Published on March 14, 2014
Scaling up Agricultural Technologies Johannes F. Linn Emerging Markets Forum and Brookings Presentation at IFPRI AgriculturalTechnology Summit Food Security in aWorld of Changing Climate and Natural Resource Scarcity:The Role of AgriculturalTechnologies Newseum,Washington, DC, February 12, 2014
Agricultural technologies: The scaling up imperative Many agricultural technologies for improved productivity are well known, but not widely applied by (poor) farmers in the developing world. The new IFPRI study: promotes increased use by establishing which technology is potentially appropriate where. The next step: find ways to ensure that appropriate technologies are widely adopted for scaled up impact (higher productivity, poverty reduction, improved nutrition, etc.). IFAD and USAID are actively pursuing this scaling up agenda; IFPRI published a set of policy briefs 2/12/142Jlinn@brookings.edu
2/12/14Jlinn@brookings.edu 3 New idea, mo del, appr oach Pilot, Project M&E, Learning & KM Internal knowledge Outside knowledge Limited Impact Scale up Multiple Impact The basics: innovation, learning and scaling up as an iterative process
What is a systematic approach to scaling up? 2/12/144Jlinn@brookings.edu Innovation Visionof Scaled Up Impact Drivers(champions, incentives, market or community demand, etc.) Monitor and Evaluate Spaces(enabling factors) Fiscal and Financial Institutional Policies Politcal Environment Partnership Etc
Why a systematic focus on scaling up is essential Scaling up pathway Traditional project pathway 2/12/145Jlinn@brookings.edu
Lessons from IFPRI policy briefs 18 policy briefs on experience of various institutions/technologies, issues, including: Aga Khan Foundation, Alive andThrive, B&M Gates Foundation, IFAD, Oxfam, Pepsico, SEWA, World Bank regreening, rice intensification, biofortification, value chains, area-based development, community driven development, nutritional programs institutional development; fragile states * J. Linn, ed. 2012 Scaling Up in Agriculture, Rural Development and Nutrition. 2020 Focus Briefs, No. 19. International Food Policy and Research Institute. Washington, DC 2/12/146Jlinn@brookings.edu
Lessons #1 Actors: multiplicity at multiple levels; requires multi- stakeholder alliances Dimensions: horizontal and vertical scaling up usually go hand in hand Pathways: no unique process, but Successful scaling up takes time, even decades; requires long-term engagement with a vision of scale Systematic planning, management, learning, ready to take opportunities Consider drivers and constraints or enabling factors (spaces) 2/12/147Jlinn@brookings.edu
Lessons #2 Drivers: The agricultural technology (idea, model, innovation) Champions (individuals, groups) Demand (market, communities) Incentives (profit, property rights, competitions, institutional accountability) External assistance 2/12/148Jlinn@brookings.edu
Lessons #3 Spaces/enabling conditions: Institutional: effective institutions found or created, incl. intermediary institution (extension service, etc.); needs to be considered from the start; coordination to be sought; rivalries to be avoided/managed Policies, laws and regulations: these need to be supportive, incl. property rights, business environment, trade policies, micro finance laws and regulations Fiscal and financial: fiscal/financial viability at larger scale and beyond donor support; may require cost reductions, cost recovery, or budget commitments 2/12/149Jlinn@brookings.edu
Lessons #4 Spaces (continued): Political: consider winners v. losers; ensure authorizing environment exists; political opposition managed; program protected from electoral cycles; public outreach Environmental: critical for many ag. projects (land, water, etc.) Cultural/social: local cultures often opportunity/constraint; varies across communities/regions/countries; role of women critical opportunity or constraint 2/12/1410Jlinn@brookings.edu
Lessons #5 Spaces (ctd): Partnership: look for national and international partners from the beginning; readiness to hand over (more) responsibility to national partners Learning: M&E for internal and external knowledge; adapt M&E to scaling up agenda (not only impact, but also drivers, spaces, etc.) 2/12/1411Jlinn@brookings.edu
Institutional lessons from IFAD There are examples of effective IFAD support for successful scaling up; but systematic institutional approach needed. Key step: Recognize that scaling up is “mission critical”. Scaling up has to be embedded in all institutional processes: corporate strategy, policies and results framework, operational instruments, country program and project design and monitoring, resource allocation, budgets and staff incentives. Institutional change requires time, persistence and strong managerial commitment along with stakeholder engagement, keeping messages clear and bureaucratic requirements simple. 2/12/1412Jlinn@brookings.edu
The way forward More systematic focus on scaling up in more institutions internationally and nationally, public and private (AfDB, IFAD, UNDP,World Bank; AusAID/DFAT, GIZ, JICA, USAID; Brookings, IFPRI; MSI; Heifer International, etc. already engaged) Incorporate scaling up agenda into research agenda of CGIAR agencies, IFPRI, and others (explore scaling up pathways by crop, technology, value chain, etc.) Develop learning networks and advisory capabilities Incorporate into high-level dialogue on Post-2015 Agenda, etc. 2/12/1413Jlinn@brookings.edu
Selected References L. Chandy, A. Hosono, H. Kharas& J. Linn, eds. 2013. Getting to scale. Brookings, Washington, DC A. Hartmann and J. Linn. 2008. “Scaling Up: A Framework and Lessons for Development Effectiveness from Literature and Practice.” Wolfensohn Center Working Paper No. 5. Brookings.Washington, DC J. Linn, A. Hartmann, H. Kharas, R. Kohl, and B. Massler. 2010. “Scaling Up the Fight Against Rural Poverty: An Institutional Review of IFAD’s Approach”, GlobalWorking Paper No. 39 , Brookings. Washington, DC J. Linn. 2011.“Scaling Up with Aid:The Institutional Dimension.” in H. Kharas, K. Makino andW. Jung, eds., Catalyzing Development: A New Vision for Aid.Washington: Brookings Institution Press J. Linn, ed. 2012 Scaling Up in Agriculture, Rural Development and Nutrition. 2020 Focus Briefs, No. 19. International Food Policy and Research Institute. Washington, DC L. Cooley and R.Ved, 2012. “Scaling Up—FromVision to Large Scale Change: A Management Framework for Practitioners, Second Edition.” MSI.Washington, DC A. Hartmann, H. Kharas, R. Kohl, J. Linn, B. Massler and C. Sourang. 2013. “Scaling Up Programs for the Rural Poor: IFAD’s Experience, Lessons and Prospects (Phase 2).” Global Economy& Development Working Paper 54. Brookings 14 2/12/14Jlinn@brookings.edu
Thank you! 2/12/14Jlinn@brookings.edu 15
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