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Schlossberg Turfgrass Growth and Water Use

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Published on January 20, 2008

Author: Regina1

Source: authorstream.com

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Turfgrass Growth and Water Use in Gypsum-Treated Ultisols:  Turfgrass Growth and Water Use in Gypsum-Treated Ultisols M.J. Schlossberg Penn State University Turfgrass and the SE US:  Turfgrass and the SE US Bermudagrass and Tall Fescue dominate the landscape of the US Southern Piedmont (GA, AL, and the Carolinas) Turfgrass and the SE US:  Turfgrass and the SE US Interestingly: Bermudagrass and Tall Fescue are the two turfgrasses recognized for generating the most deeply-extending root systems of ALL turfgrass species. Turf-type tall fescue roots:  Turf-type tall fescue roots Gypsum Control 0-3.5 ” 3.6-7 ” 7-11 ” Soil chemical or soil physical problem? Treatment Options???:  Treatment Options??? Lime Agricultural grade limestone is an effective ameliorant of soil acidity Commonly incorporated at establishment for production of cotton, soybean, corn, peanuts, etc. INCORPORATE is the key word, effective treatment of soil acidity with lime requires tillage into the soil profile How Do Turf Managers Like Incorporating Lime?:  How Do Turf Managers Like Incorporating Lime? How Do Turf Managers Like Incorporating Lime?:  How Do Turf Managers Like Incorporating Lime? They don’t. Turfgrasses are perennial in nature and establishment is not only uncommon, but dreaded! So how can managers ameliorate the effects of acidity without plowing the lawn? Gypsum:  Gypsum Many attributes: More soluble than agricultural lime Doesn’t require tillage or coring Doesn’t raise pH of the surface soil This can cause soil structure and turf disease problems Provides sulfate (SO4), the plant essential nutrient form of sulfur Hydroponic experiment:  Hydroponic experiment Tall fescue root growth in Al solutions:  Tall fescue root growth in Al solutions Fescue columns (33cm):  Fescue columns (33cm) Tall fescue root growth column study:  Tall fescue root growth column study a a a b b b b c c Greenhouse Experiment Objectives:  Greenhouse Experiment Objectives 1. Construct columns which represent soil profiles indigenous to the SE US. 2. Analyze leachate to confirm calcium sulfate penetration of subsoil, displacement of Al, and/or other soil chemistry alterations. 3. Use installed instrumentation to monitor water extraction from acidic subsoil by roots, by depth. 4. Simulate drought periods repetitively; mimicking rain patterns, while promoting deep rooting in columns 5. Analyze columns to assess root architecture and calcium saturation of CEC by soil depth. Experimental Design:  Experimental Design Acidic B Horizon Clay pH w(1:1) 4.9 Exch. Acid 3.9 meq/100g Mehlich III (M3) exchangeable: Phosphorus (P) 2.0 lbs/A Potassium (K) 0.04 meq Magnesium (Mg) 0.25 meq Calcium (Ca) 0.65 meq Total CEC: 4.84 meq 54 cm 8 cm Experimental Design:  Acidic B Horizon Clay pH w(1:1) 4.9 Exch. Acid 3.9 meq/100g Mehlich III (M3) exchangeable: Phosphorus (P) 2.0 lbs/A Potassium (K) 0.04 meq Magnesium (Mg) 0.25 meq Calcium (Ca) 0.65 meq Total CEC: 4.84 meq Experimental Design Experimental Design:  Experimental Design Experimental Design:  Treatments (5): Synthetic/FGD Gypsum (Southern Co.) Tech. Grade Gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) Calcium Chloride (CaCl2•2H2O) Calcitic Lime (100% CCE) Control 90 columns total; 60 Bermudagrass (‘Princess’ or ‘Sultan’) and 30 turf-type Tall Fescue ‘Rebel’ Half of each instrumented for real-time soil moisture, three replications of six Experimental Design Experimental Design:  The Southern Co. SynGyp, is generated by a ‘wet’ spray-dryer scrubbing process, and contains 23.3% Ca by mass (+/- 0.65), and has a calcium carbonate equivalency of 2.7% (+/- 0.14). Trace element and heavy metal analysis show few impurities Experimental Design Experimental Design:  The Southern Co. SynGyp is 23.3% Ca by mass (+/- 0.65), and has a calcium carbonate equivalency of 2.7% (+/- 0.14). Trace element and heavy metal analysis show few impurities Application Rates Treatment lbs/Acre (Ca) Lime 4,332 (1,735) FGD and TG Gypsum 13,796 (3,224) CaCl2 11,825 (3,224) Experimental Design Experimental Design:  The Southern Co. SynGyp is 23.3% Ca by mass (+/- 0.65), and has a calcium carbonate equivalency of 2.7% (+/- 0.14). Trace element and heavy metal analysis show few impurities Application Rates Treatment Mg/ha (Ca) Lime 4.86 (1.94) FGD and TG Gypsum 15.46 (3.61) CaCl2 13.25 (3.61) Experimental Design Cultural Methods:  Cultural Methods TF columns mowed every 9±3 days @ 3” height No signs/symptoms of pest activity observed over the 2-year study, hence no pesticides were applied (tall fescue is good like that) When >half the TF columns showed stunted growth & leaf firing, all were irrigated with 4” in 1” pulses over 24 hours (every 20-35 days) Post-estab: ¼ lb N & K2O / 1000 ft2 / month Cultural Methods:  Cultural Methods Bermudagrass columns mowed every 7±3 days @ 1.4” height Insect activity was chemically controlled when necessary When >half the bermuda columns showed stunted growth/dormancy, all were irrigated with 4” in 1” pulses over 24 hours (every 30-50 days) Post-estab: ¾ lb N & K2O / 1000 ft2 / month Leachate chemistry and composition:  Leachate chemistry and composition Solute transport through 54 cm of red clay, by time after treatment:  Solute transport through 54 cm of red clay, by time after treatment Aluminum concentration in leachate, by time after treatment:  Aluminum concentration in leachate, by time after treatment Slide32:  Calcium concentration in leachate, by time after treatment Slide33:  Sulfur concentration in leachate, by time after treatment Slide34:  Magnesium concentration in leachate, by time after treatment Slide35:  Potassium concentration in leachate, by time after treatment Soil nutrient levels by depth:  Soil nutrient levels by depth Leaf/shoot biomass production (generally analogous with quality/vigor):  Leaf/shoot biomass production (generally analogous with quality/vigor) Turfgrass water use by soil depth :  Turfgrass water use by soil depth Tall Fescue H2O-use by depth over (14) 10-35 d dry down periods:  Tall Fescue H2O-use by depth over (14) 10-35 d dry down periods cm water / day Turfgrass nutrient concentration and uptake:  Turfgrass nutrient concentration and uptake Visual quality or percent green coverage:  Visual quality or percent green coverage Slide52:  Princess Bermudagrass Overlay Representing Turf (60 days after planting, DAP) Of the 3.8 x 106 pixels in this image, 881,598 are green, exactly 23.2 % Slide53:  Princess Bermudagrass Sultan Bermudagrass 300 DAP 300 DAP Princess Bermudagrass % Green Cover:  Princess Bermudagrass % Green Cover Princess Bermudagrass % Green Cover:  Princess Bermudagrass % Green Cover Princess Bermudagrass % Green Cover:  Princess Bermudagrass % Green Cover a a a b b b % Green Cover by Treatment of Bermudagrasses in Drought Stress:  % Green Cover by Treatment of Bermudagrasses in Drought Stress Princess and Sultan % Green Cover Gypsums v. Control +9.0 % Lime +7.2 % All others +21.6% FGD v. Control +6.0 % All others +17.2% Turfgrass root growth by soil depth:  Turfgrass root growth by soil depth Slide59:  Tall Fescue root length in the 38 –62 soil depths Greenhouse Study Summary:  Greenhouse Study Summary Gypsum trts effectively penetrated 60 cm of clay soil 1 year after a ~7 ton/A application Differences between mined & synthetic gyp were slight, allowing pooled analysis Benefits to TF were stark: enhanced growth, total & deep water uptake, deep roots, and leaf S; compared to both Lime and Con trts (with no resulting base cation deficiencies) Benefits to bermudagrass include: enhanced growth & color response under drought conditions (deeper roots?) Griffin field experiment:  Griffin field experiment Griffin field experiment:  Griffin field experiment Turf Bermuda Zoysia Bentgrass Treatments Control Lime Gypsum (low and high) Lime + gypsum (low and high) TDR soil moisture meter rods:  TDR soil moisture meter rods Soil profile beneath zoysia:  Soil profile beneath zoysia Turf field demonstrations:  Turf field demonstrations usace.army.mil/ Lane Creek – Athens, GA:  Lane Creek – Athens, GA Piedmont region Heavy red clay Acidic soil Bermudagrass The Farm – Dalton, GA:  The Farm – Dalton, GA Ridge and Valley Yellow clay Neutral soil Zoysiagrass Waterfall – Clayton, GA:  Waterfall – Clayton, GA Blue Ridge Mtns Rocky, thin soil Acidic Bentgrass Grand Hotel – Mobile Bay:  Grand Hotel – Mobile Bay Coastal Plain Sandy soil Close to neutral Bermudagrass Musgrove – Jasper, AL:  Musgrove – Jasper, AL Ridge and Valley Yellow clay Acidic soil Bermudagrass Chateau Elan – Buford, GA:  Chateau Elan – Buford, GA Piedmont region Heavy red clay Acidic soil Bermudagrass UGA soccer fields – Athens:  UGA soccer fields – Athens Piedmont region Heavy red clay Acidic soil Bermudagrass Taqueta Falls – Lookout Mtn.:  Taqueta Falls – Lookout Mtn. Ridge and Valley Yellow clay Acidic soil Bermudagrass Grapevine research Chateau Elan:  Grapevine research Chateau Elan Full Size Pilot Study, Apr 04:  Full Size Pilot Study, Apr 04 East Lake G.C., Atlanta GA Root sampling:  Root sampling Effect of Gypsum Addition on Root Growth at East Lake Golf Club:  Control Gypsum Treatment Effect of Gypsum Addition on Root Growth at East Lake Golf Club Gypsum treatment = 4 tons/acre, April 11, 2005 Samples collected May 19, 2006 Summary:  Summary Large (>5 ton) gypsum apps to turfgrass did not induce salt or phytotoxic injury More significant advantages of gypsum applications are associated with turfgrasses poorly adapted to weathered, acid soils Continuing turfgrass root analysis should demonstrate advantages of increased Ca:Al ratio in acid subsoils Leaf Ca and S were not always correlated to root length and water use benefits Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements Lamar Larrimore, Southern Company Dr. Bill Miller, University of Georgia Dr. John Kruse, University of Georgia Dr. Malcom Sumner, University of Georgia Michael Wolfe, Southern Company

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