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Published on March 11, 2014

Author: Lucander17


The Synthesis and Use of Gelatin Functionalized Graphene Oxide for Simultaneous Chemical and Photothermal Cancer Therapy Guy Blanc, Aaron Lucander, Praruj Pant

Research Purpose To determine the effectiveness of functionalized graphene oxide nanocarriers in simultaneous chemical and photothermal cancer therapy.

Goals • To synthesize gelatin-functionalized graphene oxide (gelatin-GO). • To test the efficiency of gelatin-GO in photothermal therapy. • To test the efficacy of gelatin-GO as a drug delivery agent.

Background • Chemotherapy, fighting cancer using drugs, and photothermal therapy, fighting cancer using heat, have been used simultaneously to treat tumors. This is very effective because the heat makes cancer cells more susceptible to drugs; however, with current methods, the drugs released and heat are not concentrated at the same points. • Prior research shows that o Because of its large surface areas and photothermal capabilities, graphene oxide has great potential in chemotherapy and photothermal therapy. o Gelatin-functionalized graphene nanosheets are effective nanocarriers because of their high drug loading capacity and biocompatibility.

Graphite Oxide Synthesis Method ● We preoxidized graphite flakes by mixing graphite flakes, K2S2O8, and P2O5 in sulfuric acid. We then filtered out the graphite flakes and dried them in an oven overnight. ● We then placed the preoxidized flakes in KMnO4 and H2SO4, stirred, and added H2O2. When the H2O2 was added, the mixture turned bright yellow, indicating that graphite oxide had been successfully synthesized (demonstrated in prior literature)

● We then sonicated and centrifuged the graphite oxide to form graphene oxide. ● Gelatin was added to water at 90oC to form an aqueous gelatin solution and then graphene oxide was added. The solution was stirred overnight. ● The resulting mixture was filtered by repeatedly centrifuging and washing until concentrated gelatin- GO was left. Gelatin-GO Synthesis Method

Photothermal Data Collection ● Water and gelatin-GO were placed in separate vials and irradiated with a low-voltage 808 nm laser for the same time. The change in temperature of each sample was recorded. ● The procedure was repeated 3 times for each sample type, and the average of these trials is shown in the graph to the right.

Photothermal Data Results The Gelatin-GO sample heated up over three times as much as water over an average of three trials

Drug Delivery Data Collection • The dye rhodamine, representing a drug, was loaded onto Gelatin-GO particles • The rhodamine-loaded gelatin-GO was placed into water. • The fluorescence of the sample was measured at multiple time intervals to model how well gelatin-GO released chemicals.

The gelatin-GO solution loaded with rhodamine released rhodamine over time, indicated by the increased fluorescence at 570nm Drug Delivery Data Results

Discussion of Results • The average temperature increase of the aqueous solutions of gelatin-GO was 8.5oC while that of the deionized water samples was only 2.8oC. • We need only increase the overall temperature of a sample by a fraction of a degree Celsius to increase the temperatures of the individual gelatin-GO particles enough to fight the tumor cells. • Our research shows that we could use an even less powerful laser to sufficiently heat gelatin-GO particles for photothermal therapy, reducing side effects.

• The rhodamine, representing a drug in our drug delivery tests, fluoresces at 570 nm. • After 24 hours, the water sample with rhodamine-loaded gelatin-GO particles showed significant increase in fluorescence at 570 nm • Release of rhodamine by gelatin-GO shows that gelatin-GO particles can be used to deliver drugs Discussion of Results

Conclusion What we have done: • Successfully Synthesized gelatin-GO • Affirmed that gelatin-GO will heat up under 808nm radiation, making it an effective for photothermal therapy • Affirmed that drugs loaded onto gelatin-GO will be released in water (as modeled by rhodamine release)

Synthesize polyethylene glycol- functionalized graphene oxide (PEG-GO) and compare its release rate and photothermal absorbance to those of gelatin-GO. Future Research: • Load actual cancer drugs onto gelatin-GO and PEG-GO. • Quantitatively measure and control drug release rates and GO particle heating for use in actual tumor therapy • Apply nanocarriers to in vivo cancer therapy. Our Next Step

We would like to thank the NCSSM Research in Chemistry instructor, Dr. Myra Halpin Acknowledgements


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