Published on July 4, 2016
1. School Safety Plan-II A Prepared School is a Safe School.
2. AGENDA Introduction to Disaster Management National School Safety Programme Mitigation and Preparedness for School Safety Planning for School Safety
3. National Disaster Management Authority NDMA: Apex level agency for disaster management in the country. Roles and responsibilities 1. All kinds of disasters (except drought). 2. Policies for disaster reduction and mitigation. 3. Preparedness at all levels. 4. Response coordination. 5. Relief and Rehab work. 6. Amendment of existing laws, procedures, instructions.
4. National School Safety Programme Approved by Govt. Of India: • Promote a culture of disaster preparedness in the school. • Sensitize children & school community. • Motivate direct participation of key stake holders. • Carry out Information, Education & Communication (IEC) activities in school • Promote capacity building of officials, teachers & students
5. FACTS & FIGURES YEAR PLACE TYPE CASUALTY (children) 1995 DABWALI FIRE 400 2001 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE 971 2004 KUMBAKONAM FIRE 94 2005 J & K EARTHQUAKE 17000
6. SCHOOL SAFETY in overall DM Planning • School Safety : Creation of safe environments for children starting from home to school & back »Safety from large scale natural / man made hazards • Main Objective is : DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (DRR) »Mitigation »Preparedness »Disaster management Plan for School
7. Disaster Risk Reduction Systematic approach to identify, assess and reduce the risks of a disaster. It includes: Risk awareness and assessment including hazard analysis and vulnerability/ capacity analysis Knowledge development including education, training, research and information
8. Effects of Disaster on Schools 1. Physical Impacts 2. Educational Impacts • Loss of life/injuries to school building occupants • Collapsed / damaged school building • Death/ Injury due to Non-structural hazard • Increased drop out rates • Loss of trust in school • Decrease in educational quality • Missing educational records 3. Economic Impacts 4. Psychological Impacts • Damaged school require reinvestment • Loss of income makes it difficult for family to support children continuing their education • Increase stress • Students loose sense of continuity & their plans for the future are destroyed
9. Important terms • Hazard • Disaster • Disaster Risk Reduction • Capacity • Vulnerability • Risk • Preparedness • Mitigation • Response
10. 1. Type of Hazards I. Natural II. Biological III. Socio-natural IV. Technological 2. Type of Disasters I. Water and Climate related II. Geologically related III. Chemical, Industrial & Nuclear IV. Accident related V. Biologically related
11. Types of Disaster in India 1. Water & Climate related 2. Geologically related • Floods and Drainage Management • Cyclones, Tornadoes • Cloud Burst • Avalanches • Tsunami • Droughts • Sea Erosion • Heat Wave and Cold wave • Thunder & Lightening • Landslides and Mudflows • Earthquakes • Dam Failures/ Dam Bursts 3. Chemical, Industrial and Nuclear related • Chemical & Industrial Disaster • Nuclear Disaster 4. Accident related 5. Biologically related • Forest Fires • Urban Fires • Mine Flooding • Major Building Collapse • Serial Bomb Blasts • Epidemics • Pest Attacks • Cattle Epidemics • Food poisoning
12. School Specific Hazards 1. HT electrical wire running through the school campus 2. Transformer at the school entry 3. A/C units and its ducts 4. Chemical Accident/ explosion in chemistry lab 5. LPG cylinder blast in the Home Science Lab 6. Fire 7. School Bus Accident 8. Unfortunate incident during picnic 9. Diesel leak of E/A and fire due to it. 10. Basement and stairs
13. School Specific Hazards 11. Library 12. Temporary Structures 13. Open Swimming Pool 14. School collapse in earthquake 15. Flood in School 16. Cyclone and lightening in school 17. Gunfire in school 18. Terrorist attack in School 19. Food poisoning in School • Many more ………………….
14. National School Safety Programme It consists of the following objectives: Hazard Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Preparedness Response Mitigation Measures
15. Hazard Risk and Vulnerability Assessment 1. Non-structural assessment (done by teachers & students in a group exercise) 2. Structural assessment (done by licensed Building Supervisor) 3. Identification of hazards outside the school campus ( Road safety, Industrial Hazard, Chemical hazard, Open drain flooding etc.) 4. Database of past disasters/ accidents which has affected the school 5.Identification of vulnerable locations within the school campus 6. Summary of the key findings & identifications of action for mitigation.
17. RESOURCE INVENTORY Listing of resources available inside the school campus ( School DM Kit )
18. School Map with Evacuation Plan • Prepare a floor wise evacuation plan • Display it prominently at notice board at each floor • Discuss evacuation plan with teachers and students to generate awareness • Conduct mock drills
19. MOCK DRILLS • One of the last steps in preparedness • Mock drill on earthquake, fire etc to be conducted periodically • Recommended periodicity is six month • Assess deficiencies during mock drills • Invite Fire service Officers and trained Civil Defence volunteers for support
20. EARTHQUAKE DRILL
21. Preparing for the Unexpected… DROP COVER HOLD(DCH) in case of Earthquake
22. In Staircase Move in Single File Keep on Either Side Do not Overtake Help the Needy
23. Preparing for the Unexpected… EVACUATION PLAN EXECUTION
24. Preparedness for Fire/Chemical Accident 1. Fire 2. Release of toxic gases / flammable vapours 3. Explosion Types of emergency situation :
25. Fire/Chemical Accident Together, they produce the CHEMICAL REACTION that is FIRE Take away any of these things and the fire willTake away any of these things and the fire will bebe extinguishedextinguished
26. CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE Class A (Combustible Solids). Organic Solid material, non metals carbon compounds such as wood, paper, cloth, etc. Class B Flammable liquids—gasoline, oil, grease, acetone, Kerosene, Diesel. Class C (Combustible Gases). Flammable gases in either vapor or liquefied form, Methane, hydrogen, acetylene, propane, butane, etc. Class D Metals—potassium, sodium, aluminum, magnesium. Requires Metal-X, and other special extinguishing agents.
27. CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE ELECTRICITY : It presents a special hazard in a fire situation. • Electricity does not burn, it produces heat which may result in one of the classes of fire. • If the electricity is removed (e.g. by switching off the power), the heat source is removed and the remaining fire should be dealt with according to its class.
28. Types of Fire Extinguishers Different types of fire extinguishers are designed to fight different classes of fire. The 3 most common types of fire extinguishers are: 1. Water (APW) 2. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 3. Dry Chemical (ABC, BC, DC)
29. Types of Fire Extinguishers 1. 1 Water (APW) “Air Pressurize d Water.” Class A fires only: Wood, paper, cloth. Using water on a flammable liquid fire could cause the fire to spread. Using water on an electrical fire increases the risk of electrocution. The electrical equipment should be un-plugged. 2. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) CO2’s are designed for Class B and C (Flammable Liquids and Electrical Sources) fires only! A CO2 may be ineffective in extinguishing a Class A fire because it may not be able to displace enough oxygen to successfully put the fire out. 3 Dry Chemical (ABC, BC, DC) Dry chemical extinguishers put out fire by coating the fuel with a thin layer of dust. This separates the fuel from the oxygen in the air.
30. Use a Fire Extinguisher
31. Fire/Chemical Accident Drill 1. Evacuation from classroom 2. Ensure safe storage of inflammable liquids / chemicals 3. Put off electricity and remove or close down gas connections
32. How to Use a Fire Extinguisher Remember the acronym PASS: Pull Aim Squeeze Sweep
33. Rules for Fighting Fires . . . before deciding to fight the fire, keep these things in mind: 1. Know what is burning. If you don’t know what’s burning, you won’t know what kind of extinguisher to use. 2. Even if you have an ABC fire extinguisher, there may be something in the fire that is going to explode or produce toxic fumes.
34. Rules for Fighting Fires 3. Is the fire spreading rapidly beyond the point where it started? The time to use an extinguisher is at the beginning stages of the fire. 4. If the fire is already spreading quickly, it is best to simply evacuate the building. As you evacuate a building, close doors and windows behind you as you leave. This will help to slow the spread of smoke and fire.
35. Rules for Fighting Fires Do not fight the fire if: If you don’t have the correct type or large enough extinguisher, it is best not to try fighting the fire. You might inhale toxic smoke. When synthetic materials burn, it can produce hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, and ammonia in addition to carbon monoxide. These gases can be fatal in very small amounts. Your instincts tell you not to. If you are uncomfortable with the situation for any reason, just let the fire department do their job.
36. Rules for Fighting Fires The final rule is to always position yourself with an exit or means of escape at your back before you attempt to use an extinguisher to put out a fire. In case the extinguisher malfunctions, or something unexpected happens, you need to be able to get out quickly. You don’t want to get trapped.
37. First Aid and Basic Surviving Skills Objectives • Overview • How injuries can occur • Prevention • Preparation • What to do • Whom to call for help • Where to go • Lessons learnt
38. Type of Sickness & Injuries • Vomiting • Thermal injury • Electrocution • Drowning • Road Traffic injury • Food poisoning • Epilepsy / strokes • Heat stroke • Physical activities • Snake ,Dog and insect bites • Terrorist attack
39. First Aid and basic surviving skills Preparation • First Aid box (Maintained) • Regular classes • Mock drills • Medical personnel in schools • Medical Aid at all crowded places • Transport vehicle • List of nearby doctors/medical facilities Whom to call for help • Friends/colleagues • Bystanders • Phone calls • Medical Aid
40. First Aid and basic surviving skills What do I do • Move to safe place • Loosen tight clothing/belt/shoes/tie • Do not offer water • Lay straight • Side turn if vomiting/ ear, nose, mouth bleeding Where to go • Closest and appropriate medical facility • Hospital/dispensary • Call guardians/parents
41. First Aid and basic surviving skills All conditions : address •A-Airway & Cervical spine •B- Breathing •C- Circulation •D- Disability (for experts)
42. First Aid and basic surviving skills Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Spine board is a safe transport
43. First Aid And Basic Surviving Skills Burns »Cool with Tap water »Cover with clean sheet/cloth Wounds/Bites »Clean with soap water »Dress with cotton bandage/clean cloth »Analgesic but with caution Penetrating injury »Do not remove the instrument/weapon
44. Capacity Building & Training 1. Capacity building & training of students / teachers 2. Train appropriate number of students/ teachers every year in various skills of DM 3. Plan refresher courses involving all 4. Prepare details of trained teachers and students
45. Awareness Generation and Sensitization • A part of preparedness measures • Aiming at sensitizing & educating students, teachers, parents & school officials • Recommends an annual calendar of events • Awareness through poster, audio-visual clips • Organizing debate, quiz, sports activities, drawing competition • Conduct seminars and lectures on making school safe & involvement of parents in it
46. Response • Hazard specific response plan including Crowd Management to avoid stampede on special days like Annual day. Sports day etc • Alternate arrangement for continuation of school education( school used as relief shelter) • Reporting of Emergencies/ Disasters to the Government
47. Response (cont.) • Special provision for specially abled children • Ensure supply of essential services like electricity, water, food, basic first aid kits during a disaster and immediately after it
48. Mitigation 1. Ensuring clear passages, stairway which are to be used as evacuation routes 2. Chemistry labs- the bottles used for storing the chemicals are secured and protected against shattering 3. Fixing of almirahs to the walls 4. Securing fans and lights from ceiling 5. Fir safety measures 6. Notice boards fixed properly
49. Mitigation: Safety Audit 1. Electric safety audit-checking of the electrical system by an electrician 2. Fire safety audit-checking for possible sources of fire and identifying inflammable items within the school 3. Inspection of quality food getting served during mid-day meal 4. Audit of purity of water supply in school 5. Inspection of the hygienic conditions in kitchen and washrooms
50. Evacuation Priorities
51. EVACUATION PLAN
52. Thank You HOPE FOR THE BEST, PREPARE FOR THE WORST