Published on March 7, 2014
Made By: NEON Sonali Kalra11332560 Parth Nagpal11332576 Shobhit Agarwal11332579 Priya Raha11332615 Neha Kashyap11332620
Integrated Circuits are usually called ICs and popularly known as a silicon chip, computer chip or microchip.
• Integrated Circuit, tiny electronic circuit are used to perform a specific electronic function, such as amplification. • It is usually combined with other components to form a more complex system.
Electronic Components Miniaturized Active Devices: 1. Transistors 2. Diodes Miniaturized Passive Devices: 1. Capacitors 2. Resistors -> It is formed as a single unit by diffusing impurities into single-crystal silicon, which then serves as a semiconductor material.
• Several hundred identical integrated circuits (ICs) are made at a time on a thin wafer several centimeters wide, and the wafer is subsequently sliced into individual ICs called chips.
It seems that the integrated circuit was destined to be invented. Two separate inventors, unaware of each other's activities, invented almost identical integrated circuits or ICs at nearly the same time.
1958: Invention of the Integrated Circuit As with many inventions, two people had the idea for an integrated circuit at almost the same time. Transistors had become commonplace in everything from radios to phones to computers, and now manufacturers wanted something even better. Sure, transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes, but for some of the newest electronics, they weren't small enough.
1958: Invention of the Integrated Circuit But there was a limit on how small you could make each transistor, since after it was made it had to be connected to wires and other electronics. The transistors were already at the limit of what steady hands and tiny tweezers could handle. So, scientists wanted to make a whole circuit -- the transistors, the wires, everything else they needed -- in a single blow. If they could create a miniature circuit in just one step, all the parts could be made much smaller.
1958: Invention of the Integrated Circuit One day in late July, Jack Kilby was sitting alone at Texas Instruments. He had been hired only a couple of months earlier and so he wasn't able to take vacation time when practically everyone else did. The halls were deserted, and he had lots of time to think. It suddenly occurred to him that all parts of a circuit, not just the transistor, could be made out of silicon. At the time, nobody was making capacitors or resistors out of semiconductors. If it could be done then the entire circuit could be built out of a single crystal -- making it smaller and much easier to produce. Kilby's boss liked the idea, and told him to get to work. By September 12, Kilby had built a working model, and on February 6, Texas Instruments filed a patent. Their first "Solid Circuit" the size of a pencil point, was shown off for the first time in March.
But over in California, another man had similar ideas…
1958: Invention of the Integrated Circuit In January of 1959, Robert Noyce was working at the small Fairchild Semiconductor startup company. He also realized a whole circuit could be made on a single chip. While Kilby had hammered out the details of making individual components, Noyce thought of a much better way to connect the parts. That spring, Fairchild began a push to build what they called "unitary circuits" and they also applied for a patent on the idea. Knowing that TI had already filed a patent on something similar, Fairchild wrote out a highly detailed application, hoping that it wouldn't infringe on TI 's similar device.
All that detail paid off. On April 25, 1961, the patent office awarded the first patent for an integrated circuit to Robert Noyce while Kilby's application was still being analyzed. Today, both men are acknowledged as having independently conceived of the idea.
In the early days of integrated circuits, only a few transistors could be placed on a chip, as the scale used was large because of the contemporary technology, and manufacturing yields were low by today's standards. As the degree of integration was small, the design was done easily. Over time, millions, and today billions, of transistors could be placed on one chip, and to make a good design became a task to be planned thoroughly. This gave rise to new design methods.
Integrated circuits are often classified by the number of transistors and other electronic components they contain: • SSI (small-scale integration): Up to 100 electronic components per chip • MSI (medium-scale integration): From 100 to 3,000 electronic components per chip • LSI (large-scale integration): From 3,000 to 100,000 electronic components per chip • VLSI (very large-scale integration): From 100,000 to 1,000,000 electronic components per chip • ULSI (ultra large-scale integration): More than 1 million electronic components per chip
Integrated circuits can be classified into analog, digital and mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip).
Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from one to millions of logic gates, flip-flops, multiplexers, and other circuits in a few square millimeters. The small size of these circuits allows high speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration. These digital ICs, typically microprocessors, DSPs, and micro controllers, work using binary mathematics to process "one" and "zero" signals.
Analog ICs, such as sensors, power management circuits, and operational amplifiers, work by processing continuous signals. They perform functions like amplification, active filtering, demodulation, and mixing. Analog ICs ease the burden on circuit designers by having expertly designed analog circuits available instead of designing a difficult analog circuit from scratch.
ICs can also combine analog and digital circuits on a single chip to create functions such as A/D converters and D/A converters. Such circuits offer smaller size and lower cost, but must carefully account for signal interference.
The integrated circuits offer a number of advantages over those made by interconnecting discrete components. These are summarized as follows: 1. Extremely small size—thousands times smaller than discrete circuit. It is because of fabrication of various circuit elements in a single chip of semi-conductor material. 2. Very small weight owing to miniaturized circuit. 3. Very low cost because of simultaneous production of hundreds of similar circuits on a small semiconductor wafer. Owing to mass production an IC costs as much as an individual transistor. 4. More reliable because of elimination of soldered joints and need for fewer inter-connections. 5. Low power consumption because of their smaller size. 6. Easy replacement as it is more economical to replace them than to repair them.
7. Increased operating speeds because of absence of parasitic capacitance effect. 8. Close matching of components and temperature coefficients because of bulk production in batches. 9. Improved functional performance as more complex circuits can be fabricated for achieving better characteristics. 10. Greater ability of operating at extreme temperatures. 11. Suitable for small signal operation because of no chance of stray electrical pickup as various components of an IC are located very close to each other on a silicon wafer. 12. No component project above the chip surface in an IC as all the components are formed within the chip.
The integrated circuits have few limitations also, as listed below : 1. In an IC the various components are part of a small semi-conductor chip and the individual component or components cannot be removed or replaced, therefore, if any component in an IC fails, the whole IC has to be replaced by the new one. 2. Limited power rating as it is not possible to manufacture high power (say greater than 10 Watt) ICs. 3. Need of connecting inductors and transformers exterior to the semiconductor chip as it is not possible to fabricate inductors and transformers on the semi-conductor chip surface. 4. Operations at low voltage as ICs function at fairly low voltage. 5. Quite delicate in handling as these cannot withstand rough handling or excessive heat.
6. Need of connecting capacitor exterior to the semi-conductor chip as it is neither convenient nor economical to fabricate capacitances exceeding 30 pff. Therefore, for higher values of capacitance, discrete components exterior to IC chip are connected. 7. High grade P-N-P assembly is not possible. 8. Low temperature coefficient is difficult to be achieved. 9. Difficult to fabricate an IC with low noise. 10. Large value of saturation resistance of transistors. 11. Voltage dependence of resistors and capacitors. 12. The diffusion processes and other related procedures used in the fabrication process are not good enough to permit a precise control of the parameter values for the circuit elements. However, control of the ratios is at a sufficiently acceptable level.
APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS • • • • • • • • Power amplifiers Small-signal amplifiers Operational amplifiers Microwave amplifiers Voltage comparators Multipliers Radio receivers Voltage regulators
APPLICATIONS OF DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS • • • • • • • • • • Logic gates Timers Counters Multiplexers Calculator chips Memory chips Clock chips Microprocessors Microcontrollers Temperature sensors
A light emitting diode (LED) is essentially a PN junction semiconductor that emits a monochromatic (single color) light when operated in a forward biased direction. LEDs convert electrical energy into light energy. They are frequently used as "pilot" lights in electronic appliances to indicate whether the circuit is closed or not.
How Does A LED Work? (1/2) When sufficient voltage is applied to the chip across the leads of the LED, electrons can move easily in only one direction across the junction between the p and n regions. In the p region there are many more positive than negative charges. When a voltage is applied and the current starts to flow, electrons in the n region have sufficient energy to move across the junction into the p region.
How Does A LED Work? (2/2) Each time an electron recombines with a positive charge, electric potential energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. For each recombination of a negative and a positive charge, a quantum of electromagnetic energy is emitted in the form of a photon of light with a frequency characteristic of the semi-conductor material (usually a combination of the chemical elements gallium, arsenic and phosphorus)..
Components Inside a Light Emitting Diode 1. Transparent Plastic Case 2. Terminal Pins 3. Diode
How Much Energy Does an LED Emit? The energy (E) of the light emitted by an LED is related to the electric charge (q) of an electron and the voltage (V) required to light the LED by the expression: E = qV Joules. This expression simply says that the voltage is proportional to the electric energy, and is a general statement which applies to any circuit, as well as to LED's. The constant q is the electric charge of a single electron, -1.6 x 10-19 Coulomb.
Current uses of LED’s • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Status indicators on all sorts of equipment: your cell phone, computer, monitor, stereo Traffic lights Architectural lighting Exit signs Motorcycle and bicycle lights Railroad crossing signals Flashlights Emergency vehicle lighting Message displays at airports, railways, bus stations, trams, trolleys and ferries Military and Tactical missions utilize red and/or yellow lights to retain night vision. Movement sensors LCD backlighting in televisions Christmas Lights Lanterns
Merits and Demerits of LEDs Merits • Virtually indestructible • 100,000 hour lifespan • Low energy consumption • Symmetrical beam with little-to-no artifacts • Cheap to manufacture • Available in a multitude of colors without requiring a filter. • Pure white light means no color will be filtered out. • Low functioning temperature Demerits • Less potential output (for now) • Slightly more expensive to purchase
Potential uses in the future • • • • • LED’s are already being used in tail-lights for cars, and some companies like Lexus are experimenting with LED headlights Home lighting: Imagine a “light-bulb” with 100,000 constant hours of use. In other words: 100,000 hours/24 hours a day = 4,166 days 4,166 days/365 days a year = 11.4 years. Not only will the light bulb last for 11.4 years, but it will also require much less current than a traditional light-bulb. If one LED-light bulb requires half the energy of one Incandescent light-bulb, we may not have to suffer through rolling blackouts ever again! LED’s are already getting brighter. Here is an example of one of the most recent LED’s to hit the market titled the “Luxeon Rebel”. It is both twice as bright, and uses half the current of it’s predecessor of only 2 years. Technology will eventually dictate that LED’s are the light source of the future.
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