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SchneiderIng1

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Published on January 25, 2008

Author: Carlotto

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Missioni spaziali verso il sistema solare:  Missioni spaziali verso il sistema solare Nick Schneider Laboratory for Atmospheric & Space Physics University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado nick.schneider@lasp.colorado.edu Missioni spaziali verso il sistema solare:  Missioni spaziali verso il sistema solare Lesson 1 Overview of the Solar System Travelling in the Solar system: Kepler’s Laws and extensions Lesson 2 Categories of planetary missions & spacecraft Mission design Typical instrumentation for planetary missions Payload selection process Resources/Limitations Lesson 3 Real-world Mission examples: Cassini, MESSENGER, Kepler, JMEX, Mars Rovers Missioni spaziali verso il sistema solare: 1:  Missioni spaziali verso il sistema solare: 1 Introductions Overview of the Solar System The natures of the planets and their moons The layout of the solar system Travelling in the Solar system: Kepler’s Laws and extensions Review of Kepler’s Laws Application of Kepler's laws to interplanetary travel Propulsion patched conics Gravity assists aerobraking Missioni spaziali verso il sistema solare: 2:  Missioni spaziali verso il sistema solare: 2 Categories of planetary missions & spacecraft Flyby, orbiter, lander/probe/impactor, telescope 3-axis, spin-stabilized Mission design Launch vehicle, spacecraft/bus, power source, communication, orbit, operations, duration, controller [budget] Typical instrumentation for planetary missions Remote sensing: Telescopes, imagers, spectrometers, radar, wavelength ranges in situ: B&E fields, plasma, neutral gases; [geological tools at surface] Payload selection process traceability/requirements Resources/Limitations Cost, mass, datarates, pointing, power, thermal control Accommodation, operations Missioni spaziali verso il sistema solare: 3:  Missioni spaziali verso il sistema solare: 3 Real-world examples JMEX: Mission concept for Earth-orbital telescope Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity) Cassini: NASA "Flagship mission";orbiter, RTG power, pointing compromises MESSENGER: NASA Discovery mission, solar power, thermal issues Kepler: NASA Discovery mission Additional Resources:  Additional Resources (1) THE COSMIC PERSPECTIVE, Bennett, Donahue, Schneider & Voit, 2006. A low-level introduction to planetary science & astronomy in general. (2) FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRONOMY, Barbieri, 2007. A more mathematical introduction to classical astronomy with good coverage of celestial mechanics. (3) PLANETARY SCIENCE, DePater & Lissauer. Watching the March 2006 total eclipse:  Watching the March 2006 total eclipse I’m in Padova on sabbatical until July Erica Ellingson (wife), observational cosmologist, also working here Schneider Group - Jupiter/Io System Big Picture Goals:  Schneider Group - Jupiter/Io System Big Picture Goals Flow of mass & energy through the torus Cause-and-effect relationships in the torus: how do Io’s volcanoes affect the magnetosphere? New direction? Is Enceladus the next Io? Tools Groundbased & space-based observations Numerical modelling Matt Burger, PhD Thesis Slide11:  Our Mars Scout mission concept just selected for study!!! Excellent probability of selection for flight! Slide12:  Cassini UV Imaging Spectrometer, now in orbit around Saturn Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS):  Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Scanning grating spectrometer equipped with 3 photomultiplier detectors (UVVS) Wavelength Range: 115-600 nm Resolution: 0.5 - 1 nm Field of View: 0.05˚ x 1.0˚ Concave grating spectrograph equipped with silicon and InGaAs photodiode arrays (VIRS) Wavelength Range: 300 - 1450 nm Resolution: 5 nm Field of View: 0.023˚ circular Mass: 3.2 kg Power: 7.0 watts Volume: 310x195x205 mm Slide14:  University of Colorado Planetary Faculty Name Research Interests Affiliation(s) Fran Bagenal Planetary magnetospheres LASP, APS Dan Baker Magnetospheres of Earth and planets LASP, APS Charles Barth Planetary atmospheres and ultraviolet spectroscopy LASP, APS, PAOS George Born Terrestrial and planetary gravity and topography AERO Joshua Colwell Impacts, ring/dust dynamics, and thermal modeling LASP, CIPS Bob Ergun Auroral processes at Earth and Jupiter LASP, APS Larry Esposito Ring dynamics and planetary atmospheres LASP, APS John Hart Atmospheres of outer planets, earth oceans and atmos PAOS Mihaly Horanyi Dusty plasma physics and dynamics LASP,PHYS,CIPS Bruce Jakosky Mars geology and climate, astrobiology LASP, GE OL Steven Lee Mars aeolian processes LASP, DMNS Sara-Eva Alonso Infrared spectroscopy of planetary surfaces LASP, GEOL Michael Mellon Mars ice-related geology and thermophysics LASP, GEOL Stephen Mojzsis Cratering record, geology, climate, and biology on the early Earth GEOL Keiji Otsuki Ring dynamics LASP Nick Schneider Io atmosphere and magnetospheric interactions LASP, APS Glen Stewart Solar system dynamics LASP, APS Ian Stewart Planetary aeronomy and ultraviolet spectroscopy LASP, APS Brian Toon Evolution and radiative transfer of planetary atmospheres LASP, APS, PAOS University of Colorado “CU” PhD Program in Astrophysical & Planetary Sciences:  University of Colorado “CU” PhD Program in Astrophysical & Planetary Sciences Foreign students are welcome at CU Students typically fully supported with teaching or research assistantship Please look over the brochures Stop by to talk over the opportunities Something About You…:  Something About You… Are you a laurea student? A PhD student? Do you plan to be a professional engineer? Are you considering aerospace engineering? Would you consider working in the United States? Are you able to understand my English? Are you comfortable speaking in English? A Quick Tour of the Solar System Review of Solar System Formation:  A Quick Tour of the Solar System Review of Solar System Formation What does the solar system look like?:  What does the solar system look like? What are the major features of the Sun and planets?:  What are the major features of the Sun and planets? Sun and planets to scale Sun:  Over 99.9% of solar system’s mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma) Converts 4 million tons of mass into energy each second Sun Mercury:  Made of metal and rock; large iron core Desolate, cratered; long, tall, steep cliffs Very hot and very cold: 425°C (day), –170°C (night) Mercury Venus:  Nearly identical in size to Earth; surface hidden by clouds Hellish conditions due to an extreme greenhouse effect: Even hotter than Mercury: 470°C, day and night Venus Earth:  An oasis of life The only surface liquid water in the solar system A surprisingly large moon Earth and Moon to scale Earth Mars:  Looks almost Earth-like, but don’t go without a spacesuit! Giant volcanoes, a huge canyon, polar caps, more… Water flowed in the distant past; could there have been life? Mars Jupiter:  Much farther from Sun than inner planets Mostly H/He; no solid surface 300 times more massive than Earth Many moons, rings … Jupiter Slide29:  Jupiter’s moons can be as interesting as planets themselves, especially Jupiter’s four Galilean moons Io (shown here): Active volcanoes all over Europa: Possible subsurface ocean Ganymede: Largest moon in solar system Callisto: A large, cratered “ice ball” Saturn:  Saturn Giant and gaseous like Jupiter Spectacular rings Many moons, including cloudy Titan Cassini spacecraft currently studying it Uranus:  Smaller than Jupiter/Saturn; much larger than Earth Made of H/He gas & hydrogen compounds (H2O, NH3, CH4) Extreme axis tilt Moons & rings Uranus Neptune:  Similar to Uranus (except for axis tilt) Many moons (including Triton) Neptune Hot Jupiters:  Hot Jupiters Formation of the Solar System-Review:  Formation of the Solar System-Review Why are there two kinds of planets? Where do the ingredients for a planet’s atmosphere come from? Layout of the solar system: clues to formation:  Layout of the solar system: clues to formation Where did the solar system come from? How did planets get their atmospheres?:  Where did the solar system come from? How did planets get their atmospheres? Why are there two types of planet?:  Why are there two types of planet? Slide48:  Inside the frost line: Too hot for hydrogen compounds to form ices. Outside the frost line: Cold enough for ices to form. Fig 9.5 How did terrestrial planets form?:  How did terrestrial planets form? Small particles of rock and metal were present inside the frost line Planetesimals of rock and metal built up as these particles collided Gravity eventually assembled these planetesimals into terrestrial planets Accretion of Planetesimals:  Accretion of Planetesimals Many smaller objects collected into just a few large ones How did jovian planets form?:  How did jovian planets form? Ice could also form small particles outside the frost line. Larger planetesimals and planets were able to form. Gravity of these larger planets was able to draw in surrounding H and He gases. Where did asteroids and comets come from?:  Where did asteroids and comets come from? Asteroids and Comets:  Asteroids and Comets Leftovers from the accretion process Rocky asteroids inside frost line Icy comets outside frost line Heavy Bombardment:  Heavy Bombardment Leftover planetesimals bombarded other objects in the late stages of solar system formation Origin of Earth’s Water & Other Volatiles:  Origin of Earth’s Water & Other Volatiles Water & other volatiles must have come to Earth by way of icy planetesimals from outer solar system Icy comets from beyond frost line Asteroids from near frost line with some ice Most volatiles incorporated into planetary interiors Travelling in the Solar system: Kepler’s Laws and extensions:  Travelling in the Solar system: Kepler’s Laws and extensions Review of Kepler’s Laws Application of Kepler's laws to interplanetary travel Propulsion patched conics Gravity assists Aerobraking A show of hands: have you studied Kepler’s Laws before? Slide57:  Kepler’s First Law: The orbit of each planet around the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. What are Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion? ESA animation of gravity assists:  ESA animation of gravity assists Eccentricity of an Ellipse:  Eccentricity of an Ellipse The math of ellipses:  The math of ellipses r = a(1 + e cos) =angle from perihelion Slide62:  An orbit is completely described by six variables: a=semimajor axis e=eccentricity i=inclination ,  = ellipse orientation t0=time of perihelion passage Slide63:  Kepler’s Second Law: As a planet moves around its orbit, it sweeps out equal areas in equal times. means that a planet travels faster when it is nearer to the Sun and slower when it is farther from the Sun. Slide65:  More distant planets orbit the Sun at slower average speeds, obeying the relationship p2 = a3 p = orbital period in years a = avg. distance from Sun in AU Kepler’s Third Law Kepler’s Third Law:  Kepler’s Third Law Slide67:  Graphical version of Kepler’s Third Law Slide68:  p2 = a3 Does it depend on the orbit eccentricity? NO!!!! Does it depend on the planet’s mass? NO!!!! Kepler’s Third Law - A challenge Kepler’s Laws: why they work:  Kepler’s Laws: why they work Newton’s law of gravitation Conservation of energy Conservation of angular momentum Why Do Kepler’s Laws Work? [He didn’t know!] Newton’s Law of Gravitation!:  Why Do Kepler’s Laws Work? [He didn’t know!] Newton’s Law of Gravitation! What makes gravity stronger or weaker, based on looking at the equation? Note: r is often used in place of d What determines the strength of gravity? :  What determines the strength of gravity? The Universal Law of Gravitation: Every mass attracts every other mass. Attraction is directly proportional to the product of their masses. Attraction is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. Slide73:  Angular momentum demonstration in “zero gravity” Discussion of energy/angular momentum Discussion of 1/r2 law Kepler’s first two laws apply to all orbiting objects, not just planets:  Kepler’s first two laws apply to all orbiting objects, not just planets Ellipses are not the only orbital paths. Orbits can be: Bound (ellipses) Unbound Parabola Hyperbola Orbits & “Conic Sections”:  Orbits & “Conic Sections” Newton and Kepler’s Third Law:  Newton and Kepler’s Third Law His laws of gravity and motion showed that the relationship between the orbital period and average orbital distance of a system tells us the total mass of the system. Examples: Earth’s orbital period (1 year) and average distance (1 AU) tell us the Sun’s mass. Orbital period and distance of a satellite from Earth tell us Earth’s mass. Orbital period and distance of a moon of Jupiter tell us Jupiter’s mass. Newton’s Version of Kepler’s Third Law:  Newton’s Version of Kepler’s Third Law p = orbital period a=average orbital distance (between centers) (M1 + M2) = sum of object masses Slide78:  Newton’s version of Kepler’s third law alllows us to measure the mass of other planets by observing their moons It also allows us to find the size of extrasolar planet orbits by knowing the stellar masses Circular Velocity:  If an object’s centripetal acceleration equals the gravitational force, it will orbit in a circle Circular velocity from Earth ≈ 7 km/s from sea level (about 30,000 km/hr) Circular Velocity Circular Velocity:  If an object’s centripetal acceleration equals the gravitational force, it will orbit in a circle Circular velocity from Earth ≈ 7 km/s from sea level (about 30,000 km/hr) Circular Velocity Escape Velocity:  If an object gains enough orbital energy, it may escape (change from a bound to unbound orbit) Escape velocity from Earth ≈ 11 km/s from surface (~40,000 km/hr) Escape Velocity Escape Velocity:  If an object gains enough orbital energy, it may escape (change from a bound to unbound orbit) Escape velocity from Earth ≈ 11 km/s from surface (~40,000 km/hr) Escape Velocity Escaping Earth:  A object in a circular orbit can escape by firing rockets to increase its velocity Escaping Earth Extending Kepler’s Laws [notes]:  Extending Kepler’s Laws [notes] Propulsion patched conics: two-body problem vs. full computation Hohmann transfer orbit Parking orbits; descent to surface Aerobraking Gravity assists Satellite Orbit tours Hohmann Transfer Orbit:  Hohmann Transfer Orbit The easiest way from one orbit to another Small v’s, but takes a long time

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