SCIENCE AND CERTIFICATION IN ANIMAL WELFARE

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Information about SCIENCE AND CERTIFICATION IN ANIMAL WELFARE
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Published on December 29, 2007

Author: Brainy007

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SCIENCE AND CERTIFICATION IN ANIMAL WELFARE:  SCIENCE AND CERTIFICATION IN ANIMAL WELFARE Craig Harris Paul Thompson Carmen Bain Institute for Food and Agricultural Standards Michigan State University SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S.:  SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S. Historically in the U.S., farm animal welfare constructed separately from domestic animal welfare Humane Society USA focused on domestic animals Most recent farm animal welfare regulation was promulgated in 1950 Whereas rhetoric of “cruelty” and “unnecessary pain and suffering” was applied in both realms, level of standard was much lower in agriculture SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S.:  SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S. Historically in the U.S., farm animal welfare constructed separately from domestic animal welfare New social movements of the 1960s Civil rights of racial and ethnic minorities Human and economic rights of women Anti-Vietnam War movement Student rights Environmental movement Species conservation Animal rights SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S.:  SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S. New social movements of the 1960s Civil rights of racial and ethnic minorities Human and economic rights of women Anti-Vietnam War movement Student rights Environmental movement Animal rights Animal Liberation Front – laboratory animals People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S.:  SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S. New social movements of the 1960s Civil rights of racial and ethnic minorities Human and economic rights of women Anti-Vietnam War movement Student rights Environmental movement Animal rights Animal Liberation Front – laboratory animals People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) Single issue groups (e.g., Farm Sanctuary) Slide7:  2. Husbandry Practices 2.1 Feeding Practices 2.2 Surfaces and Lameness 2.2.1 Indoor walking surfaces 2.2.2 Mattresses and bedding 2.2.3 Outdoor walking surfaces 2.3 Housing 2.3.1 Tie stalls 2.3.2 Free stalls 2.3.3 Straw yards 2.3.4 Drylots 2.3.5 Pasture 2.4 Environmental Conditions 2.4.1 Environmental sanitation and mastitis 2.4.2 Air temperature and humidity 2.4.3 Stray voltage 2.5 Surgical Mutilations 2.5.1 Tail docking 2.5.2 Dehorning, disbudding 2.5.3 Supernumerary teat removal 2.5.4 Identification 2.6 Handling Practices 2.7 Downed Cows 2.8 Calf Rearing Practices 2.8.1 Separation from cow 2.8.2 Calf feeding 2.8.3 Calf housing 2.8.4 Handling of male calves Slide8:  Tie Stalls SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S.:  SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S. New social movements of the 1960s Civil rights of racial and ethnic minorities Human and economic rights of women Anti-Vietnam War movement Student rights Environmental movement Animal rights Animal Liberation Front – laboratory animals People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) Single issue groups (e.g., Farm Sanctuary) Shift toward rhetoric of “duty of care” Slide10:  Mahatma Gandhi the greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be measured by the way in which its animals are treated SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S.:  SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S. Historically in the U.S., farm animal welfare constructed separately from domestic animal welfare New social movements of the 1960s Sustainable agriculture movement Stewardship of agricultural resources Challenging industrial model of farming Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO’s) SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S.:  SOURCES OF ACTIVISM FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE U.S. Historically in the U.S., farm animal welfare constructed separately from domestic animal welfare New social movements of the 1960s Sustainable agriculture movement Unified animal welfare movement Humane Society USA Spectrum of approaches Direct action Civil society discourse Market based actions Government regulation MASS MEDIA RESPONSES:  MASS MEDIA RESPONSES Regular and ongoing coverage in major newspapers CONSUMER RESPONSES:  CONSUMER RESPONSES Increasing vegan and vegetarian diets Increasing consumption of organic foods Increasing emphasis on kosher and halal GOVERNMENT RESPONSE - 1:  GOVERNMENT RESPONSE - 1 State government 19 states pass laws making interference with food or agriculture a criminal behavior California legislation to make foie gras humane PRIVATE SECTOR RESPONSE:  PRIVATE SECTOR RESPONSE Some producers occupy market niche Niman Ranch Free range poultry Nolan Ryan Beef Grass fed beef PRIVATE SECTOR RESPONSE:  PRIVATE SECTOR RESPONSE Some producers occupy market niche Some producer groups and integrators and retailers negotiate with advocacy groups United Egg Producers McDonalds Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) PRIVATE SECTOR RESPONSE:  PRIVATE SECTOR RESPONSE Some producers occupy market niche Some producer groups and integrators and retailers negotiate with advocacy groups United Egg Producers McDonalds Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) Some retailers act independently Slide19:  Whole Foods Market Announces Director of Animal Compassion Foundation Company Launching Foundation with Funds Raised by First Global Five Percent Day on January 25 Austin, Texas — January 18, 2005. Whole Foods Market®, the world's leading natural and organic foods supermarket, today announced Anne Malleau will serve as executive director of the new Animal Compassion Foundation. To help meat producers achieve a higher standard of animal welfare excellence while still maintaining economic viability, the Foundation will: Search the planet for innovative ranchers and farmers who raise their animals with the well-being of the animal rather than producer productivity as the primary goal Create a worldwide network comprised of animal compassionate ranchers and farmers to share knowledge to learn and improve together Collect and compile the global knowledge of animal compassionate methods into an online library to help other interested ranchers and farmers successfully convert to more animal compassionate methods Provide research money to animal scientists at universities around the world to address any challenges faced by producers trying to raise animals more compassionately Slide20:  From our perspective of food and agricultural standards, we ask five questions . . . VALUES AND GOALS:  VALUES AND GOALS What are the values and goals and objectives for animal welfare standards? Limitation of harm to some acceptable level Achieve state of wellbeing WHAT STANDARDS ARE BEING DEVELOPED? :  WHAT STANDARDS ARE BEING DEVELOPED? Producers use production standards Husbandry guidelines – veterinary and physiological health indicators WHAT STANDARDS ARE BEING DEVELOPED? :  WHAT STANDARDS ARE BEING DEVELOPED? Producers use production standards Husbandry guidelines – veterinary and physiological health indicators Consumers use visual standards derived from traditional farming and animals “natural environments” Nature of welfare – relationship to pain HOW AND BY WHOM ARE STANDARDS BEING DEVELOPED? :  HOW AND BY WHOM ARE STANDARDS BEING DEVELOPED? Many stakeholders at various nodes of the system are currently developing standards, both individually and in negotiation with other stakeholders USDA developing a voluntary “grass fed” label standard HOW AND BY WHOM IS COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS BEING CERTIFIED? :  HOW AND BY WHOM IS COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS BEING CERTIFIED? ROLES OF SCIENCE IN ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS:  ROLES OF SCIENCE IN ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Scientists seek quantifiable parameters to measure welfare Which disciplinary research methods – veterinary, animal science, ethology, cognitive science, genetics, evolutionary biology

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