Published on February 25, 2014
Scaling Systems for Research Computing email@example.com !1
Intro to BioTeam Who, What, Why The ‘Meta’ Issue What is driving all of this? 1 2 Scalable Infrastructure 3 Scalable Software 4 Compliance 5 Q&A 6 !2
BioTeam Who, What, Why ... ‣ Independent consulting shop ‣ Staﬀed by scientists forced to learn IT, SW & HPC to get our own research done ‣ 10+ years bridging the “gap” between science, IT & high performance computing ‣ Our wide-ranging work is what gets us invited to speak at events like this ... !3
Bioinformatics and Big Iron !4
BioTeam Culture ‣ We are a distributed company • BioTeam is 100% REMOTE • All employees are MANAGERS • Workﬂow is mostly ASYNCHRONOUS ‣ Prefer small interdisciplinary TEAMS • Value placed on TRUST and PERFORMANCE !5
BioTeam Today ‣ 10 full-time employees in 2014 • 2 dedicated to HPC Infrastructure • 2 dedicated to Software Development • 1 dedicated to Products • 1 dedicated to Government Services • 1 dedicated to Cloud Computing ‣ 10+ years supporting Life Sciences Research !6
The ‘meta’ issue !7
Science is changing faster than IT infrastructure !8
Cloud Computing !9
Amazon vs. Other Clouds ‣ AWS has by far the most useful IaaS building blocks today • First choice for most Bio-IT use cases ‣ AWS quietly rolls out killer features • Spot Market • Virtual Private Cloud ‣ Provider decision may be based on where your data actually resides !10
Real world simulation project 11
Google Massive resources and API’s galore ‣ Google started with PaaS and worked down ‣ Google Exacycle for Visiting Faculty (closed) • 1 billion core hours on demand; what’s next? ‣ Google is DEVELOPER centric; everything has an API ‣ Culture is based on Science and Engineering !12
Tools and Techniques !13
Conﬁguration Management Devops ‣ Required in almost every cloud project ‣ Chef/Puppet/Ansible/Fabric • Domain speciﬁc languages; Agent-based versus SSH; Abstraction ‣ Key is reducing institutionalized knowledge and sharing recipes ‣ Docker/lxc could be disrupting • Lightweight differential images; not very HPC friendly at this point ‣ Orchestration tools lagging behind provisioning and conﬁguration ‣ Best techniques are making their way back into HPC !14
MIT StarCluster open-source cluster computing toolkit ‣ Ideal for most HPC use cases • Includes Grid Engine, NFS, and MPI • NEW Support for Virtual Private Cloud! ‣ Works with Spot Instances ‣ Extensible via plugins • Hadoop • HTCondor • GlusterFS • IPython Notebook !16
Private Clouds !17
Private Cloud Where is your datacenter? !18
Public Cloud AWS Regions !19
Public Cloud Google Datacenters !20
Scalable Software !21
Types of Parallelism In modern processors and coprocessors Instruction Level Vector Level Thread Level Node Level Micro-architectural techniques such as pipelined execution, out-of/in-order execution, super-scalar execution, branch prediction… Using SIMD vector processing instructions for SSE, AVX, Phi Multi-core architectures with or without Hyper-Threading Many-core architecture with smart round robin hardware multithreading Distributed Computing Cluster Computing !22
Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor Fully functional multi-thread execution unit ‣ 50+ cores with a ring interconnect ‣ 64-bit addressing ‣ Scalar unit based on Intel Pentium family ‣ Vector unit 512-bit SIMD Instructions ‣ 4 hardware threads per core ‣ Highly Parallel device ‣ SMP on-a-chip !23
Programming Xeon Phi Choices Oﬄoaded Native ‣ Pragma/directives based ‣ Simpler programming model ‣ Better serial processing ‣ Quicker to test key kernels ‣ More memory ‣ Some constraints ‣ Better ﬁle access ‣ Memory availability ‣ Makes full use of available resources ‣ File I/O access !24
Intel Optimization Example Mapping with Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA) Xeon (baseline) Xeon (optimized) Xeon + Phi ‣ Replace pthreads with OpenMP ‣ Better load balancing ‣ Overlap I/O and Compute ‣ Better thread usage ‣ Eﬃcient memory allocation ‣ Vectorized performance critical loops 1.86 2 1 1 1 1.24 0 0 ‣ Data prefetch to reduce memory latency Source: Life Sciences Optimization - Intel - SC13 !25
Intel Optimization Example Protein sequence analysis with MPI-HMMER Xeon Xeon + Phi ‣ No source code changes required ‣ Use #pragma unroll to improve loop performance ‣ Double nested loop in Viterbi algorithm is auto-vectorized for Xeon and Phi by Intel compilers 1.56 2 1 1 1 0 0 Source: Life Sciences Optimization - Intel - SC13 !26
Intel Optimization Example Assembly with Velour ‣ Intel and UIUC released open-source alternative to velveth ‣ > 10x reduction in memory usage • Intelligently caching portions of assembly to disk • 700GB to 60GB ‣ https://github.com/jjcook/velour ‣ Cook, Jeﬀrey J. 2011. Scaling short read de novo DNA sequence assembly to gigabase genomes. !27
Programming Xeon Phi Recommendations ‣ Host can have multiple Phi cards ‣ MLK libraries are pre-optimized ‣ OpenMP is applicable to multi-core and manycore programming • omp ofﬂoad target(mic) ‣ MPI supports distributed computation and combines with other models • OpenMP within nodes and MPI between nodes ‣ Xeon optimizations translate well to Phi !28
Parallel Programming In the Life Sciences ‣ Targets: CPU, Coprocessors, GPU, FGPA, ASIC ‣ There is no silver bullet ‣ Problem decomposition is the most critical step ‣ Think in parallel ‣ Using Intel compilers can yield ~30% speedup in many cases • vtune and other analysis tools are available ‣ Must optimize at one or more levels !29
Parallel Programming Recommendations ‣ Leaving performance on the table • Low hanging fruit; splitting input ﬁles into parts • Avoid using languages with poor concurrency model and GIL ‣ Exploit thread-level parallelism • Use multi-threading and multi-processing to fully utilize multicore processors ‣ Use Intel’s Auto-Vectorizing compiler • Take advantage of SIMD parallelism and wider vectors on Phi ‣ Prepare for a heterogenous many-core future • Hybrid Programming (OpenMP + MPI) !31
I <3 Julia A fresh approach to technical computing ‣ Homoiconic; Dynamic type system ‣ Designed for parallelism and distributed computation ‣ MATLAB-like syntax and extensive math library ‣ Call C functions directly ‣ Call Python functions ‣ IJulia Notebook ‣ Open Source !32
Compliance Overview ‣ Need a compliance apparatus ‣ Often a barrier to competition ‣ Compute and Storage are easy • Policy and procedures are harder ‣ AWS and Google will now sign BAA !34
Compliance Strategy ‣ Keys are protecting data and preventing access ‣ Data management - points of control ‣ Encrypt data in ﬂight and at rest • Use S3 server-side encryption • Google Persistent Disks are automatically encrypted ‣ Use credential rotation policies ‣ Lock down security groups and ﬁrewalls ‣ Use VPN for all public connections ‣ Log everything and audit often !35
ACK http://bioteam.net ! http://psc.edu ! http://software.intel.com/en-us/mic-developer http://julialang.org !37
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