Science 9 - Soil

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Published on November 8, 2009

Author: dantescience

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SOIL : SOIL 1 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) What is Soil? : What is Soil? Soil a mixture of: rock particles decomposing plant and animal material, Soil is the “stuff” plants grown in. 2 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) History of Our Food : History of Our Food Hunter-Gathers Small groups of people follow prey animals for food Small groups of less than 200, with no specialized roles M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 3 Slide 4: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 4 The Persistence Hunt(for class viewing) Slide 5: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 5 The Persistence Hunt(for online viewing) History of Our Food : History of Our Food Agricultural Revolution When human beings began to “domesticate plants” Took place about 10,000 years ago Most relevant in the fertile crescent (7000-9000 B.C.) M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 6 Agricultural Revolution : Agricultural Revolution M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 7 Fertile Crescent : Fertile Crescent M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 8 Importance of Agriculture : Importance of Agriculture Agriculture resulted in a food surplus Food surplus allow for population growth and more free time Developments like job specialization, language, culture, etc. M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 9 Why is Soil Important? : Why is Soil Important? Soil provides plants with nutrients The proper management of soil is important to maintain a food supply (food crops) Why should we be worried? World’s population is growing, There is increase demand for food but a limited supply of soil 10 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Easter Island : Easter Island 11 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Easter Island : Easter Island 12 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Slide 13: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 13 Slide 14: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 14 Slide 15: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 15 Easter Island Explained(for online viewing) : Easter Island Explained(for online viewing) M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 16 What Happened? : What Happened? M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 17 What Happened? : What Happened? M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 18 Slide 19: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 19 Slide 20: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 20 Slide 21: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 21 Why is Soil Important? : Why is Soil Important? Soil is a non-renewable resource How is soil being lost? Erosion – soil is washed away into water (streams, rivers, etc) Urbanization – cities are typically built in the best “growing areas” for plant crops 22 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) SOIL LAYERS : SOIL LAYERS 23 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Soil Layers : Soil Layers Soil is formed of different layers called HORIZONS Each layer of soil has different chemical & physical properties As you go dig deeper, the soil: Becomes coarse (rockier) Amount of organic (living) matter is reduced 24 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Soil Layers : Soil Layers 25 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Litter Layer – “O Layer” : Litter Layer – “O Layer” Uppermost layer, about 1 inch thick Made of dead organic (living) material which is decomposing These nutrients will enter into the soil The litter layer acts like a blanket and limits water loss and temperature change 26 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Topsoil Layer – “A Layer” : Topsoil Layer – “A Layer” Uppermost layer, most important to life Layer with most organic material and most microorganisms Layer in which plants grow, rich in nutrients, oxygen, and water 27 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Topsoil Layer – “A Layer” : Topsoil Layer – “A Layer” The topsoil layer contains: Mineral Particles – sand, clay, etc. Humus – decaying plant and animal material which makes topsoil dark in colour and rich in nutrients Organisms – bacteria, fungi, and worms live in this layer and interact with plants 28 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Subsoil Layer – “B Layer” : Subsoil Layer – “B Layer” Below topsoil Is coarser (more stones) Has less organic (living) material, so it looks lighter in color Plants obtain minerals and water from this layer 29 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Bedrock – “C Layer” : Bedrock – “C Layer” Stone Not really a soil layer, but provides support for the soil layers above You find groundwater above the bedrock layer 30 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Ground Water : Ground Water Location of ground water M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 31 The Water Table : The Water Table 32 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Water Table : Water Table Rain water and surface water become ground water in a process called percolation This ground water accumulates in a location above bedrock called the WATER TABLE M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 33 Water Table : Water Table M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 34 Aquifer : Aquifer Aquifer are areas saturated with usable ground water These are actual pockets of ground water, which will feed local rivers, streams, and lakes M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 35 Slide 36: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 36 Aquifer : Aquifer M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 37 When using a well, we are extracting ground water from an aquifer Soil Formation : Soil Formation 38 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Step 1: Weathering : Step 1: Weathering All soil begins as bedrock, so soil begins from the bottom up Wind, rain, frost, and snow breakdown bedrock into smaller and smaller particles – this is WEATHERING 39 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) A closer look at Weathering : A closer look at Weathering 40 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Step 2: Enriching the Soil : Step 2: Enriching the Soil After thousands of years, you have a thin layer of soil which allows small plants to grow When the plants die, their decaying remains add organic material which enriches the soil 41 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Enriching the Soil : Enriching the Soil 42 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Step 2: Enriching the Soil : Step 2: Enriching the Soil More and more plants died (thousands of years), eventually layers of soil get deeper & larger and larger plants can place roots and live there 43 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.)

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