000 1000000 firstname.lastname@example.org 35
• The weight of an object is the pull of the Earth (force of gravity) on the object. • The S.I unit of weight is Newton (N). • The weight of any object depends on the gravitational force. • The weight of an object is obtained using a spring balance or compression spring balance. email@example.com 39
• The mass of an object is the quantity of matter in the object. • The S.I. unit of mass is kilogram (kg). • The mass of an object can be obtained using a triple beam balance or lever balance. firstname.lastname@example.org 41
It is the amount of matter in an object. Its value is fixed. Unit: kilogram (kg) It is the gravitational pull on an object. Its value varies from place to place. Unit: Newton (N) Measured using beam Measured using spring balance or lever balance or weighing balance. balance. email@example.com 43
1. Tools: ruler, metre rule, measuring tape 2. Measuring the length of a straight line: – Using metre rule or a ruler – Correct position of eye (to avoid parallax error) firstname.lastname@example.org 45
3. Measuring the length of a curve: a) Using a ruler and a piece of thread • • • • A knot is tied at the end of a thread The thread is stretched along the curve carefully Make a mark at the end of the curve Stretch the thread along the ruler to obtain the length b) Using an opisometer email@example.com 46
• Measuring the diameter of a spherical object: – Using two wooden blocks and a ruler – Using a set-square and a ruler firstname.lastname@example.org 47
• Measuring the diameter of an object: – The external diameter is measured using external calipers and a ruler – The internal diameter is measured using internal caliper and a ruler. email@example.com 48
• Measuring the thickness of an object: – The thickness of a piece of paper can be determined by measuring the thickness of a stack of papers and dividing the value of number of sheets of paper. Thickness of a single sheet Thickness of a stack of paper Number of sheets firstname.lastname@example.org 49
– The thickness of a glass tube can be measured by taking the difference between its external and internal diameter. Thickness of glass External diameter - internal diameter 2 email@example.com 50
• Area is the total surface covered by an object. • The SI unit is square metre (m2). • Regular-shaped areas can be calculated using Mathematical formula. (next slide) firstname.lastname@example.org 51
Irregular-shaped areas can be estimated by using a graph paper. – Trace the object on the graph paper. – Estimate the area by counting the number of full squares, half full squares and more than half full squares (tick the squares) – Area of the object is estimated by multiplying the number of squares with the area of one square. – The area can be estimated more accurately with email@example.com 53 smaller squares.
• Volume of an object is the total space occupied by the object. • The SI unit is cubic metre (m3). • It also can be measured in millilitre (ml). • The apparatus: measuring cylinder, burette and pipette. 1 ml = 1 cm3 1 l = 1000 cm3= 1000 ml 1 m3= 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 000 000 ml firstname.lastname@example.org 54
• Measuring volumes of liquids – The volume must be taken at the meniscus level of the liquid. – Use a piece of white paper to enable the meniscus to be seen clearly. – The eye is positioned at the same level of the meniscus to avoid parallax error. email@example.com 55
• Measuring volumes of solids – The volume of regular-shaped and irregular-shaped can be measured using water displacement method. – The object to be measured must be submerged in the measuring cylinder filled with water. – The volume of the water displaced is the volume of the object. firstname.lastname@example.org 56
– The volume of a solid can also be measured using a displacement can or a Eureka can. – The volume of the water that flows out from the can is the volume of the solid measured. email@example.com 57
– The volume of a light object can be measured with the aid of a weight, for example, a stone. – The stone which is tied to the cork enables the cork to be submerged in the water. firstname.lastname@example.org 58
MEASURING TEMPERATURE 1. Temperature is the degree of of hotness or coldness of a substance. 2. The S.I unit for temperature is Kelvin (K). Normally temperature is measured in degree Celsius (°C). 3. The temperature of a liquid is measured by using a laboratory thermometer. 4. Pure water boils at 100°C and freezes at 0°C under normal condition. 5. The average body temperature is 36.9°C. 6. The temperature of our body is measured by using a clinical thermometer. email@example.com 59
1. In the past, different units were used by different people for measuring for measuring the same basic quantity. 2. Using different units gives rise to several problem such as; a) It is difficult to make comparisons b) Foreign tourists may not understand the units used in the countries they visit. firstname.lastname@example.org 61
Basic quantity Length Unit used • Inch, foot, yard, cubit, mile • Centimetre, metre, kilometre. 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 foot = 12 inches = 0.3048 m 1 yard = 0.9144 m 1 mile = 1609 m Mass • Ounce, pound • Tahil, kati • Gram, kilogram 1 ounce = 28.35 g 1 pound = 0.4536 kg 1 kati = 16 tahils email@example.com 62
3. The use of standard units in measurements is very important to scientist and people who import and export goods. 4. Using standard units enable scientists; a) To understand one another’s measurement and make accurate comparisons, b) To communicate and understand one another’s experiment and research, c) To exchange information, knowledge and technology d) To avoid confusion. firstname.lastname@example.org 63
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