Schatzmann Nett

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Information about Schatzmann Nett

Published on October 25, 2007

Author: Talya


Pathological gambling: Barriers to treatment and the experience of self-change Jachen C. Nett and Sina Schatzmann:  Pathological gambling: Barriers to treatment and the experience of self-change Jachen C. Nett and Sina Schatzmann Gambling Prevention and Research: From Legislation to Action Centre du Jeu Excessif, Lausanne 1st-2nd March 2005 University of Applied Sciences Berne School of Social Work (HSA Berne) Institute for Social Planning and Social Management (ISS) Proceeding:  Proceeding Brief description of the study goals and applied methods description of the sample definitions and classification Selected results with respect to processes of self-change barriers to treatment Open forum (questions & discussion) Study’s title: Casino legislation und „self-recovery“ from problem gambling:  Study’s title: Casino legislation und „self-recovery“ from problem gambling Central goals of the research project: To explore the situation and perspectives of past and current problem gamblers in Switzerland with special reference to the implementation of the new casino legislation and to processes of “self-recovery” from pathological gambling To get information about how the different prevention activities instigated by the casinos are valued by exponents of the target group To create a baseline data set for the longitudinal observation of individual self-change processes among problem gamblers Used data base:  Used data base Telephone interviews with people who are affected by past or current gambling problems (february 2002 - march 2003) Recruitment of the sample (N=64) : by mediation of a psychiatrist in Zurich by Media calls (German speaking part of Switzerland) by large-scale distribution of flyers (German speaking part of Switzerland) Applied instruments:  Applied instruments Introductory questionnaire Questionnaire version A (for former problem or pathological gamblers) Questionnaire version B (for current problem or pathological gamblers) Applied scales: SOGS Gambling Screening (Lesieur & Blume, 1987), CAGE Alcohol Screening (Ewing, 1970), NODS Gambling Screening (Gerstein et al., 1999), KFG Petrys & Bauligs (1996) short questionnaire about gambling behaviour, Items of the Geneva-prevalence-study of Osiek et al. (1999), Items of Klingemann (1988a/b) Definitions of the central terms:  Definitions of the central terms Problem gamblers: SOGS ≥ 3 (life-time), pathological gamblers: SOGS ≥ 5 (life-time) Current problem/pathological gambling = gambling behaviour with currently negative consequences , former problem/pathological gambling = no or gambling behaviour with currently no negative consequences after having had gambling problems before Processes of self-change = self initiated changes in the perception, attitude, and practice of one’s gambling behaviour Auto-remission = a substantial (self initiated) change in the gambling behaviour, i.e. a clear turning away from excessive and uncontrolled gambling. Characteristics of the sample:  Characteristics of the sample 7 women, 57 men Mean age: 43 (range: 26 to 70) ¾ are of Swiss nationality Singles (41%) and divorced/separated (28%) individuals are overrepresented in the sample Educational level is comparable with standard population (lowest level is underrepresented) Income: 61% earn between CHF 4000 and 9000 Unemployed subjects are overrepresented (22%) 61 of the 64 subjects interviewed show life-time prevalence of problem or pathological gambling (mean SOGS score = 9.9) Main type of game played: 50 Slot-machine players, 10 table players (casino) and 4 other kind of gambling Gambling behaviour:  Gambling behaviour Classification of the interviewed problem (n=2) and pathological gamblers (n=61) according to the following criteria: showing currently a highly pathological gambling behaviour (n=15) being at the stage of giving up gambling (n=22) showing a controlled gambling behaviour (n=12) definitely (?) having quit gambling (n=14) Gambling careers: an overview:  Gambling careers: an overview Most successful recovery attempt (failed):  Most successful recovery attempt (failed) Multiple recovery attempts in the past (up to 50) Mean age: 35.6 years Mean duration: 1 ½ years Reasons of failure: discontinuation of social support, incitation to re-entry by fellow gamblers, situational changes, overwhelming temptation Successful recovery:  Successful recovery Mean age: 39 years About 5 years after peak of gambling Reasons of success: admitting the existence of gambling problems, high degree of negative consequences, professional help seeking, situational changes Coping with the temptation to gamble again: active distraction, cognitive coping, repression Recovery attempts vs. successful recovery:  Recovery attempts vs. successful recovery Different motivation to quit: Problem gamblers who fail to quit have less severe problems than problem gamblers who succeed in quitting Different quitting plans: Problem gamblers who fail to quit have less strict quitting plans than problem gamblers who succeed in quitting Different life events in the past twelve months before quitting: Problem gamblers who fail to quit and problem gamblers who succeed in quitting do not differ in the number of life events they experienced in the past twelve month before quitting. However the character of live events differs: Especially the actual or threatening loss of close social relationships seems to contribute to a successful quitting Experience with addiction related intervention:  Experience with addiction related intervention Objective criteria for not having experienced such an intervention: Life-long: No contact with any addiction related institution or with another institution, for which an explicit addiction related benefit has been mentioned Before remission: During the two years before remission no more than one contact to any institution and no experience at all with in-patient institutions Former problem gambler who accomplish both of the criteria would therefore count as auto-remitted individuals. Experience with addiction related intervention:  Experience with addiction related intervention Objective classification: 20 cases show no experience of any addiction related intervention Among these, there are 10 “objectively auto-remitted“ cases 44 cases show some experience of an addiction related intervention Subjective perception of such interventions: 33 individuals report on no significant effects of the intervention Accordingly, 18 cases count as “subjectively auto-remitted“ Experience with addiction related intervention:  Experience with addiction related intervention Objective auto-remission rate: 53%, subjective auto-remission rate: 76.5% Individuals without any experience with addiction related intervention suffer from less severe gambling problems than those with such an experience „Social pressure“ as a motivation to quit is mentioned more often by auto-remitted gamblers (n=10) than by those who recovered with professional support (n=16). The latter group more often refers to the „omission of gambling possibilities“ as a motivation to quit Experience with intervention:  Experience with intervention Problem gamblers interviewed reported following intervention experience: Out-patient psychiatric therapy Out-patient psychological therapy Social services and welfare institutions In-patient psychiatric therapy Self-help-groups, addiction counseling, financial dept counseling, alcohol or drug clinic, family counseling Objective barriers to treatment:  Objective barriers to treatment Lack of gambling specific treatment options Lack of knowledge by some professional helpers Subjective barriers to treatment:  Subjective barriers to treatment Denial of gambling problems Overestimation of one‘s own capabilities No supposed benefit from professional help Fear/Shyness Pride Lack of knowledge of available professional help Main lessons:  Main lessons Most important barrier to treatment: denial of gambling problems (How can professional helpers counter this barrier?) Auto-remission of problem gambling seems to be a fairly common fact in Switzerland (How can professional helpers support and learn from this group of former gamblers?) Literature:  Literature Ewing, J.A. (1984). Detecting alcoholism: the CAGE questionnaire, JAMA, 252, 1905-1907. Gerstein, D. et al. (1999b). NORC DSM-IV Screen for gambling problems (NODS). In: D. Gertein et al. (Eds.). Gambling impact and behavior study. Report to the national gambling impact study com­mission. National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. pp.18. Klingemann, H.K. (1988a). Autoremission bei Alkohol- oder Opiateabhängigen: Narratives Lebenslaufinterview. Lausanne: Schweizerische Fachstelle für Alkoholprobleme. Klingemann, H.K. (1988b). Autoremission bei Alkohol- oder Opiateabhängigen: Fragebogen für das telefonische Screeninginterview. Lausanne: Schweizersiche Fachstelle für Alkoholprobleme. Lesieur, H.R., & Blume, S.B. (1987). The south oaks gambling screen (SOGS): a new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers, Am J Psychiatry, 144, 1184-1188. Osiek, C., Bondolfi, G., & Ferrero, F. (1999). Etude de prévalance du jeu pathologique en Suisse. Département de psychiatrie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève. Petry, J. & Baulig, T. (1996b). Kurzfragebogen zum Glücksspielverhalten (KFG). In: J. Petry (Hg.). Psychotherapie der Glücksspielsucht. Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union. pp. 300. Background Information:  Background Information A detailed report is available at: At different stages of the project there was a cooperation with the Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine of the University of Zurich. The research team of this Institute on the other hand worked together with Dr A. Canziani, a practising psychiatrist specialised in treatment of gambling problems in Zurich Financial support: The research received financial support from the department for health and social issues of the canton Bern, from the DO-REsearch –Program set up for Universities of applied sciences, and, from the Swiss Casinos Holding (DORE: Swiss National Funds and Office for Professional Education and Technology (BBT= Bundesamt für Berufsbildung und Technologie)

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