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Scaffolding Decision Making

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Information about Scaffolding Decision Making

Published on July 15, 2008

Author: bdodge

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Presented at NECC, San Antonio, July 2, 2008.
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Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University

Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University

 

 

 

 

Summarize Design Decide Create Predict Decide

Decide

Adult life is full of decisions

Adult life is full of decisions

Adult life is full of decisions

Adult life is full of decisions

Adult life is full of decisions

Some people are decisive

Others find it hard

Comfort with deciding may be inborn 54% = J

A practice problem…

A practice problem…

New, Perfect Job You have to choose one of three places: Claremont, CA Grapevine, TX Salem, NH

You have to choose one of three places:

Claremont, CA

Grapevine, TX

Salem, NH

Claremont, California

Grapevine, Texas

Salem, New Hampshire

You have 2 minutes to decide on where to move

You have 2 minutes to decide on where to move

Claremont CA Grapevine TX Salem NH Avg Home Price $843,500 $258,800 $346,400 Air Quality 32% 71% 85% July High Temp 87 ℉ 95 ℉ 83 ℉ January Low Temp 41 ℉ 31 ℉ 15 ℉ Clear Days 44% 37% 25% Job Growth 8.3% 15.4% 8.5% Median Age 37 34 40 Married 44% 60% 60% Racial Diversity 112 37 19 Property Crime 31 29 15 Museums 9 8 27 Restaurants 3405 5446 1901

Time’s up!

Time’s up!

A decision I have to make…

Decisions we allow kids to make Which book would you like to do your report on? Do you want to be the record-keeper, the spokesperson or the artist? Color the sky with whatever crayon you like

Which book would you like to do your report on?

Do you want to be the record-keeper, the spokesperson or the artist?

Color the sky with whatever crayon you like

 

So…how do we uncover the decisions hidden in our content?

First…. Ask yourself, when do adults need to apply this content?

Ask yourself, when do adults need to apply this content?

Second… Look for (or create) disequilibrium

Look for (or create) disequilibrium

Strategy 1: Find a Real Problem Identify a real problem over which there is strong disagreement and decide on what to recommend .

Identify a real problem over which there is strong disagreement and decide on what to recommend .

Find a Real Problem

Strategy 2: Create a Problem Change the situation to create new problems that someone needs to decide how to respond to .

Change the situation to create new problems that someone needs to decide how to respond to .

Create a Problem

Strategy 3: Create an Opportunity Identify (or make up) an opportunity for action that requires choosing from among alternatives .

Identify (or make up) an opportunity for action that requires choosing from among alternatives .

Create an Opportunity

Create an Opportunity

Create an Opportunity

To summarize, look for one of these: Responding to an existing problem Responding to a new problem Opportunity for improvement … and pick situations that require learning what you need them to learn.

Responding to an existing problem

Responding to a new problem

Opportunity for improvement

… and pick situations that require learning what you need them to learn.

A practice problem…

A practice problem…

 

To summarize, look for one of these: Responding to an existing problem Responding to a new problem Opportunity for improvement … and pick situations that require learning what you need them to learn.

Responding to an existing problem

Responding to a new problem

Opportunity for improvement

… and pick situations that require learning what you need them to learn.

 

Teaching decision-making skills Should occur in context, not isolation Should provide reusable techniques Ultimately should be internalized by repeated practice

Should occur in context, not isolation

Should provide reusable techniques

Ultimately should be internalized by repeated practice

Don’t just flip a coin…

Technique #1: PMI Make a list of aspects of the choice to be made. Mark each one as Plus, Minus or Interesting Optionally, put a number from 1 to 10 to indicate how important each aspect is Total up the number of items in each column http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_05.htm

Make a list of aspects of the choice to be made.

Mark each one as Plus, Minus or Interesting

Optionally, put a number from 1 to 10 to indicate how important each aspect is

Total up the number of items in each column

Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting

Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper

Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one Won’t be ready for Spring Break If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper It may break again in 18 months or less We could get a new one immediately

Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one Won’t be ready for Spring Break Repairman says LCD is better than plasma If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper It may break again in 18 months or less We could get a new one immediately

Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one (+5) Won’t be ready for Spring Break (-3) Repairman says LCD is better than plasma If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper (+7) It may break again in 18 months or less (-4) We could get a new one immediately (-4) 12 -11

Technique #2: Weighted Sum Good for when there is a single decision with multiple aspects to consider Allows you to clarify what’s really important

Good for when there is a single decision with multiple aspects to consider

Allows you to clarify what’s really important

Claremont CA Grapevine TX Salem NH Avg Home Price $843,500 $258,800 $346,400 Air Quality 32% 71% 85% July High Temp 87 ℉ 95 ℉ 83 ℉ January Low Temp 41 ℉ 31 ℉ 15 ℉ Clear Days 44% 37% 25% Job Growth 8.3% 15.4% 8.5% Median Age 37 34 40 Married 44% 60% 60% Racial Diversity 112 37 19 Property Crime 31 29 15 Museums 9 8 27 Restaurants 3405 5446 1901

Weight Claremont CA Grapevine TX Salem NH Avg Home Price 9 $843,500 $258,800 $346,400 Air Quality 2 32% 71% 85% July High Temp 3 87 ℉ 95 ℉ 83 ℉ January Low Temp 9 41 ℉ 31 ℉ 15 ℉ Clear Days 8 44% 37% 25% Job Growth 9 8.3% 15.4% 8.5% Median Age 3 37 34 40 Married 3 44% 60% 60% Racial Diversity 1 112 37 19 Property Crime 7 31 29 15 Museums 9 9 8 27 Restaurants 9 3405 5446 1901

Weight Claremont CA Grapevine TX Salem NH Avg Home Price 9 2 9 8 Air Quality 2 3 7 9 July High Temp 3 5 3 6 January Low Temp 9 8 4 2 Clear Days 8 8 7 3 Job Growth 9 5 9 5 Median Age 3 5 6 4 Married 3 4 7 7 Racial Diversity 1 7 5 3 Property Crime 7 4 5 7 Museums 9 5 5 9 Restaurants 9 5 9 2

386 482 379 Weight Claremont CA Grapevine TX Salem NH Avg Home Price 9 9 x 2 = 18 9 x 9 = 81 9 x 8 = 72 Air Quality 2 2 x 3 = 6 2 x 7 = 14 2 x 9 = 18 July High Temp 3 3 x 5 = 15 3 x 3 = 9 3 x 6 = 18 January Low Temp 9 9 x 8 = 72 9 x 4 = 36 9 x 2 = 18 Clear Days 8 8 x 8 = 64 8 x 7 = 56 8 x 3 = 24 Job Growth 9 9 x 5 = 45 9 x 9 = 81 9 x 5= 45 Median Age 3 3 x 5 = 15 3 x 6 = 18 3 x 4 = 12 Married 3 3 x 4 = 12 3 x 7 = 21 3 x 7 = 21 Racial Diversity 1 3 x 7 = 21 1 x 5 = 5 1 x 3 = 3 Property Crime 7 7 x 4 = 28 7 x 5 = 35 7 x 7 = 49 Museums 9 9 x 5 = 45 9 x 5 = 45 9 x 9 = 81 Restaurants 9 9 x 5 = 45 9 x 9 = 81 9 x 2= 18

Technique #3: Decision Trees Useful for decisions that lead to more decisions Breaks down big decisions into a series of smaller ones. Allows you to evaluate the end points to see which path is best.

Useful for decisions that lead to more decisions

Breaks down big decisions into a series of smaller ones.

Allows you to evaluate the end points to see which path is best.

A decision I have to make…

Bernie’s Plasma Decision Tree $1800 $2400 $800 7/10 10/10 10/10

Bernie’s Plasma Decision Tree $1800 $2400 $800 7/10 10/10 10/10 $0 2/10

Who Decides? 20% 80%

Who Decides? $1800 $2400 7/10 10/10 $0 8/10 20% 80%

Pawns vs. Origins Richard DeCharms – Personal Causation

A Great Resource http://www.mindtools.com

Technique #4: Six Thinking Hats

6 Thinking Hats

1. Blue Hat Hat worn by people chairing meetings. Pays attention to the process and directs the other hats to pitch in

Hat worn by people chairing meetings.

Pays attention to the process and directs the other hats to pitch in

2. White Hat focus on the data available. look at the information you have, and see look for gaps in your knowledge, and either try to fill them or take account of them.

focus on the data available.

look at the information you have, and see

look for gaps in your knowledge, and either try to fill them or take account of them.

3. Green Hat stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem. freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas.

stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem.

freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas.

4. Red Hat looks at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion. tries to think how other people will react emotionally. tries to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning.

looks at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion.

tries to think how other people will react emotionally.

tries to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning.

5. Yellow Hat the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it. helps you to keep going when everything looks gloomy and difficult.

the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it.

helps you to keep going when everything looks gloomy and difficult.

6. Black Hat looks at all the bad points of the decision. tries to see why it might not work. highlights the weak points in a plan.

looks at all the bad points of the decision.

tries to see why it might not work.

highlights the weak points in a plan.

In conclusion… Look for decisions your kids can make as part of learning what they need to learn Recommend a solution to an existing problem Change the situation and create a new problem Create an opportunity Scaffold that decision-making experience by providing techniques that they can use outside of class PMI Weighted Sum Decision trees Six Thinking Hats

Look for decisions your kids can make as part of learning what they need to learn

Recommend a solution to an existing problem

Change the situation and create a new problem

Create an opportunity

Scaffold that decision-making experience by providing techniques that they can use outside of class

PMI

Weighted Sum

Decision trees

Six Thinking Hats

Nothing is more difficult, and therefore more precious, than to be able to decide.

Nothing is more difficult, and therefore more precious, than to be able to decide.

Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University Webquest.org/workshops/decider

 

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