Sarang Paloh Heritage stay & event hall building report

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Information about Sarang Paloh Heritage stay & event hall building report

Published on March 8, 2016

Author: Tanjaden1218

Source: slideshare.net

1. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) IN ARCHITECTURE [B.Sc. (HONS) Arc.] ARC60305 METHODS OF DOCUMENTATION AND MEASURED DRAWINGS SARANG PALOH HERITAGE STAY & EVENT HALL NO. 12, 14, 16 JALAN SULTAN ISKANDAR, 30000 IPOH, PERAK, MALAYSIA

2. ii Declaration of submission This report is submitted in regards to the module - ARC60303 Methods of Documentation & Measured Drawings by the School of Architecture, Building and Design of Taylor’s University to obtain 5 credits for Practicum 1. Name of building : Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall Address : No. 12, 14, 16 Jalan Sultan Iskandar, 30000 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia Supervised by : Mr. Sanjeh Kumar Raman & Ar. Sateerah Hassan This is a group effort by: Leader: Daniesh Ashik A/L Selveswaran 0315265 Yong Thang Shaun 0320675 Group members: Afiqah Zahra Binti Zainol Rashid 0315857 Alisha Niazali Hirani 0314325 Chan Yi Qin 0315964 Chong Chui Wern 0321359 Eddie Goh Poh King 0322915 Iche Dunstan Omari 0323347 Kelvin Yong Chen Yin 0316050 Ken Wong Chun Thim 0315534 Lau Wei Ling 0315389 Lee Yen Chei 0320568 Leong Vui Yung 0320362 Loh Wei Shuen 0317896 Muhammad Mubarak 0319984 Ng Ee Shiung 0314228 Ng Yi Yang 0319688 Ryan Kerry Jee Jin Ying 0318715 Saurabha Lakshman Kumar Iyer 0320569 Tan Wee Keat 0315885 Tan Wen Hao 0319923 Tang Ze Zheng 0318967 Teo Chen Yi 0320618 Tey Thien Hee 0318676 Toh Kean Hou 0319575 Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Architecture January 2016 Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus

3. iii Acknowledgement Our entire group would like to extend our gratitude to all lecturers involved and responsible in organizing and conducting this module in conjunction with this short semester - Practicum 1, and hence allowing us to gain a whole lot throughout the process. We would also like to extend our thanks, gratitude and appreciation to two of our tutors, Mr Sanjeh Kumar Raman and also Ar. Sateerah Hassan for their guidance and advices throughout the process of this assignment and making this submission a success. Our entire group would also like to acknowledge and express our appreciation to the following people and organizations that have contributed to us in terms of providing information, support and help in order for us to successfully complete this assignment. Below are the list of people whom we deeply thank and appreciate. Ms. Lee Yoke Chee, the owner of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall for the approval of allowing us to carry out this entire assignment and making all measuring and documentation works possible, and also for the warm and welcoming treatment throughout the interview session. Ms. Peggy Lim, the director of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall, for her care and generosity in terms of providing information and sufficient information which contributed to our documentation purposes. Ms. Sharon, Ms. Pauline and Ms. Maryanne, the staffs of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall for their warm and welcoming hospitality and also attending to our needs at time of troubles. Mr. Lee, furniture contractor and maintenance man of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall for his sufficient and beneficial information in regards to the history of the building, construction details and information regarding antiques and heritage furniture within the building. And finally to all the 25 members of this group whom without their hard work, cooperation and dedication, this submission would not be a success. Thank You.

4. iv Abstract This report documents on the overall information and data obtained from Measured Drawings activities which were carried out on site of the mentioned building - Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall. The building is located along Jalan Sultan Iskandar, Ipoh, Perak. Built in the 1900s, the building exhibits a variety unique style of architecture, including Art deco, Neo-classical style and also mix and matches of style which depicts the Chinese culture back then. Facades strongly depict the architectural style embodied by the building despite the fact that it has undergone many changes throughout the decades. Refurbishment and renovation works had been executed in order to retain its condition and to also improve its adaptability in regards to the changes of time. Today, it stands as a conjoined building of three and has been successfully preserved and converted into a boutique hotel and an event hall to serve the different functions and activities of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay. The architectural style and design of the building portrays the essence of the colonial era and clearly reflects the influences of the British back then in terms of architecture and as of how the building was designed which illustrates how the building was utilized back then. In a group of 25 students, we were assigned to measure, document and analyse the mentioned building and due to its rich cultural and historical value, the current condition of the building and its architectural development had been thoroughly documented and analyzed.

5. v List of Figures Figure 1.1 A member of the team, Tang Ze Zheng, utilizing the measuring tape to obtain the width of the column. (Tan, 2016). Figure 1.2 A member of the team, Tang Ze Zheng, utilizing the metal rule to obtain detailed measurements. (Tan, 2016). Figure 1.3 A member of the team, Tang Ze Zheng, using the ladder and measuring tape rule to obtain the height of the column. (Tan, 2016). Figure 1.4 Members of the team, Loh Wei Shuen (front) and Ryan Kerry (back), interviewing and touring along the premises with the furniture contractor and maintenance man of the hotel, Mr Lee. (Tan, 2016). Figure 1.5 An image showing the device - Bosch DLE 50 Professional Digital Laser Distance Meter. (Amazon, 2016). Figure 1.6 An example image showing a standard typical measuring tape which varies in lengths. (Amazon, 2016). Figure 1.7 Image indicating a standard typical metal rule which varies in terms of length and dimension. (Working Silver, 2016). Figure 1.8 Image showing a standard typical T-Square whereby a 90cm length was used on site. (Creative-Coldsnow, 2016). Figure 1.9 The façade of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall (2nd & 3rd building from the left) which depicts the eclectic design of Neoclassical and art Art Deco exterior. (Tan, 2016). Figure 2.1 Map of Perak (Khoo, Lubis, 2016.) Figure 2.2 The First British Resident of Perak, James Wheeler Woodford Birch. Figure 2.3 The Fourth British Resident of Perak, Sir Hugh Low who formulated the modern laws that pertaining to

6. vi land matters, agriculture, the mining, labour and taxation. Figure 2.4 Woman dulang-washers worked as gleaners on the periphery of many tin mines. (Khoo, Lubis, Wade, 2016.) Figure 2.5 Sultan Idris and Sir Hugh Low, two pioneers of modern Perak. (Khoo, Lubis, 2016.) Figure 2.6 Vast tracts of forest were cleared for rubber plantations. (Changkat Salah Rubber Estate, Perak, 2016.) Figure 2.7 The remains of the Hindu-Buddhist temple founded in Bujang Valley, Kedah. (Yeang, 2016.) Figure 2.8 A parallel two-unit traditional Malay house in Kuala Kangsar. (Landmarks of Perak, 2016.) Figure 2.9 Pa Lo Ku Miao in Ipoh, with flat roof ridge characteristic of the Cantonese. (Landmarks of Perak, 2016.) Figure 2.10 Kinta District Administrative Centre of Batu Gajah. Figure 2.11 Ipoh Town Hall. (Khoo, Lubis, Wade, 2016.) Figure 2.12 Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad in Kuala Lumpur. (Landmarks of Perak, 2016.) Figure 2.13 Masjid Ubudiah (Khoo, Lubis, Wade, 2016.) Figure 2.14 A typical Chinese eclectic style house. Figure 2.15 Grand Hotel in Ipoh. (Georgetown Dispensary Series, 2016.) Figure 2.16 Anderson School in Ipoh. (Kunverjee Maljee Series, 2016.) Figure 2.17 The Art Deco façade of the Majestic Theatre. (Landmarks of Perak, 2016.) Figure 2.18 Lam Looking Bazaar on Jalan Laksamana, Ipoh, was the earliest International style example. (Landmarks of Perak, 2016. Figure 2.19 The map of Kinta District. (Ho, 2016.) Figure 2.20 Elephants transportation. (Khoo, Lubis, Wade, 2016.) Figure 2.21 The Geological and Mineral Map of Kinta, 1884 by French Explorer Jacques de Morgan. (Khoo, Lubis, 2016.) Figure 2.22 The portrait of the leader of Hai San secret society, Kapitan Cina Chung Keng Kwee. (Seow, 2016.) Figure 2.23 The portrait of the leader of Ghee Hin secret society, Kapitan China Chin Ah Yam. (Khoo, 2016.) Figure 2.24 Map of Ipoh Town, c. 1921. (Ho, 2016.)

7. vii Figure 2.25 Dato Panglima Kinta Muhammad Yusuff. (Lord of Kinta, 2016.) Figure 2.26 Ipoh, 1887. (Ho, 2016.) Figure 2.27 Ipoh, 1894. (Ho, 2016.) Figure 2.28 Town Field. Figure 2.29 Hugh Low Bridge rebuilt in iron. (Khoo, Lubis, Wade, 2016.) Figure 2.30 Ipoh Town, c. 1910. (Ho, 2016.) Figure 2.31 New Town in 1900s. (Ho, 2016.) Figure 2.32 Portrait of Leong Sin Nam. (Ho, 2016.) Figure 2.33 Whiteaways submerged. (Ho, 2016.) Figure 2.34 The Venice of Malaya. (Kok, 2016.) Figure 2.35 One of the famous rich tin miners, Foo Yet Kai. (Ho, 2016.) Figure 2.36 Jalan Sultan Iskandar. (Google map, 2016.) Figure 2.37 Jalan Sultan Iskandar now. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 2.38 Four units that bought by Lim’s family. (Tim, 2016.) Figure 2.39 Mr Lee, one of the contractors that in charge of the restoration work of all Lim’s heritage buildings. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 3.1 Site Plan which indicates the site building (within the red circle) and also its surrounding site building. Figure 3.2 Lot Number Plan which indicate the site building within the red circle which indicate lot 638S & lot 639S as Sarang Paloh Event Hall building and boutique hotel lot as lot 640S. Figure 3.3 Image depicting the location of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay and its surrounding prominent buildings. (Google Maps, 2016). Figure 3.4 Image illustrating the historical and majestic view of the Ipoh Railway Station. (PencintaLensa, 2016). Figure 3.5 The Supreme High Court of Ipoh which flanks the side of the City Hall of Ipoh. (Lim, 2016). Figure 3.6 Ipoh City Hall stands majestically, flanking the Supreme High Court of Ipoh which illustrates eclecticism. (Flickr, 2016). Figure 3.7 Ipoh Birch Memorial, a symbol of commemoration for the first British Resident of Perak, J.W.W. Birch. (GoWhere, 2016). Figure 3.8 Hugh Low Bridge, now renamed as Jambatan Sultan Iskandar connecting the old and new parts of Ipoh town across the Kinta River. (Adiyon84, 2016). Figure 3.9 An image illustrating the pedestrian passageway

8. viii which segregates the building with the main road which provides accessibility to the pedestrians. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.10 Image depicting typical curbs implemented in order to segregate the pedestrian walkways with the flanking main roads. Figure 3.11 An image taken portraying the five foot way that flanks the foyer and entrances of the buildings that stretches throughout the entire row of shophouses. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.12 Installed awnings above the rear entrances while providing external shade to the occupants entering the building from the rear entrances. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.13 An image illustrating Jalan Sultan Iskandar which are set off with 4 lanes which are flanked by rows of heritage shop houses. (Panoromio, 2016). Figure 3.14 An image depicting a view of Jalan Bandar Timah which goes in opposite direction as compared with Jalan Sultan Yusuff. (KenWooi, 2016). Figure 3.15 A Google Street View depicting Jalan Sultan Yusuff which leads to the main road of Jalan Sultan Iskandar. (Google Street View, 2016). Figure 3.16 Image showing a typical intersection/junction between Jalan Sultan Iskandar and Jalan Bandar Timah. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.17 Image taken on site depicting the stretch of pedestrian pavements which are laced around the edge of the road which provides pedestrians’ walkability. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.18 An image taken on site which shows the adequate safety measures provided (zebra crossing and traffic lights) as to provide convenience and safety to pedestrians. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.19 A site plan showing the building being an intermediate lot located along Jalan Sultan Iskandar which is flanked by a back lane behind the building. (National Archive, 2016). Figure 3.20 An image depicting one of the back entries which was used less frequently and grant access to the back of the building. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.21 An image taken on site showing the main entrance which leads into the main lobby and reception of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay. (Tan, 2016).

9. ix Figure 3.22 Image depicting the main entrance leading into Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay’s event hall. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.23 An image illustrating a typical coffee shop in Ipoh which serves food and beverages. (Star Online, 2016). Figure 3.24 An image depicting one of the malls along the street of Jalan Sultan Iskandar which sells souvenirs and local goods. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.25 An image illustrating one of the boutique hotels and cafés within vicinity of the Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay. (Trip Advisor, 2016). Figure 3.26 The state mosque of Perak which is located also along the opposite side of Jalan Sultan Iskandar. (Ais Kacang Merah, 2016). Figure 3.27 An image illustrating the sun from the east side of the building which casts shadows but do not produce glare. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.28 An image illustrating the sun from the east side of the building which casts shadows but do not produce glare. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.29 An image depicting the front façade of Sarang Paloh . (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.30 An image showing the front façade of the boutique hotel ;the former Yick Who Gold Smith shop(Tan, 2016). Figure 3.31 An image showing boutique hotel’s façade door, windows and air vent design.(Tan, 2016). Figure 3.32 An image showing the art deco designed decorative motif found above the main entrance. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.33 An image showing the art deco designed window grilles (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.34 An image showing one of the columns holding up the event hall. (Tan, 2016) Figure 3.35 This image shows column head or “chi tou” of one of the pillars.(Tan, 2016) Figure 3.36 This image shows the interior space of the boutique hotel. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.37 An image showing one of the metal barred windows found in the boutique hotel that follows the original design. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.38 An image showing a wooden barred window that uses louvres. (Tan, 2016).

10. x Figure 3.39 The floor tiles were scavenged from other old buildings and reused.(Tan, 2016). Figure 3.40 An image of the visible wooden beams that runs across the room. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.41 An image showing the spiral staircase found at the airwell. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.42 The second staircase found in the boutique hotel which is L-shaped that also leads to the 1st floor. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.43 Antique chairs handpicked by the owner being used in the building.(Tan, 2016). Figure 3.44 The kitchen furniture such as tables and chairs were also handpicked antiques.(Tan, 2016). Figure 3.45 An image showing the interior of the event hall.(Tan, 2016). Figure 3.46 An image showing the floor tile design which were “Nyonya” styled.(Tan, 2016). Figure 3.47 An image showing the event hall’s ceiling where the ceiling joist are exposed ; showing the contrast between ceiling and wall.(Tan, 2016) Figure 3.48 An image showing the bunker’s exterior view. Its material is made out of bricks using rough masonry work. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.49 An image showing the interior of the bunker (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.50 An image showing the visible roof trusses on the 1st floor of the event hall (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.51 An image showing the exposed roof tiles and beams found on the 1st floor of the boutique hotel. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.52 An image depicting the visual symmetry of the roof garden.(Tan, 2016). Figure 3.53 An image showing the five foot way shaded by the eaves of the building, as indicated 1 in Figure 3.34. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.54 An image illustrating the front hall of the building, which is the main lobby and reception of the building, as indicated 2 in Figure 3.34 (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.55 The second hall within the shophouse building which is converted into a sitting area which features a central atrium for the spiral stairs, as indicated 3 in Figure 3.59. (Tan, 2016).

11. xi Figure 3.56 The air well which illuminates the spiral stairs atrium which is the central feature of the second hall cum sitting area, as indicated 6 in Figure 3.59. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.57 The rear court which is located after the second hall is converted into a kitchen cum dining area to serve the guests of the hotel, as indicated 4 in Figure 3.59. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.58 The second rear court which is relatively smaller, converted into storage cum sanitary services space with a skylight illuminating the interior, as indicated 5 in Figure 3.59. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.59 Ground floor plan of the boutique hotel lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which serves different functions and as indicated by the numbers in the plan. (Ashik, 2016). Figure 3.60 First floor plan of the boutique hotel lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which house the rooms of the hotel and also hold several circulation spaces as indicated by the numbers in the plan. (Ashik, 2016). Figure 3.61 The receiving hall of the first floor of the boutique hotel lot via ascending a spiral stairs. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.62 The hall leading into the Platinum, Silver and Gold Lofts within the first floor of the hotel lot by which features a stairs ascending to the second floor which is the Gold Loft. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.63 The side bed chamber within the Platinum Loft by which is flanked by to side entries, one leading to a nextbed chamber and another leading to the washing closet. (Qwuen, 2016). Figure 3.40 The bed chamber within the Silver Loft and an entry which leads into the washing closet. (Qwuen, 2016). Figure 3.41 The Malaysian Honeyguide Loft which is unique as it is the biggest room within the floor and also within the entire boutique hotel lot which bed chamber twice the size and the door at the far end leading into a luxurious washing closet. (AsiaBooking, 2016). Figure 3.42 The rear stairs which is located in the kitchen of the building which connects to the first floor above which leads to the transitional walkway. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.43 The transitional walkway which is reached directly upon ascending the rear stairs while connecting it to the receiving hall. (Tan, 2016).

12. xii Figure 3.44 Second floor plan of the boutique hotel lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which house the Gold Loft of the hotel which is the only room housing the second floor of the boutique hotel lot. (Ashik, 2016). Figure 3.45 Gold Loft as seen interiorly while windows opening to the low ceiling covering the Silver Loft. (Sarang Paloh, 2016). Figure 3.46 Ground floor plan of the event hall lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which accommodates different spaces which serves different functions. (Wee, 2016). Figure 3.47 The spacious event hall of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which sees a grandeur eclectic style which is lighten up using traditional Chinese cultured style ornaments. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.48 Event hall stairs atrium which is the main mean of circulation and connectivity between floors. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.49 Grill door leading into the vault cum storage space located at the far end of the event hall. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.50 Storage bunker entry behind the event hall. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.51 First floor plan of the event hall lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which accommodates different spaces ranging from hotel rooms, lofts and also internal courtyard with interior landscape as its central feature. (Wee, 2016). Figure 3.52 Stairs hall as seen from the receiving hall on the first floor of the boutique hotel lot. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.53 The hall which accommodate multiple rooms portrays grandeur essence. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.54 The living space within the ground floor of both rooms while featuring a stairs which leads up to a bed. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.55 The second hall within the shophouse building which is converted into a sitting area which features a central atrium for the spiral stairs, as indicated 3 in Figure 3.59. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.56 The air well which illuminates the spiral stairs atrium which is the central feature of the second hall cum sitting area, as indicated 6 in Figure 3.59. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.57 The rear court which is located after the second

13. xiii hall is converted into a kitchen cum dining area to serve the guests of the hotel, as indicated 4 in Figure 3.59. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.58 The second rear court which is relatively smaller, converted into storage cum sanitary services space with a skylight illuminating the interior, as indicated 5 in Figure 3.59. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.59 Ground floor plan of the boutique hotel lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which serves different functions and as indicated by the numbers in the plan. (Ashik, 2016). Figure 3.60 First floor plan of the boutique hotel lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which house the rooms of the hotel and also hold several circulation spaces as indicated by the numbers in the plan. (Ashik, 2016). Figure 3.61 The receiving hall of the first floor of the boutique hotel lot via ascending a spiral stairs. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.62 The hall leading into the Platinum, Silver and Gold Lofts within the first floor of the hotel lot by which features a stairs ascending to the second floor which is the Gold Loft. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.63 The side bed chamber within the Platinum Loft by which is flanked by to side entries, one leading to a nextbed chamber and another leading to the washing closet. (Qwuen, 2016). Figure 3.64 The bed chamber within the Silver Loft and an entry which leads into the washing closet. (Qwuen, 2016). Figure 3.65 The Malaysian Honeyguide Loft which is unique as it is the biggest room within the floor and also within the entire boutique hotel lot which bed chamber twice the size and the door at the far end leading into a luxurious washing closet. (AsiaBooking, 2016). Figure 3.66 The rear stairs which is located in the kitchen of the building which connects to the first floor above which leads to the transitional walkway. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.67 The transitional walkway which is reached directly upon ascending the rear stairs while connecting it to the receiving hall. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.68 Second floor plan of the boutique hotel lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which house the Gold Loft of the

14. xiv hotel which is the only room housing the second floor of the boutique hotel lot. (Ashik, 2016). Figure 3.69 Gold Loft as seen interiorly while windows opening to the low ceiling covering the Silver Loft. (Sarang Paloh, 2016). Figure 3.70 Ground floor plan of the event hall lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which accommodates different spaces which serves different functions. (Wee, 2016). Figure 3.71 The spacious event hall of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which sees a grandeur eclectic style which is lighten up using traditional Chinese cultured style ornaments. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.72 Event hall stairs atrium which is the main mean of circulation and connectivity between floors. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.73 Grill door leading into the vault cum storage space located at the far end of the event hall. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.74 Storage bunker entry behind the event hall. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.75 First floor plan of the event hall lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which accommodates different spaces ranging from hotel rooms, lofts and also internal courtyard with interior landscape as its central feature. (Wee, 2016). Figure 3.76 Stairs hall as seen from the receiving hall on the first floor of the boutique hotel lot. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.77 The hall which accommodate multiple rooms portrays grandeur essence. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.78 The living space within the ground floor of both rooms while featuring a stairs which leads up to a bed. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.79 The interior of the mentioned room which sees a spacious interior. (Sarang Paloh, 2016). Figure 3.80 An image of the walkway which leads from the stairs hall to the garden which faces the door of the Great Tit Room. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.81 The garden which is featured within the central courtyard within the hotel. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.82 The walkway linking the garden into the sanitary services which gradually leads into the Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay Art Gallery. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.83 Second floor plan of the event hall lot of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay which accommodates only the second

15. xv floor of the two double volume rooms - Stork Bird Kingfisher Room and also the Red Throated Sunbird Room. (Tan, 2016). Figure 3.84 The bed chamber and sleeping area on the first floor of the room, the second floor of the building, through the utilization of double volume space. (Sarang Paloh, 2016). Figure 4.1 An image showing the ground floor plan of Sarang Paloh with its circulation indicated in red. (Ashik, 2016). Figure 4.2 An image showing the first floor plan of Sarang Paloh with its circulation indicated in red. (Ashik, 2016). Figure 4.3 The above shows the public, semi-public and private spaces of the ground floor and first floor circulation.( Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.4 The above shows the public, semi-public and private spaces of the ground floor and first floor circulation.( Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.5 Sectional perspective Y2Y2 (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.6 Sectional perspective Y4Y4 (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.7 Section Y1Y1 depicting spaces with natural lighting (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.8 Section Y3Y3 depicting spaces with natural lighting (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.9 Section Y1Y1 depicting green spaces.(Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.10 Section Y3Y3 depicting green spaces (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.11 Section Y1Y1 depicting the buildings ventilation (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.12 Section Y3Y3 depicting the buildings ventilation (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.13 An image showing the hotel lobby (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.14 An image showing the airwell (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.15 An image showing the pantry/kitchen space (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.16 An image showing the rear court of the boutique hotel (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.17 An image showing the interior of the event hall (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.18 The images shows the exterior and interior of the bunker respectively (Ashik, 2016)

16. xvi Figure 4.19 The images shows the exterior and interior of the bunker respectively (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.20 The image shows the hallway space at entrance to the spiral staircase (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.21 The images show the narrow corridor and the ceiling above it respectively (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.22 The images show the narrow corridor and the ceiling above it respectively (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.23 Both images depicts the view of the space from the ground and from above (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.24 Both images depicts the view of the space from the ground and from above (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.25 An image showing the interior space of the Honeyguide hotel room (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.26 The images depicts the narrow hotel corridor and its double volume void ceiling (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.27 The images depicts the narrow hotel corridor and its double volume void ceiling (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.28 The images shows the roof garden and its courtyard repectively (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.29 The images shows the roof garden and its courtyard repectively (Ashik, 2016) Figure 4.30 Front desk of Yik Woh Goldsmith & Jeweller shop. Figure 4.31 Front desk of Sarang Paloh Boutique hotel lobby. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 4.32 Safe of Yik Woh Goldsmith & Jeweller shop. Figure 4.33 Open courtyard in Sarang Paloh Boutique Hotel. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 4.34 Staff parking space. Figure 4.35 Kitchen for Sarang Paloh Boutique Hotel. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 4.36 Rear courtyard. Figure 4.37 Rear courtyard now. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 4.38 Living spaces for the staffs. Figure 4.39 Hotel rooms. Figure 4.40 Front desk of OCBC Building. Figure 4.41 Sarang Paloh Event hall. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 4.42 Store room for Sarang Paloh Event Hall. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 4.43 Bunker. Figure 4.44 Store room. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 4.45 Insurance company. Figure 4.46 Hotel rooms. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 4.47 Flat slab with air vents. Figure 4.48 Roof garden. (Tan, 2016.)

17. xvii Figure 5.1 Bunker that constructed with clay bricks, painted with white. (Wong, 2016.) Figure 5.2 The original timber battens that located in the rear courtyard of the boutique hotel. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.3 Timber is used to construct the window frame as well as the timber shuttered wall. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.4 Steel beams and columns are added to support the load of the first floor. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.5 Steel spiral staircase in the open courtyard which coated with black paint to prevent corrosion. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.6 Gypsum plaster applied on the skirting. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.7 Usage of gypsum plaster in the wall in ground floor. Figure 5.8 Porcelain tiles. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.9 Usage of porcelain tiles in ground floor. Figure 5.10 Mosaic tiles in the staircase. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.11 Usage of mosaic tiles in the ground floor. Figure 5.12 Terracotta tiles. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.13 Usage of terracotta tiles in ground floor. Figure 5.14 Wall tiles found in the event hall. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.15 Usage of ceramic wall tiles in ground floor. Figure 5.16 The flower motifs Nyonya tiles found in the event hall. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.17 Usage of hydraulic cement tiles in ground floor. Figure 5.18 Terrazzo tiles with pattern that found in the five foot way. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.19 Usage of terrazzo tiles in ground floor. Figure 5.20 Timber flooring in the first floor or the boutique hotel. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.21 Usage of timber finishes in first floor and second floor. Figure 5.22 Structural diagram of the timber roof system. Figure 5.23 Section of the roof of event hall. Figure 5.24 Section - a combination of king post truss and queen post truss are used in the roof of event hall. Figure 5.25 Construction drawings of the timber wall panel. Figure 5.26 Timber wall panel in the second floor of boutique hotel. (Tan, 2016.) Figure 5.27 Timber flooring system.

18. xviii Tables of Content Declaration of Submission ii Acknowledgement iii Abstract iv List of Figures v 1 Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Objectives and Aim 3 1.2 Scope 4 1.3 Limitations 5 1.4 Methodologies 6 1.5 Equipment 10 1.6 Literature Review 14 1.7 Significance of Studies 15 2 Chapter 2: Historical Background 2.1 History of Perak 2.1.1 Origin of the Name 19 2.1.2 Timeline 20 2.1.3 British Colonization 21 2.1.4 Social 22 2.1.5 Economy 23 2.1.6 Architecture 25 2.2 History of Kinta District and Kinta Valley 2.2.1 Origin of the Name 35 2.2.2 Timeline 36 2.2.3 British Administration in Kinta District 37 2.2.4 Mining 39 2.2.5 Social 40 2.2.6 Economy 41 2.3 History of Ipoh 2.3.1 Origin of the Name 42 2.3.2 Timeline 44 2.3.3 Development of Ipoh Town 42 2.4 History of Jalan Sultan Iskandar 2.4.1 Origin of the Name 55 2.4.2 Insight 56

19. xix 2.5 History of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay and Event Hall 2.5.1 Ownership 58 2.5.2 Timeline 60 3 Chapter 3: Architectural Development 3.1 Site Context 3.1.1 Site Plan and Lot Number Plan 62 3.1.2 External Structures and Surrounding 64 Buildings 3.1.3 Hardscape 68 3.1.4 Building Accessibility 70 3.1.5 Genius Loci and Surrounding Cultural 75 Activities 3.1.6 Orientation of Building On Site 77 3.2 Design Concept 3.2.1 Design in relation to context 78 3.2.2 Form 79 3.2.3 Exterior 80 3.2.4 Interior 83 3.3 Functions of Spaces of Building 3.3.1 Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay Boutique 95 Hotel Building Lot 3.3.2 Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay Event Hall 106 Building Lot 4 Chapter 4: Architectural & Spatial Layout 4.1 Spatial Layout 4.1.1 Circulation 119 4.1.2 Public & Private Spaces 122 4.2 Spatial Experience and Program 4.2.1 Spatial Programming 124 4.2.2 Passive Design 126 4.2.3 Spatial Experience 129 4.3 Spatial Comparison 135

20. xx 5 Chapter 5: Building Materials and Construction 5.1 Building Materials 5.1.1 Structural 146 5.1.2 Finishing 149 5.2 Building Construction 5.2.1 Roof System 157 5.2.2 Wall System 159 5.2.3 Floor System 160 Conclusion 161 References 163 Glossary 164 Appendix A Interview Transcript B Photobook C Scaled Drawings

21. 2 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Covers the aims and objectives of this study, the scope of studies and research, limitations and obstacles faced during the process of study, the methodologies implemented throughout the process of this study, the list of equipment used for the study, a brief literature review of the building and also the significance of studies in regards to the assigned building.

22. 3 1.1 Objectives and Aim The objective of this study is to obtain the accurate measurements that reflect the current state of the building and to also document the architectural and cultural significances of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall. The team is required to produce floor plans, sections, elevations, site plan and also detail schedules. These drawings are scaled drawings which are done according to the existing heritage building which is on site. In the later phase of the project also requires us to produce a scaled model of the Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall building. Apart from that, our group is also required to produce a research paper to emphasize and highlight the history, cultural and design concept of the building. In depth and thorough research and interpretation in regards to the functionality and the construction techniques are to be documented into the report. The aim of this implemented study is to allow us to produce and act as a credible source of information regarding the assigned building - Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event hall for both academic, conservation and preservation purposes.

23. 4 1.2 Scope The scope of study covers from building measurements from corner to edges in order to obtain accurate dimensions of each and every single space. Besides, exterior and interior elevation are also required which will later contribute to the development of the section of the building. A thorough research onto the building are also required in order obtain sufficient information regarding the building. The scope of research includes the historical and cultural background of the building and also its construction details which will also indirectly leads to the documentation of the design concept and intention. This research scope also indirectly covers the history of the functions, usage, purpose and typology of the building and how it has evolved over the years till what it is currently. Various media are required in order for us to demonstrate our understanding and to illustrate our interpretation of the spaces around the mentioned building. To list a few, including developing physical 3D models in order to relate the building to the viewers, sets of scaled CAD drawings, a documentary video and a thorough and concise report in regards to research, interpretations, analysis and findings on the building.

24. 5 1.3 Limitations Limitations and obstacles are definitely unavoidable and by which are solved through the implementations of certain measures. One of the most problematic issues is the restricted mobility and accessibility around the site building while measuring works are carried out. Some parts of the building which requires measuring are too high up and making it a problem to access. Besides, certain ornamentations which are too intricate could not be measured and hence different sort of techniques were implemented in order to curb these issues. Eye level scaled images were taken and were scaled down in AutoCAD in order to obtain a more accurate dimension and more proportionate picture of certain details and ornamentations. In terms of field of research is not as rich as expected which limits us in terms of documentations and analysis. This was because the building is not as prominent as compared to other certain heritage buildings around Malaysia and also in Ipoh, hence dwarfing it and its regarding information. Source of photographs, information and documentations are scarce as well by which makes the tracing back of history of the building difficult. Certain beneficial information were declined to be shared by the refurbishment firm of the building as well in order to retain its confidentiality. Online data and physical sources such as books and catalogues are not as rich in terms of information which limits our research scope. Due to it being quite a low profiled building, hence many are not aware of its story or some not even its presence. Hence, most of the research analysis and information are based on whatsoever which were retrieved on site and by which and compared, analyzed and interpreted thoroughly.

25. 6 1.4 Methodologies Various methods were implemented in order to collect data to complete the research and documentation of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay. The team, composed of a total of 25 students, was segregated into several sub groups which are to be listed in the following: floor plans group, elevations group, sections group and also detailing schedules group. Each group operated under a sub group leader who oversaw the entire process of operation of the group which later on had to be coordinated and collaborated with the other sub groups in order to produce an accurate set of measurements and drawings. Methods of Measurements Despite the different methods utilized while obtaining measurements for the drawings of the building, the team primarily utilize the function of the measuring tape (see Figure 1.1), the usage of digital laser measuring device and also the metal rule in order to obtain measurements for intricate details and certain ornamentations (see Figure 1.2). Measuring tapes are mostly utilized along with the help of a ladder in order to obtain measurements for a certain height (see Figure 1.3). The digital laser measurement device contributes to measuring heights and parts of building which are restricted in terms of mobility and accessibility due to hazard and heights. Figure 1.1 - A member of the team, Tang Ze Zheng, utilizing the measuring tape to obtain the width of the column. (Tan, 2016).

26. 7 In order for us to obtain data of the façade of the building which were too high, perpendicular scaled images were taken from the opposite side of the building in order to be scaled down while producing the digital drawings later. This indirectly contributed to allowing us to produce drawings which are slightly accurate for the ornamentation details which were on the façade which were nearly impossible to measure. Due to it being an old building, certain walls and floorings are not of proportion as to one another. For instance, certain walls are not perpendicularly conjoined to one another as also for the level of the floorings. In order to curb with this, datum lines are set using a T-square and with the help of the digital laser measuring device in order to measurements of certain drops, pitches and inclination of the floor level. Majorly most of the measuring works for the details and ornamentations, regardless of it being on the façade or within certain building elements are done via perpendicular scaled images. This was carried out in order to be time efficient. These photos were then later on sent into AutoCAD in order to be traced and scaled down with proportionate measurements and dimensions. Figure 1.2 - A member of the team, Tang Ze Zheng, utilizing the metal rule to obtain detailed measurements. (Tan, 2016) Figure 1.3 - A member of the team, Tang Ze Zheng, using the ladder and measuring tape rule to obtain the height of the column. (Tan, 2016).

27. 8 Production of Drawings The measurements obtained for each and different parts of the building on site were either directly drafted on or off site. After returning to campus from site, further discussion commenced in order to draft the measured drawings via AutoCAD. Along the process while producing and refining the drafted digital drawings, certain presets of line weights, line scale and line type were distributed by the sub group leaders to their sub group members in order to fully commence the actual production of the drawings. These steps were done in order to ensure consistency, standardization and also quality in the drawings produced. Methods of Research In order to fully document and to expand our scope of coverage in regards to the historical, cultural and the architectural aspect of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay, various interviews were conducted with the owners of the building, the employees within the hotel and also the furniture contractor and maintenance man of the premises (see Figure 1.4) which is working for them for the past 6 years approximate ever since the starting of their family business. The team had also been busy visiting various authorities and libraries in order to obtain various beneficial information which will be later documented in the report. Besides, certain useful information were also retrieved online books, journals and websites as well. Figure 1.4 - Members of the team, Loh Wei Shuen (front) and Ryan Kerry (back), interviewing and touring along the premises with the furniture contractor and maintenance man of the hotel, Mr Lee. (Tan, 2016).

28. 9 Methods of Model Making & Production In order to be efficient and to have quality control within the model making and production process, added with the fact that the façades of our building are highly decorated and ornamented, our team decided to utilize the method of laser cutting. Along the way, various techniques were used in order to identify the different layers of model facets and its belonging digital drawing. This is to ensure the cuttings for different facets of the model to be done on isolated wood panels. After different facets are produced from the laser cutting process, the sub group in charge of model making then carefully assemble the bits and pieces together in order to complete the model.

29. 10 1.5 Equipment In order to obtain accurate measurements and to produce certain documentations, certain tools and equipment are required in order to allow use to obtain and retrieve certain desired data and information. Bosch DLE 50 Professional Digital Laser Distance Meter The Bosch DLE 50 Professional Digital Laser Distance Meter was an expensive and valuable piece of equipment which was used in order to obtain accurate dimensions and to conduct measuring activities in towards certain parts of the building which was less accessible and hazardous to our reach. Due to its cost and it belonging to the campus, it was handled with proper care. This piece of ingenious device was utilized to measure certain height, for instance the height of the ceiling from the floor in a room at a certain specific point to another. This was done by placing the device on a flat floor with the laser transmitter facing the ceiling. After certain adjustments towards the settings on the device, the measurements and intended dimensions will appear digitally on the screen of the device. (See Figure 1.5) Figure 1.5 - An image showing the device - Bosch DLE 50 Professional Digital Laser Distance Meter. (Amazon, 2016).

30. 11 Standard typical measuring tape (assorted lengths) This was one of the most primary and most frequently used devices throughout the entire measuring activity that had been carried out within the building. This common measuring equipment contributes to most of the measuring activities as it is convenient and mobile to be easily brought with and can be easily purchased from a hardware store and which comes with various kinds of lengths and dimensions which will be handy at times. This device were mostly utilized to measure most of the reachable height of certain parts of the buildings and also for most of the width, lengths and depth of different parts of the buildings, for instance the stairs within the building. (See Figure 1.6). Standard typical metal rule (assorted lengths) This was one of the most useful tool of measuring when on site as it provide measuring capabilities for certain intricate details. This was because the units on this measuring device are more detail and intricate. Due to its length and weight of the device, hence it provide convenience while utilizing for any sort of measuring purposes. (See Figure 1.7). Standard typical T-Square (90cm) The main use of the T-square on site are mainly to act as datum posts in order to obtain finish floor level (FFL) and also while allowing us to obtain measurements of inclination, pitches and settlement of flooring within the premises. Besides, T-square mainly also serves to act as a large scale ruler by which is to be placed perpendicularly beside an intricate object or detail which requires tracing and by which a scaled image was taken and later traced via AutoCAD. (See Figure 1.8) Figure 1.6 - An example image showing a standard typical measuring tape which varies in lengths. (Amazon, 2016). Figure 1.7 - Image indicating a standard typical metal rule which varies in terms of length and dimension. (Working Silver, 2016).

31. 12 Ladder There were a few ladders on site, brought in personally by the members of the team. One of the ladders was approximately 7ft in height whereas the other was roughly 14ft in height as it was foldable in half. Another ladder which was 8ft in height provide access to higher heights which were inaccessible conveniently without ladders. Ladders were also convenient in the sense that they provide usage within the interior spaces of the building. The ladder was operated with care and measurement works using ladders were always done in pairs in the sense that the person on the ladder will be measuring while the other supports the ladder to ensure the safety of another above. (See Figure 1.3). Stationeries In order to record the measurements of each and every single detail measured by the members, various stationeries were used for instance, papers, pens, erasers, rulers, scale rulers, color pens, tracing papers, graphs papers, butter papers etc. This allowed for quick sketching, drafting and also visual documentations of the items, spaces, dimensions and also measurements that were being documented. Figure 1.8 - Image showing a standard typical T-Square whereby a 90cm length was used on site. (Creative-Coldsnow, 2016).

32. 13 Photography tools and equipment Several items that were being utilized by the members of the photography crew in order to visually document the spaces, the details, the façade and the furniture within the building. The various tools are for instance the DSLR camera with Digital Single Lens Reflex, tripods, digital cameras and also smartphone cameras. Laptops & Preinstalled AutoCAD software The documented measurements, dimensions, drafts of various spaces surrounding the building were all exported into AutoCAD in order to produce and develop digitalized drawings as a final product later on. Through AutoCAD, the line weights were edited and standardized using a single preset and by which were distributed among all CAD sub groups in order to standardize all drawing specifications. All of these were done via laptops with preinstalled AutoCAD software.

33. 14 1.6 Literature Review The Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay has become a very important and one of the most prominent building in the city of Ipoh. Despite the fact that the foreshadowing of the future development of Ipoh currently, the building was once an infamous goldsmith, pawn shop and jewelry store, and also a building which used to accommodate the Oversea Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC Bank). The bank started operation as early as 1939 through purchasing the current building from the Bank of Malaya from a Chinese Merchant. Due to the Great Depression, it was put for sale at a very low price. Hence, the owner of OCBC bank took the opportunity to purchase the property over and took charge of the operation ever since. Today, the structure still stand prominent along the infamous street of Hugh Low which is now known as Jalan Sultan Iskandar, while still reflect the past where memories and stories still were told while reminiscing and giving off a feeling of nostalgia to the people of Ipoh. The literature review emphasizes on the importance of knowledge on the history and theory based on analysis and interpretation. The key figure of this study is the most recent ownership of the building and the history that lies behind it and what and how had it influenced the people over time. In addition, the study of the spaces within the building, the cultural aspects and also the site context are selected for the writings. Books, articles, blog reviews, journal and other sort of physical publications provide information on the historical background of Malaya and Malaysia, and in this sense more specifically towards the city of Ipoh and its culture and history throughout all these times which sees the influences of architectural style imprinted onto the building.

34. 15 1.7 Significance of Studies Figure 1.9 - The façade of Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall (2nd & 3rd building from the left) which depicts the eclectic design of Neoclassical and art Art Deco exterior. (Tan, 2016). The entire purpose and objective of this module is to emphasize the importance of heritage buildings around Ipoh by which will reflect greatly upon the rich culture and history of Malaysia (see Figure 1.9). This very building, Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay, despite the changes made within its building, the switching of ownership of building, its original building have witnessed much historically significant changes along Jalan Sultan Iskandar and also within Ipoh City itself. It has undergone various

35. 16 typological functions which serves different strata of the society then and now. Through sketching, drawing, measuring and documenting the building on site, hence enabling us students to develop more appreciation towards both the heritage buildings and also the rich culture and history of Malaysia. This study also aims to further analyze the politics and also the economics that surround the building, within the city of Ipoh and also along the historically well-known Jalan Sultan Iskandar. Through this, it serves to also show how it characterizes various eclectic styles of both Western and Eastern cultural design and how various influences had the tendency to imprint their own style into the embodiment of architecture of the building.

36. 17 Chapter 2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Covers the history of our site from macro scale to micro scale which are Perak, Kinta District & Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Jalan Sultan Iskandar and Sarang Paloh Heritage Stay & Event Hall buildings.

37. 18 2.1 History of Perak Perak, one of the 13 States of Malaysia, is the second largest State in Peninsular Malaysia. The State of Perak is divided into 9 Districts (see Figure 2.1) which are Kuala Kangsar, Hulu Perak, Perak Tengah, Hilir Perak, Kinta, Kerian, Manjung, Batang Padang and Larut, Matang and Selama which is the merging of the previously separated District. Perak is rich with the tin-ore resources especially in Larut and Kinta District. Perak is wealthy with natural resources and attracted the attention of native rulers as well as Europeans in the mid-19th century. It not only brings the economic benefits but also results in a sanguinary battle among the chiefs. The Perak Sultanate was unable to control these battles and sought assistance from the British. The British started to interfere in affairs and soon came out with their new administration methods for Perak. The arrival of the British changed the existing condition of Perak. which included the introduction of the rubber industry in the late 19th century. Figure 2.1 - Map of Perak (Khoo, Lubis, 2016.)

38. 19 2.1.1 - Origin of the Name According to the Misa Melayu- an ancient text of Perak, the second king Sultan Malik Shah noticed that one of the tributaries was white as coconut milk. Then he sent his chief Megat Terawis to investigate the source of the stream. He found that there was a large fish suckling its young, with milk flowing from her ample white breast. So the Sultan gave the name “Perak” (which means ‘silver’ after the silverish white fish milk) to the main river which flows from the north to the south of the state.

39. 20 2.1.2 - Timeline

40. 21 2.1.3 - British Colonization Due to the huge demand of tin in the Industrial Revolution, the Europeans especially British and Dutch had a high desire to monopolise the production of the tin. The chaos among the chiefs wasn’t enormous enough to involve British until the power struggle between the Raja Ismail and Raja Abdullah. Though the signing of the Pangkor Treaty on 1874, it showed that Perak was agreed to accept the installation of the British Resident. J.W.W. Birch (See Figure 2.2) was appointed as the first British Resident in Perak. The status of the Resident was served as the advisor of Sultan for all matters except than those involving Malay religion and traditional practice. The Sultans lost their power in administration. The launch of the resident system in other Malay States had strongly affected their Sultanate structure. However, the intervention of British marked a turning point in British policy. The new art of government helped the Perak in development. A handful from the colonial officer, the traditional elite and leaders of migrants collaborated to re-built Perak. From the British point of view, their end objective was a prosperous, settled population cultivating the land under a benevolent government. Figure 2.2 - The First British Resident of Perak, James Wheeler Woodford Birch. Figure 2.3 - The Fourth British Resident of Perak, Sir Hugh Low who formulated the modern laws that pertaining to land matters, agriculture, the mining, labour and taxation.

41. 22 2.1.4 - Social Tin was discovered by Long Jaafar in 1848, drew in a large population of Chinese immigrants from the Chinese diaspora to Nanyang. They built their livelihood, fame, and fortune around the mines. Beside working as miners (figure 2.4), most of the Chinese involved themselves in all sorts of economic activities such as traders, hawkers, goldsmiths, rickshaw- puller, fortune-tellers as well as the civil servants. Chinese associations like Kheng Chao Association (Hainanese) and Ku Kong Chow Association was born to promote relationships and cooperation among the Chinese business community. Most of the Malays were traditionally agrarian occupations and ancestral miners. They planted cash crops such as indigo and sugar cane to support themselves. The Indians worked as the coolies, servants, gardeners and low- government servant. Until 20th century, the booming of rubber plantation brought in thousands of Indians. Not to excluding the European society - including government officers, planters and some involved in the Christian mission. Figure 2.4 - Woman dulang-washers worked as gleaners on the periphery of many tin mines. (Khoo, Lubis, Wade, 2016.) Figure 2.5 - Sultan Idris and Sir Hugh Low, two pioneers of modern Perak. (Khoo, Lubis, 2016.)

42. 23 2.1.5 - Economy Tin mining in Perak is the major economic activity throughout the 19th and the 20th centuries. The British government put a lot attention on infrastructure and development such as road construction and a proliferation of public and commercial buildings. The first railway line in Malaya was opened in 1885 to connect Port Weld (now called Lumut) and Taiping. Besides mining, agriculture is also one of the most important incomes of the locals. The rubber industry was brought in by R. Ridley in 1890s and introduced by Sir Hugh Low, the fourth British Resident. The Industrial Revolution in Europe increased the demands of rubber which is the raw material of tyre. The industry opened up the working opportunities and attracted the Southern Indian labour force. The combined revenues from the sale of tin and rubber made the British Malaya one of the richest colonies of the British Empire. This brought about increased investment by the colonial administration in the construction of buildings and the development of infrastructure to facilitate efficient exploitation of the country’s resources. Figure 2.6 - Vast tracts of forest were cleared for rubber plantations. (Changkat Salah Rubber Estate, Perak, 2016.)

43. 24 When the rubber industry was scorching hot in 1910, the people started to get rid of their tin shares to invest in rubber (See Figure 2.6). The rubber boom benefited the estate coolies and when it came to the tin crash in 1908, the mining coolies began to abandon the mines to work in the estates. The rubber was selling at nearly five times the price in 1908 and the Perak Pioneer reported: RUBBER IN 1910 If one saw a cheerful face in Kuala Lumpur a few years ago, it generally belonged to a tin miner, and he probably came from Ipoh. Now it is the planters who are smiling, and the miners look glum. (Ho, 2016.) However there was no immediate industrial action taken. The rubber boom lasted only until the end of the year and the fall demand of rubber happened in 1940s due to the invention of the synthetic rubber.

44. 25 2.1.6 - Architecture In the early centuries AD, there were a number of Indian empires in Southeast Asia. These empires had influenced the Peninsula Malaysia with their own traditions, customs, arts and crafts. Plus the trading between the Indian empires with the Chinese brought the Buddhist and Hindu religions into this region. The earliest architectural style such as the use of laterite blockwork (See Figure 2.7) can be discovered from the remaining ancient Hindu-Buddhist temples. Soon Islam was introduced in peninsula Malaysia by Arab and Indian Muslim traders. The Sultan title was used for the king that believed in Islam. The Sultan of Melaka wanted to expand his sultanate as well as the spread the Islamic religion continued. The sultanate dominated both sides of the Straits of Melaka for more than a hundred years and this period marked the classical age of Malay culture and architecture. As we can see today, many of the Malay states in peninsula Malaysia can refer back to their origin which is the Melaka Sultanate. Figure 2.7 - The remains of the Hindu-Buddhist temple founded in Bujang Valley, Kedah. (Yeang, 2016.)

45. 26 (i) Traditional Architectural Style The traditional Malay style can be found in early buildings. The usage of the natural materials with low thermal capacity like timber, rattan, bamboo and attap are used to minimise the heat flow into the house. The traditional Malay style can be divided into three sections - the rumah ibu (core house), silang (link) and dapur (kitchen) respectively. The Malay house in the States can be categorized by the bumbung Perak, or gambled roof which later on developed from the bumbung lima (five-ridge roof) (See Figure 2.8). The simple and lightweight construction of the gamble roof helps ventilation efficiency. Another interesting feature of the Perak Malay house is the anjung (entrance porch) which usually decorated with the fine lattice arches. Before the British administration, there was no brick buildings besides the notable founded in Pulau Pangkor which was built by the Dutch. The buildings were predominantly built with timber, with the fusion of the traditional Malay architecture. Figure 2.8 - A parallel two-unit traditional Malay house in Kuala Kangsar. (Landmarks of Perak, 2016.)

46. 27 (ii) Regional Architectural Style The regional architectural style was brought into the Peninsular Malaysia by the immigrants in the late 19th century. They brought along their own religious beliefs and practices and built places of worship as soon as they settled in the new country. The building inherited the essence from their lands of origin. The temples of different Chinese dialect groups had similar floor plans and distinct roof styles whereas the Indian temples somehow reflected back to the age-old design principles of similar temples in the Southern India. Figure 2.9 - Pa Lo Ku Miao in Ipoh, with flat roof ridge characteristic of the Cantonese. (Landmarks of Perak, 2016.)

47. 28 (iii) Neoclassical Style The Neoclassical style is a revival style of the Greek and Roman architecture which impresses visitors. By considering the local climate, the Neoclassical styles soon cooperated the verandahs and overhanging roofs into their design and widely applied on buildings. Shop houses, townhouses, associations, clubs, institutions and secular schools all in Perak used the Neoclassical elements in a hybrid mix. The example for the Neoclassical style is the Kinta District administrative centre of Batu Gajah which was the earliest building that embodied the new British architectural style. It created an impressive trio compared to the linked government office. Figure 2.10 - Kinta District Administrative Centre of Batu Gajah.

48. 29 (iv) Colonial Architectural Style The British colonial architecture was the expression of dominance and power and the grand Palladian style was exported by British to its various colonies and settlements at the height of the British Empire. Palladian style derived from the classical Roman and Greek architectural orders. It utilises the symmetrical planning, harmonic proportions and Greek and Roman motifs and Doric lines to the columns. The Palladian style was widely used in government offices and buildings which were able to provide buildings with an image of distinction, grandeur and authority. The example the Palladian style can be found at the Ipoh Town Hall. Figure 2.11 - Ipoh Town Hall. (Khoo, Lubis, Wade, 2016.)

49. 30 (v) Mogul Architectural Style Coexisting with the Neoclassical style was the Mogul style, which was first seen in the peninsular Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur’s New Government Offices (built 1894-97; now Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad) (See Figure 2.12). The Mogul style also called “Indo-Islamic”, was developed in India during the Moghul Dynasty (1526-1858). Masjid Ubudiah (See Figure 2.13) in Kuala Kangsar was one of the examples of the Mogul architecture style. Figure 2.12 - Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad in Kuala Lumpur. (Landmarks of Perak, 2016.) Figure 2.13 - Masjid Ubudiah (Khoo, Lubis, Wade, 2016.)

50. 31 (vi) Chinese Eclectic Style The early Chinese settlers in Malaya could not afford to have grand houses constructed, their priority being the accumulation of wealth in order to send funds back to China and eventually return themselves. It was not until the 19th century that the houses following traditional Chinese designs were built in Malaya. The fundamental concepts of Chinese architecture are the courtyards, emphasis on the roof, exposure of structural elements and the use of colour. In the Chinese traditional, the ethnics and values of an extended family able to live together is the most desirable community. The idea forms a basis of traditional Chinese society and of classical Chinese house design “three generation under one roof”. The courtyard used as the dweller spaces and entertainment for the informal guests. For Chinese, a house is a private and personal space. The courtyard will be enclosed with walled system. The concept of feng shui also applied in the Chinese Eclectic style houses. Most obvious example for the Chinese Eclectic Style is the shop house. Figure 2.14 - A typical Chinese eclectic style house.

51. 32 (vii) Anglo-Straits Architectural Style After the consideration of the climate, the Anglo-Straits architecture style was introduced by George Drumgold Coleman. His design adopted the colonial style architecture and put in the Malay architecture principle such as the timber construction with a steep attap roof. However due to the risk of fire, attap roof was abandoned and Chinese roofing tiles were used. To enhance the building’s prestige, the classical elements such as the roman columns and western ornamentation were added later on. The Anglo-Straits Architectural style was more popular among Chinese towkays (wealthy businessmen), due to its being better suited to the conditions prevailing in Southeast Asia. Examples of the Anglo-Straits Architecture style are Grand Hotel (See Figure 2.15) and Anderson School (See Figure 2.16). Figure 2.15 - Grand Hotel in Ipoh. (Georgetown Dispensary Series, 2016.) Figure 2.16 - Anderson School in Ipoh. (Kunverjee Maljee Series, 2016.)

52. 33 (viii) Art Deco and International Style The Art Deco style started in the late 1920s. The new materials like mosaic and glass block began to be used in significant buildings. A very significant change, with the embrace of, first, Art Deco that we have seen with the Mercantile Bank in Ipoh and then the early International Style. Lam Looking Bazaar (See Figure 2.18) is the earliest example of the International Style. Figure 2.17 - The Art Deco façade of the Majestic Theatre. (Landmarks of Perak, 2016.) Figure 2.18 - Lam Looking Bazaar on Jalan Laksamana, Ipoh, was the earliest International style example. (Landmarks of Per

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