Science and Warfare Lecture 1

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Information about Science and Warfare Lecture 1

Published on February 26, 2008

Author: Charlie


Thomas A. Swift Electric Rifle:  Thomas A. Swift Electric Rifle Second death following Taser use sparks call for moratorium:  Second death following Taser use sparks call for moratorium The death in Montreal Thursday of a second man stunned by a Taser gun in Canada this week is prompting concerns about the use of the weapon, but a recent U.S. study says the weapon inflicts very few serious injuries. Slide3:  While the actual causes of death have yet to be determined, the incidents are reviving debate on the use Taser guns. The two recent deaths bring to 17 the number of victims to have died in Canada shortly after being hit with a Taser. In many cases the men also had illegal drugs in their system and often pepper spray or other restraints were used as well as the Taser. Slide4:  But in a recent study funded by the U.S. Justice Department, researchers tracking police Taser use on 962 people from July 2005 to June 2007 found very few suffered serious injury. Three people sustained moderate or severe non-fatal injuries. Two had head injuries when they fell to the ground after being stunned. Another had a type of muscle breakdown, the researchers said. Another 216 people sustained minor injuries like cuts, and 743 suffered no injury, the study found. Slide5:  Dr. Christine Hall, an in-custody death expert from Victoria, said "99.7 per cent of field applications resulted in no or minimal injury. In that series there were two deaths and in each of those cases the technology was found to be unrelated to the death." Slide6:  Since their introduction in 2001, Tasers have been used by the RCMP about 4,000 times and at least as many times by other police associations. The Evolution of Weapons:  The Evolution of Weapons Invention of Weapons:  Invention of Weapons Early hand-to-hand combat more successful with a stone in the hand Leverage advantage of a handle in club or axe Then came the spear with the safety of distance for the attacker. Added Technology:  Added Technology The sling allowed stones to be thrown greater distances with greater force. Sling and Arrows:  Sling and Arrows The use of the bow and arrows allowed more killing at a distance. The Crossbow:  The Crossbow Although associated with medieval times, the crossbow dates back to more than 300 BC. The Longbow:  The Longbow At the battle of Agincourt in 1415, 1,000 arrows were fired every second. After the battle, observers wrote that the white feathers from the flights were so thick on the ground, it looked like snow. The Stirrup:  The Stirrup Introduced to Europe in AD 732 You could set yourself down in the saddle, put your feet in the stirrup, put a lance under your arm and drive a spear into the enemy, the weight, the speed and the power of the horse became part of the weapon that the cavalry man was and that depended on the stirrup. Early Chemistry:  Early Chemistry The first serious chemistry done by humans probably had to do with the extraction of metals from their ores. Metals such as copper and gold found in their native state would have been found to possess the property of malleability which would allow them to be shaped in ways that nonmetals could not be shaped. Hammer copper and you can shape it and sharpen it. Hammer rock and it breaks or crumbles. Copper Weapons:  Copper Weapons The heating of copper ore in fire to extract the metal dates back to 4000 B.C. or so. Bronze:  Bronze In the next thousand or so years we discovered that by heating copper-containing rocks and tin-containing rocks together a harder metal could be produced. This copper-tin alloy was bronze, the metal employed in the weapons armour used by both sides in the Trojan War. The Smith:  The Smith An army without metal weapons could not hope to defeat an army with metal weapons. The metal worker was a very important member of society. The Smith:  The Smith It is not by accident that “Smith” or its equivalent is the most common name among the European peoples Smythe, Schmidt Smyth Iron Age:  Iron Age Around 1250 B.C. the Hittites, in eastern Asia Minor, perfected the secret of smelting iron using charcoal fires with good ventilation. Pure iron is not very hard but an iron weapon would pick up enough carbon from the charcoal to form a surface layer of steel. Iron Age:  Iron Age An army equipped with iron weapons could defeat an army equipped with bronze weapons. The Bronze Age gave way to the Iron Age by about 900 B.C.   Medieval Castles:  Medieval Castles Offensive and defensive aspects Control Refuge Siege Weapons:  Siege Weapons Explosives:  Explosives Gunpowder Invented by the Chinese who used it for fireworks Roger Bacon experimented with gunpowder in the 13th century Recipe for Gunpowder:  Recipe for Gunpowder Potassium Nitrate Sulfur Charcoal Ignite and this reaction takes place:  Ignite and this reaction takes place 2KNO3(s) + 3C(s) + S(s) N2(g) + 3CO2(g) + K2S(s) Firearms:  Firearms Matchlock Arquebus First hand-held firearm 1500’s 1600’s:  1600’s Blunderbuss Wide range of projectiles Unpredictable Used right through the nineteenth century 1836:  1836 Samuel Colt patents the Colt revolver in the USA Ross rifle :  Ross rifle The Ross rifle was a straight-pull bolt-action .303 calibre rifle produced in Canada from 1903 until the middle of the First World War, when it was withdrawn from service in Europe due to its unreliability under wartime conditions, and its widespread unpopularity among the soldiers. AK47 - Kalashnikov :  AK47 - Kalashnikov Avtomat Kalashnikova 1947 inexpensive to manufacture and exceptionally reliable even in tough conditions Multiplying the Effect:  Multiplying the Effect Puckle Gun 1718 Full size Uzi Sub-Machine Gun Weighs about 4 kg 65 cm long 600 rounds/min Sailing Vessels:  Sailing Vessels Greek Triremes dating back to almost 500 BC were designed to ram other ships Sea battles like all battles were brutal:  Sea battles like all battles were brutal Aircraft Carriers:  Aircraft Carriers Submarines:  Submarines Nuclear Submarines:  Nuclear Submarines Russian Typhoon class, which can remain submerged for 6 months and carry nuclear missiles capable of destroying multiple cities. Airplanes quickly became weapons:  Airplanes quickly became weapons December 17th, 1903 the Wright brothers fly the first heavier-than-air machine Their role increased in scope :  Their role increased in scope Airplanes as Weapons:  Airplanes as Weapons Terrorists turn passenger planes into bombs Rockets:  Rockets German V-2 Rocket of WW II First ballistic missile Engineer Werner von Braun The scope of rockets increased - icbm:  The scope of rockets increased - icbm

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