Published on March 6, 2014
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; TRAINING MATERIAL ON SAP PLM Prepared by KMR Software Services www.kmrsoft.com Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Index An Introduction to SAP ...............................................................................................................................03 SAP Navigations ............................................................................................................................................04 What is PLM?.................................................................................................................................................10 Different PLM Systems ...............................................................................................................................12 Master data ...................................................................................................................................................15 Material Master ............................................................................................................................................17 Bill of Material (BOM) .................................................................................................................................29 Work Center ..................................................................................................................................................44 Routings ..........................................................................................................................................................47 Classification ..................................................................................................................................................53 Engineering Change Management ..........................................................................................................63 Document Management ............................................................................................................................88 SAP Easy Document Management ..............................................................................121 CAD Desktop (CA-CAD) ............................................................................................................................ 128 Collaboration Folders (cFolders) ........................................................................................................... 135 Collaboration Projects (cProjects) ........................................................................................................ 143 Web User Interface of SAP Product Lifecycle Management (PLM-WUI).................................... 159 What is ASAP Methodology.................................................................................................................... 167 Glossary of SAP terms .............................................................................................................................. 179 2 . An Introduction to SAP
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; SAP: Systems Applications and Products in Data Process SAP was founded in 1972 in Walldorf, Germany. It stands for Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing. Over the years, it has grown and evolved to become the world premier provider of client/server business solutions for which it is so well known today. The SAP R/3 enterprise application suite for open client/server systems has established new standards for providing business information management solutions. Advantages of Using SAP R/3 in comparison with other Similar Tools Technology playing a major role in today's business environment. So many companies and corporations have adopted information technology on a large scale by using Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems to accomplish their business transaction and data processing needs. And in this technology SAP R/3 plays a significant role when compared with other similar tools. SAP Modules Overview Production Planning Materials Management Sales & Distribution Finance & Accounting, etc… SAP now are moving away from describing their system as a set of SAP Modules, and now are using the term „solutions‟, which is much better, as follows: Financials Human Resources Customer Relationship Management Supplier Relationship Management Product Lifecycle Management Supply Chain Management Business Intelligence
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; SAP Navigations Standard Toolbar Buttons Button Keyboard Shortcut Description Keyboard Button Shortcut Description Enter key Enter/Continue Ctrl G Continue Search Ctrl S Save F1 Help F3 Back Ctrl Page Up Scroll to top of document. Shift F3 Exit System Task. Page Up Scroll up one page. F12 Cancel Page Down Scroll down one pag.e Ctrl P Print Ctrl Page Down Scroll to last page of document. Ctrl F (PC only) Find (PC only) Alt F12 None Create new session. Customize local layout. Application Toolbar and Screen Buttons Keyboard Button Shortcut Description Keyboard Button Shortcut Description F8 Execute None Update/Refresh F5 Overview Shift F5 Get variant Shift F2 Delete Shift F6 Selection screen help
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Navigation Buttons Keyboard Button Shortcut Keyboard Button Shortcut Description Description Enter Enter/Continue/Copy F12 Cancel F8 Scroll left Shift F1 Shift F7 Scroll right Next item Ctrl Shift F1 Move Favorites Up Ctrl Shift F2 Move Favorites Down Ctrl F7 Previous layout Ctrl F8 Next layout Ctrl F10 User menu Ctrl F11 SAP menu F6 Display Period screen Matchcode Buttons Keyboard Button Shortcut Description F4 Display Matchcode list. F6 (Mac) Button Insert in personal list. Click on an item, then on the button. Shift F6 Restores the original Matchcode list. Keyboard Shortcut Description (PC only) F4 Display Matchcode list. Shift F6 (PC) Display personal value list. After you create the personal list, click on the button to end the list. Shift F4 Hold list displayed while you make a selection. Click on the button, then double-click to select a value. Working with Data Keyboard Button Shortcut Description Keyboard Button Shortcut Description Ctrl F1 Select all items on screen. Ctrl F2 Deselect all items on screen. Ctrl F3 Start/end of block. Select the first item; click the button. Ctrl F6 Display results.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Select the last item; click the button. F7 Display all possible values. F8 Collapse all levels. Ctrl Shift F5 Sort in ascending order: Change sort order to descending or ascending (Fund Analysis rpt) Ctrl Shift F4 Sort in descending order. Dynamic selections. Selection options. Choose F2 Shift F4 Select additional fields values >, <, etc. for search criteria. Shift F5 Multiple Selection. Include or exclude single values or ranges of values. Filter; restrict values to search on Matchcode list. None F5 None (Mac) Display -> Change. Switches from display to change mode. Replace item back into workflow in Workflow Inbox. Using Transactions (Reqs, JVs, etc.) Keyboard Button Shortcut Description Keyboard Button Shortcut Description F6 Display header details. F2 Display line item details. F2 Display additional info for PO line item. None Services for object (Display JVs, Reqs). Shift F5 Ctrl F12 General Statistics (Reqs) PO History Shift F5 Display delivery schedule for a PO line item. Ctrl F11 Display delivery address. Shift F6 Display conditions for a PO 6
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; line item. F7 Display the vendor address for a PO. Ctrl Shift F6 Show release strategy for PO. Formatting Text (Reqs, JVs) Keyboard Button Shortcut Shift F2 (PC only) Description Delete selection line. Keyboard Button Shortcut (PC only) F9 F9 Select. Click in a line item, then on the button. Ctrl Shift F2 Copy text (JV line item). Ctrl F10 Shift F6 Ctrl Shift F1 Cut text (JV line item). Paste text into field after you copy or cut it. Position the cursor and click the button. Description (Mac only) Item text (POs) Detailed text (JVs) Shift F4 Search and replace words in the JV text screen. F6 Create text (JVs). Top 7
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ;
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ;
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; 9
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ;
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; What is PLM? Product lifecycle management or PLM is an all-encompassing approach for innovation, new product development and introduction (NPDI) and product information management from ideation to end of life. Business Drivers Innovation and new product development are essential for most companies to sustain future revenue growth. Customers demand more new products in shorter time intervals, often customized to their own needs. They want more attractive designs, better performance, better quality, lower prices, and instant availability. To meet these needs companies have to be able to collaborate closely within their own organization and with partners and suppliers located in various parts of the world. At the same time companies have to manage increasing product and manufacturing complexities due to a quickly growing number of environmental and regulatory rules and requirements. The Problem Accelerating innovation and increasing the number of successful new product introductions is a huge challenge for most organizations today because of their traditionally serial, fragmented, manual, and paper based processes. The result is that many companies suffer from NPDI practices that are slow, resource intensive, costly, inflexible, provide little visibility, and are difficult to manage and control. The Solution – PLM Through their ability to integrate all product related data and processes and to eliminate boundaries in the value chain, PLM Systems can significantly reduce non-value added activities and enable stakeholders to collaborate in real time using a consistent set of information throughout the entire product lifecycle. 10
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KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; As a result, productivity improvements of over 60% in NPDI-related activities have been achieved through PLM-enabled, enterprise-wide data and process optimization and integration that have allowed companies to: Drive innovation Accelerate Revenues Increase Productivity Reduce Costs Improve Quality Ensure Compliance Shorten Time-to-Market In today‟s highly competitive, fast-paced and global business environment, well-designed and implemented PLM practices, processes and technologies that support an organization‟s strategies for innovation and growth can afford companies a real competitive advantage. 11
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ;
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Different PLM Systems Product Client Focus Vendor Accolade Small-Medium Sopheon Agile Advantage Small-Medium Oracle/Agile Agile e6 Medium-Large Oracle/Agile Agile 9 Medium-Large Oracle/Agile Aras Innovator Small-Medium Aras Corp Arena Small-Medium Arena Solutions Enovia MatrixOne Medium-Large Dassault Systemes Enovia SmarTeam Small-Medium Dassault Systemes BPMplus Small-Medium Ingenuus ProductCenter Small-Medium SofTech SAP PLM Medium-Large SAP Teamcenter Engineering Medium-Large Siemens PLM Software Teamcenter Enterprise Medium-Large Siemens PLM Software Teamcenter Express Small-Medium Siemens PLM Software Teamcenter Unified Medium-Large Siemens PLM Software Windchill Medium-Large PTC Windchill On-Demand Small-Medium PTC 1 2 With SAP PLM, you can harness the creativity and expertise of internal resources and external
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; partners to quickly turn concepts and ideas into successful products. You can manage product innovation and new product development, production ramp-up, product change management, and maintenance. And you can transfer, track, and control product and asset information throughout the extended supply chain to ensure speed, quality, efficiency, and, ultimately, profitability. Thousands of successful companies use SAP PLM in a wide variety of industries, including high tech, automotive, consumer products, engineering, and construction. SAP PLM enables companies like yours to do the following. Choose product concepts that support your corporate strategy. You can screen and rationalize new ideas, conduct preliminary assessments, perform detailed analyses leading into prototype design, and reevaluate and revise the product concept based on early findings. Manage product and project portfolios with advanced capabilities for systematic idea management and concept (or business case) evaluation for fast decision making. SAP PLM helps you perform project management tasks including project structuring over scheduling, resource management, and cost management and reporting. The focus is on process methodologies, deliverables, commitments, and responsibilities - all the things that can make a difference to your business. Strategic portfolio management allows you to monitor, analyze, evaluate, and optimize your overall portfolio, including concepts, projects, and products. Support the processes along the life cycle of all discrete manufacturing industries. SAP PLM lets you tightly integrate authoring environments such as mechanical or electronic CAD systems; product development; web-based collaboration with external business partners; prototype procurement; production and evaluation; and product structures and configurations for sales, equipment and technical asset structures, service, and maintenance. Support the processes along the life cycle of all process manufacturing industries. Quality management capabilities, product costing, and multilevel recipe management allow you to transform enterprise recipes into site-level and plant-level recipes. Collect and store product-related data for the entire life cycle. You can consolidate and have easy access to technical document management, development and planning, and service and maintenance. Manage corporate services as part of your environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) audit program. SAP PLM allows you to monitor complex regulations, manage data and documents, track dangerous materials and products, carry out waste disposal, enhance employee public safety, and support preventive healthcare. The SAP Product Lifecycle Management (SAP PLM) application can help you quickly develop and deliver the products that drive your business. With SAP PLM, you gain the following benefits: 13 Reduced costs - SAP PLM allows you to outsource tasks and focus on your company's core competencies while controlling the cost of relationship management. The solution also allows you to manage the cost of changes and evaluate the progress of projects across product lines. Better business results - With SAP PLM, you can develop innovative products, explore new market opportunities, gain a higher market share, and increase customer satisfaction. Higher product quality - SAP PLM helps you manage product quality and reduce waste throughout every phase of the product life cycle.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Faster development - The solution reduces time to market and time to volume by integrating supply chain management and procurement closely. Improved manufacturing operations - SAP PLM enables you to plan, measure, and track equipment availability, operation, safety, and maintenance. Higher productivity - SAP PLM increases productivity through an easy-to-use, role-based enterprise portal that delivers all of the necessary content to workers. Better business decisions - SAP PLM supports decision-making at all levels with powerful analytics covering areas such as portfolio management, occupational health, product safety, product quality, and maintenance management. Lower cost of ownership - SAP PLM can be integrated with operational systems, such as computer-aided design, ERP, CRM, SRM, and SCM systems. Using a modular approach, you can implement gradually to meet evolving needs. 14 Master data Material Master Bill of Material Work Center Routing
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Material Master Purpose The material master contains information on all the materials that a company procures or produces, stores, and sells. It is the company's central source for retrieving material-specific data. This information is stored in individual material master records. Integration The material master is used by all components in the SAP Logistics System. The integration of all material data in a single database object eliminates redundant data storage. In the SAP Logistics System, the data contained in the material master is required, for example, for the following functions: In Purchasing for ordering In Inventory Management for goods movement postings and physical inventory In Invoice Verification for posting invoices In Sales and Distribution for sales order processing In Production Planning and Control for material requirements planning, scheduling, and work scheduling Definition The material master has a hierarchical structure resembling the organizational structure of a company. Some material data is valid at all organizational levels, while other data is valid only at certain levels. The organizational units are as follows: Client Company Code Plant Storage Location Purchasing Organization Sales Organization Warehouse Number Storage Type 17
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Structure The client is the top level of the organizational level. Several company codes can be assigned to one client. In turn, several plants can be assigned to a company code, and several storage locations assigned to a plant. Plants must always be consecutively numbered for all company codes. Consequently, plants assigned to different company codes cannot have the same number. However, the numbers of storage locations can be repeated, as long as they are assigned to different plants. Integration An example of corporate structure is given in the following graphical representation: Client Definition In commercial, organizational, and technical terms, a self-contained unit in an SAP system with separate master records and its own set of tables. A client can, for example, be a corporate group. 18 Integration General material data applicable to the entire company is stored at client level. This includes, for example, the material group, base unit of measure, material descriptions, and conversion factors for alternative units of measure.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Company Code Definition The smallest organizational unit for which a complete self-contained set of accounts can be drawn up for purposes of external reporting. This involves recording all relevant transactions and generating all supporting documents for financial statements such as balance sheets and profit and loss statements. A company code can, for example, be a company or subsidiary Integration All data that is valid for a particular company code, as well as for the plants and storage locations assigned to it, is stored at company code level. This includes, for example, accounting data and costing data if valuation is at company code level. Plant Definition An organizational unit serving to subdivide an enterprise according to production, procurement, maintenance, and materials planning aspects. It is a place where either materials are produced or goods and services provided. Use The preferred shipping point for a plant is defined as the default shipping point, which depends on the shipping condition and the loading condition. For the placement of materials in storage (stock put-away), a storage location is assigned to a plant. The storage location depends on the storage condition and the placement situation. The business area that is responsible for a plant is determined as a function of the division. As a rule, a valuation area corresponds to a plant. Structure A plant can assume a variety of roles: 19 As a maintenance plant, it includes the maintenance objects that are spatially located within this plant. The maintenance tasks that are to be performed are specified within a maintenance planning plant. As a retail or wholesale site, it makes merchandise available for distribution and sale. A plant can be subdivided into storage locations, allowing stocks of materials to be broken down according to predefined criteria (for example, location and materials planning aspects).
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; A plant can be subdivided into locations and operational areas. Subdivision into locations takes geographical criteria into account, whereas subdivision into operational areas reflects responsibilities for maintenance. Integration All data that is valid for a particular plant, as well as for the storage locations belonging to it, is stored at plant level. This includes, for example, MRP data and forecast data. Purchasing Organization Definition An organizational unit subdividing an enterprise according to the requirements of Purchasing. It procures materials and services, negotiates conditions of purchase with vendors, and is responsible for such transactions. Structure The form of procurement is defined by the assignment of purchasing organizations to company codes and plants. The following forms of purchasing exist: Corporate-group-wide A purchasing organization procures for all the company codes belonging to a client. Company-specific A purchasing organization procures for just one company code. Plant-specific A purchasing organization procures for a plant. 20 Mixed forms are possible, which can be replicated in the system by the use of reference purchasing organizations. A purchasing organization can utilize the more favorable conditions and contracts of the reference purchasing organization that has been assigned to it. Integration An example of corporate structure with purchasing organization is given in the following graphic representation:
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Sales Organization Definition An organizational unit subdividing an enterprise according to the requirements of Sales. It is responsible for selling materials and services. Structure A sales organization can be subdivided into several distribution chains which determine the responsibility for a distribution channel. Several divisions can be assigned to a sales organization which is responsible for the materials or services provided. 21 A sales area determines the distribution channel used by a sales organization to sell a division‟s products. Integration A sales organization is always assigned to one company code. The accounting data of the sales organization is entered for this company code. A distribution chain can act for several plants. The plants can be assigned to different company codes. If the sales organization and plant are assigned to different company codes, an internal billing document is sent between the company codes before the sales transactions are entered for accounting purposes.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; An example of corporate structure with sales organization is given in the following graphic representation: Storage Location, Warehouse Number, and Storage Type Definition Storage Location An organizational unit allowing the differentiation of material stocks within a plant. All data referring to a particular storage location is stored at storage location level. This applies mainly to storage location stocks. 22 Warehouse Number An alphanumeric key defining a complex warehousing system consisting of different organizational and technical units (storage areas). All material data specific to warehouse management and relating to a particular warehouse number is stored at warehouse number level. This includes, for example, data on palletizing, stock placement, and stock removal. Storage Type A physical or logical storage area that can be defined for a warehouse in the Warehouse Management (WM) system. It consists of one or more storage bins. Storage types differ according to organizational and technical criteria. The following are typical examples of storage types that can be defined using the WM system: · · Goods receipt area Goods receipt area
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; · · Picking area High rack storage area All material data specific to warehouse management and relating to a particular storage type is stored at storage type level. This includes, for example, fixed storage bins as well as maximum and minimum storage bin quantities. Use The warehouse number and storage type are of relevance only if your company uses the WM system. Material Numbers Definition Number uniquely identifying a material master record, and thus a material. Use For every material that your company uses, you must create a material master record in the material master. This record is uniquely identified by a material number. You can assign mnemonic keys or nonmnemonic keys as material numbers, depending on the method your company prefers. For this reason, you have the following types of number assignment in the system: External number assignment · If your company uses mnemonic keys (normally alphanumeric), you enter the character string you want to use as the material number when you create the material master record. Internal number assignment 23 If your company uses nonmnemonic keys, you do not enter a material number when creating a material master record. Instead, the system assigns a consecutive number to the material. This number is visible when you maintain the material master record. Industry Sectors Use When you create a material master record, you are required to classify the material according to industry sector and material type. Like material types, industry sectors have control functions in the SAP system. For example, it is a factor determining the screen sequence and field selection in a material master record. Once you have assigned an industry sector to a material, you cannot change the industry sector again afterwards.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Features The standard system contains the following industry sectors. The ID used to identify the industry sector internally appears in parentheses. Plant engineering and construction (A) Chemical industry (C) Mechanical engineering (M) Pharmaceuticals (P) The other sectors are for retail. Material Types Materials with the same basic attributes are grouped together and assigned to a material type. This allows you to manage different materials in a uniform manner in accordance with your company's requirements. Examples of material types are given in the graphic below. 24 Integration When creating a material master record, you must assign the material to a material type. The material type determines certain attributes of the material and has important control functions. For example, it is a factor determining the screen sequence and field selection in a material master record. Features When you create a material master record, the material type you choose determines: Whether the material is intended for a specific purpose, for example, as a configurable material or process material
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Whether the material number can be assigned internally or externally The number range from which the material number is taken Which screens appear and in what sequence Which departmental data you may enter What procurement type the material has; that is, whether it is manufactured in-house or procured externally, or both Together with the plant, the material type determines the material's inventory management requirement; that is: Whether changes in quantity are updated in the material master record Whether changes in value are also updated in the stock accounts in financial accounting 25 In addition, the accounts affected by a material entering or leaving the warehouse depend on the material type. Creating a Material Master Record (T Code : MM01) Prerequisites Before you create (not extend) a material master record, check that one does not already exist for this material. You can check this using the search help or by calling up the materials list. Check whether a material master record exists for a similar material that you can use as a reference; that is, whose data you can copy as default values. Procedure 1. In the Material Master menu, choose one of the following options: – If you want the data to be available immediately, choose Material _ Create (general) _ Immediately. – If you want to schedule the material master record, choose Material _ Create (general) _ Schedule. – If you want to create a material master record of a particular material type, choose Material _ Create (special) _ _ Material type>. This saves you having to enter the material type on the following screen. However, it is not possible to schedule material master records of this kind. The initial screen for creating a material master record appears.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; 2. Enter the following data: – Material number (only in the case of external number assignment and if allowed by the material type; otherwise leave this field blank) – Industry sector – Material type (unless you have created the material by choosing Material _ Create (special) _ _ Material type>) If you want to use another material master record as a reference, enter the number of the reference material under Copy from. If you are scheduling the material master record, enter the following data: 26 – Key date from which the material master record is to be valid – Change number if you want to use engineering change management If you have entered a key date, the system checks that it does not precede the valid-from date of the change number. If you have not entered a key date, the system uses the valid-from date of the change number. In both cases, the date must be in the future. Choose Enter. The Select View(s) dialog box appears. The views displayed at this point depend on how the material type has been configured in Customizing for the Material Master in Define Attributes of Material Types. 3. Select the views, that is, the user departments, for which you want to enter data and choose Enter. The Organizational Levels dialog box appears. Specify the organizational levels as required and, if appropriate, enter a profile. If you have specified a reference material, also specify under Copy from the organizational levels of the reference material whose data is to be copied as default values. If you do not do this, the system will copy only the data at client level. Choose Enter. The data screen for the first user department appears. 4. Enter the material description and the base unit of measure in the appropriate fields (if not already copied from the reference material). This information is mandatory and identical for all user departments. Consult with the other users to decide what you are going to enter here.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Enter the data for your user department as required. Choose Enter to access the data screen for the next user department and enter your data for the other user departments selected in the Select View(s) dialog box. The system issues a message telling you when you have reached the data screen for the last user department selected. If you want to enter data for a user department that you did not select in the Select View(s) dialog box, you can access the user department direct by choosing it, but only if you are 27 authorized to process data for this user department and if the user department is allowed by the material type. 5. Save your data. The initial screen appears, where you can start to create the next material master record Important Transaction codes for Material Master in SAP Function Create Change Display Flag for Deletion Display Changes Mass Maintenance Change Material type Material list T code MM01 MM02 MM03 MM06 MM04 MM17 MMAM MM60
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Bill of Material (BOM) Definition A formally structured list of the components that make up a product or assembly. The list contains the object number of each component, together with the quantity and unit of measure. BOMs are used in their different forms in various situations where a finished product is assembled from several component parts or materials. Depending on the industry sector, they can also be called recipes or lists of ingredients and so on. They contain important basic data for numerous areas of a company, for example: MRP Material provisions for production Product costing Plant maintenance You can create the following BOMs in the SAP system: Material BOMs Equipment BOMs Functional location BOMs Document structures Order BOM Work breakdown structure (WBS) BOM Selection Criteria Selection is necessary if you plan production in the system or if you want to maintain BOMs for technical objects from the area plant maintenance. If very large documents about BOMs are to be cumulated in the document management system (DMS), you also have to select these components. Bills of Material in Production Planning Bills of material (BOMs) and routings contain essential master data for integrated materials management and production control. In the design department, a new product is designed such that it is suitable for production and for its intended purpose. The result of this product phase is drawings and a list of all the parts required to produce the product. This list is the bill of material. German standard (DIN) number 199, part 2, number 51, defines a bill of material as follows: A bill of material is a complete, formally structured list of the components that make up a product or assembly. The list contains the object number of each component, together with the quantity and unit of measure. A bill of material can only refer to a quantity of at least 1 of an object. The graphic below shows some components of a bicycle that are included in a BOM. 29
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Bills of material are used in their different forms in various situations where a finished product is assembled from several component parts or materials. Depending on the industry sector, they may also be called recipes or lists of ingredients. The structure of the product determines whether the bill of material is simple or very complex. How are Bills of Material Used in PP? The data stored in bills of material serves as a basis for production planning activities such as: A design department (working with CAD) can base its work on bills of material. You can also create a BOM in the SAP system from your CAD program, via the SAP-CAD interface. A material requirements planning (MRP) department explodes bills of material on a certain date to calculate cost-effective order quantities for materials. A work scheduling department uses bills of material as a basis for operation planning and production control. A production order management department, uses bills of material to plan the provision of materials. The data stored in bills of material is also used in other activities in a company such as: Sales orders As an aid to data entry. You can also create and maintain a BOM specifically for a sales order (variant configuration). Reservation and goods issue As an aid to data entry Product costing To calculate the costs of materials required for a specific product 30 This simultaneous use of BOM data in different areas of a company illustrates the advantage of a system based on integrated application components. Links between application components facilitate continuous data exchange between different application areas, giving all users access to the latest data at all times.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Single-Level BOMs You can break down large and complex product structures into a number of related units. Each unit can be represented by a BOM, referred to in this documentation as a single-level BOM. A single-level BOM describes one or more assemblies by means of component quantities. In the following, the term single-level BOM will be shortened to BOM. In practice, a single-level BOM is often a collection of standardized assemblies. A single-level BOM can be either a complete machine or an individual part. You can use single-level BOMs to define one-time solutions for recurring tasks. Once you have defined your solution in the form of a single- level BOM, you can use it whenever you need it and combine it with other BOMs as required. The graphic below shows single-level BOMs for a men‟s racing bicycle for different levels of the production process. Assemblies A group of semi-finished products or parts that are assembled together and form either a finished product or a component of a finished product is known as an assembly. An assembly is identified by a material number and generally functions as a single unit. The graphic below shows the assembly " GEARS" , a Derailleur gear system that is made up of four components. 31
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; A product defined as an assembly, such as the Derailleur gear system in the graphic above , can in turn be used as a component in another assembly, such as MRB01 Men’s racing bicycle (see graphic in topic Single-Level BOMs). The term "assembly" comes from material BOM applications. In document structures (in document management applications) this term refers to a coherent grouping of a quantity of documents and texts. Phantom Assemblies A phantom assembly is a logical (rather than functional) grouping of materials. From the design point of view, these materials are grouped together to form an assembly. The components of a phantom assembly are grouped together to be built into the assembly on the next level up the product structure. From the production point of view, these materials are not actually assembled to form a physical unit. Assembling a pair of gearwheels Engineering/design view: one assembly Assembly view: Gearwheel 1 goes into the driving gear Gearwheel 2 goes into the output gear You can define the special procurement key phantom assembly in the material requirements planning (MRP) data of the material master record for a material. 32
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Dependent requirements for the superior assembly are passed directly down to the components of the phantom assembly, skipping the phantom assembly. Planned orders and purchase requisitions are also produced only for the components of the phantom assembly. Validity In the standard system, validity areas and periods are used to define the precise conditions under which a bill of material is valid in different areas of a company. Area of Validity Material BOMs can be valid on different organizational levels: You can use a material BOM to manage data that applies directly to production. This is why the area of validity is the plant. The plant is the location where all necessary workscheduling procedures are organized, such as MRP and creating,routings. In this case, you create a plant-specific BOM. However, you can also create a group BOM, without reference to a plant. For example, a designer maintains a group BOM during the design phase of a product, then the BOM is allocated to one or more plants for production purposes. You can extend the area of validity of a BOM by allocating the same BOM to a material in different plants. Group BOM If you create a material BOM without reference to a plant, the BOM is valid throughout your company. To do this, you leave the Plant field blank. The system checks whether material masters exist. There are no system checks for plant data. Plant-Specific Material BOM If you create a material BOM with reference to a plant, the system makes a number of checks. A material master record with plant data for the relevant plant must exist for the BOM header material. When you enter items, the system checks whether plant data exists for the material components (see Extending the Area of Validity). The following graphic shows the checks for creating a material item in a plant-specific BOM. First, the system checks whether the material master record exists. Then the system checks the plant-specific material data. If these checks are successful, the system accepts the material in the material BOM.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; You create equipment BOMs for a specific maintenance planning plant. However, equipments are managed at client (group) level, not at plant level. Usually, the system checks plant data for a BOM item, but there is a special item category for BOM items that are relevant to plant maintenance, so the system does not check plant data for these items. Extending the Area of Validity You can extend the area of validity (plant or group) that was defined when a BOM was created. To do this, you allocate the same bill of material to a material in different plants. You can allocate a BOM created in a specific plant (such as 0001) to additional plants (such as 0002 and 0003) or to the entire group (blank). You can allocate a group BOM to individual plants. These related BOMs are identified by a common internal BOM number in the standard SAP system. This internal BOM number is displayed on all screens for plant allocations. Before you can allocate the same BOM to a material in different plants, the following must apply: The material whose BOM you want to allocate to an additional plant must have a material master record in the new plant. All material items in the BOM must have valid material master records in the new plant. If the BOM is only relevant to plant maintenance, you can allocate the BOM to plants where no plant data exists. the unit of issue is maintained in a BOM item, this unit must be the same in all plants. If the BOM contains a non-stock item that has a cost element, the system checks the account. If If the cost element is for primary costs, the system checks whether the G/L account exists for the company code. The system uses the valuation area and the plant to which the BOM is allocated to determine the company code. Secondary costs are only maintained in cost accounting. Before you can allocate a BOM to one or more additional plants, authorization object BOM plant authorization in your user profile must contain the required values. The following graphic shows how the same BOM is allocated to a material in different plants.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; If you want to allocate the BOM for a material to a plant where the material already has a multiple BOM (identified by the same internal BOM number), you can only allocate one alternative from this BOM group to the material in this plant. Plant allocations are also supported for equipment BOMs and functional location BOMs. Validity Period In the standard system, the effectivity of a BOM header or BOM item is defined by time, using the Valid-from date. For example, a BOM has 4 items instead of 3 as of December 12, 1999. The validity period is the time during which the BOM header or BOM item is valid. This period is delimited by the following data in the BOM header and BOM item: Valid-from dates When you create a BOM, this date determines the point in time at which this BOM becomes effective. If you create or change a BOM using a change number, the system takes the valid-from date from the change master record. Valid-to dates This date determines the end of the validity period of the BOM. The system default is December 31, 9999. If you change a BOM using a change number, the system determines the valid-to date dynamically. If you change a BOM using a change number with a valid-from date, the pre-change validity period of the BOM header or BOM item ends at exactly 00.00 hours on this valid-from date. If you change a BOM header or a BOM item with a change number, you generate 2 validity periods, as shown in the following example. In a BOM, you replace component A with component B using a change number with a specific validfrom date (d1). The system saves both the status of the BOM before the change with the old component A and the status of the BOM after the change with the new component B.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; You can assign a revision level to these validity periods. In overviews, you can display all validity periods of the BOM headers or BOM items. Under certain circumstances, the sequence of validity periods can change. Technical Types When you first create a BOM for a material, the system automatically creates the first alternative. The technical type of the BOM is not yet defined, so the technical type is " " (blank). The following graphic shows the structure of a "simple" BOM. Some companies produce many similar products that have a lot of common parts. To reduce the workload for creating BOMs, you can extend a simple BOM to create a composite BOM, known as a "BOM group". Which Technical Types Exist? The system supports two technical types of BOM to represent similar product variants and production alternatives: Variant BOMs A variant BOM groups together several BOMs that describe different objects (for example, products) with a high proportion of identical parts. A variant BOM describes the specific product variant for each product, with all its components and assemblies. Multiple BOMs A multiple BOM groups together several BOMs that describe one object (for example, a product) with different combinations of materials for different processing methods.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; The system does not define the technical type until you create either an additional alternative for a BOM or a different variant for an existing BOM. If you already know which technical type you want when you create a BOM, you can define the technical type using a special function. When do I Create a Variant BOM? The term "variant" refers to changes to the basic model of a product. These changes occur when components are left out or added. If you are producing several similar products that have a lot of common parts, you can describe these products using a variant BOM. This is the case, for example, if you replace one material component with another to make a different product. Variants can also differ by containing different quantities of a component. You create the new BOM as a variant of an existing BOM. You can only create a variant BOM from a simple material BOM. No multiple BOM can exist for the material. A multiple BOM cannot be converted to a variant BOM. The following graphic shows two products, which are represented by a variant BOM. The variant BOM contains components, which are only used in one of the variants, and one component, which is used in both variants. Variant BOMs are supported for the following BOM categories: Material BOMs Document structures Equipment BOMs Functional location BOMs Several products that are created as variants of one variant BOM are stored as a BOM group under one internal BOM number. You can enter a description to describe all the variants of a variant BOM. You enter this description in the BOM group (BOM header).
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; As soon as you process one variant of a variant BOM, all the other variants are locked for processing. As soon as you process one variant using a change number, you must use a change number to process all the variants in the BOM group. When do I Create a Multiple BOM? One product can be manufactured from alternative combinations of materials depending on the quantity to be produced (lot size). The product is represented by a number of alternative BOMs (alternatives). The differences between the alternative BOMs are only small. Usually the only difference is in the quantity of individual components. Multiple BOMs are only supported for material BOMs. The following graphic shows how a product is produced from different components or different quantities using different production procedures. The multiple BOM contains components, which are only used in one of the alternatives, and one component, which is used in both alternatives. All alternatives of a multiple BOM are stored as a BOM group under one internal BOM number. You can enter a description to describe all the alternatives of a multiple BOM. You enter this description in the BOM group (BOM header). As soon as you process one alternative in a multiple BOM, all the other alternatives are locked for processing. As soon as you process an alternative using a change number, you must use a change number to process all the alternatives in the BOM group. Structure of a BOM The wide range of BOM data is managed in a structured form.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; The BOM header contains data that applies to the entire BOM. The BOM item contains data that only applies to a specific component of the BOM. Subitems contain data on the different installation points for partial quantities of an item. Structure of a BOM BOM Header In the BOM header, you maintain data that refers to the entire object: For a multiple BOM, this means one of the alternative BOMs for an object (for example, a product) a variant BOM, this means one of the variants For This data is maintained on various header details screens. On each detail screen, you see the header data that identifies the BOM uniquely in the system. BOM Items BOM items are the component parts of a product. Item data applies to only one actual item in a BOM. Some data has to be entered for all item categories as soon as you create an item. Other specific data can be completed in the application areas (such as design and purchasing) for all item categories. This section describes the data required for creating items of all item categories. Sub-Items Partial quantities of a BOM item may be installed at different points. Sub-items are used to describe the different installation points of these partial quantities. In Customizing for Production, you define for each item category whether sub-items are supported by choosing Bill of material _ Item Data _ Define item categories. For example, in the standard system, sub-items are supported for Stock items and Variable-size items. In the standard system, changes to sub-item data are not recorded by engineering change management.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; In Customizing for bills of material, under Define modification parameters, you can define whether the old change state of a sub-item is retained after you change the sub-item. If at least one values of the sub-item is changed with changed effectivity parameters, the system creates a new item record for the new change state. You can maintain the sub-item quantity and a description for each sub-item. Sub-items have no operational function in the BOM. They are not copied to the production order. However, you can use sub-items to help you create programs for your company (for example, automatic assembly programs). In the production of printed circuit boards, the resistors of a printed circuit are installed in different positions. Information on the installation point, precise coordinates, installation method, and instructions for the automatic assembly machines is stored as independent programs. Create Material BOM (T code: CS01) 1. In the SAP Easy Access Menu choose Logistics Production Master Data Bills of Material Bill of material _ Material BOM Create. The Create Material BOM: initial screen screen appears. On this screen, you maintain data that identifies the bill of material, as well effectivity data. 2. In the Material field, enter the material for which you want to create the BOM. - If you do not know the material number, you can look for the material using the entry help (F4). - If the material for which you want to create a BOM has a material type that cannot be used in combination with the BOM usage you have entered, you see an error message. 3. Enter a Plant. – If you want the BOM to be effective in a specific plant, enter the plant. You can allocate the BOM to additional plants later on under certain circumstances (Create allocation of BOM to plant). – If you want to create a group BOM, do not enter a plant. 4. Enter a usage. If a parameter is defined in your user master record as a default value for the Usage field, the system enters this default. 41 When you select a BOM usage, you define the maximum range of item statuses that can be
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; assigned to all items in the BOM. For each usage, you can only maintain certain item status indicators. You cannot change the usage at a later date. However, you can create other BOMs for the material (in the selected plant) with different usages. 5. The Alternative field is used to identify one BOM in a BOM group (multiple BOM). When you create a simple BOM, you do not need to enter an alternative. – If you do not make an entry when you first create a BOM, the system automatically creates alternative 01. – If you already know when you first create a BOM that you want to extend the BOM to make a multiple BOM, and that this alternative is not alternative 01, enter an alphanumeric value. Maintain the data on the effectivity period: 6. Enter a change number if required. – If you want to create the BOM without a change number , do not make an entry in the Change number field. Enter the date on which the BOM is to become valid in the system in the Valid from field. – Enter a Change number if you want the BOM to have a history requirement as soon as it is created. If you enter a change number, you must enter a valid change number each time you want to change or extend the BOM. Usually, you only process a BOM with a change number once the BOM has been released for production. When you select a change number, you need to consider the following points: – Which object types (for example, BOMs or task lists) can be processed with this change number – Which effectivity period will the change number give the BOM (valid-from date) – The reason for the change The system copies the valid-from date from the change master record into the Valid from field. 7. You may want to assign a revision level to a specific stage of development of the material for which you want to create a BOM. This revision level is assigned with reference to a change number. – If you want to create a BOM for the material at a certain revision level, enter the revision level. If you display the possible entries, you see a list of all revision levels for the material. The change numbers with their valid-from dates are assigned to these revision levels.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; – Copy the revision level you require by double clicking. The system enters the valid-from date from the change master record in the Valid from field. 8. Confirm your entries by clicking . The system makes a series of checks. For example, the system checks whether the material master record exists in the selected plant and whether the material type can be used in combination with the BOM usage. Important Transaction codes for Bill of Mateial in SAP Function Create Change Display Plant Assignment BOM Explosion BOM Explosion BOM Explosion T code CS01 CS02 CS03 CS07 CS11 CS12 CS13 43
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Work Center Definition Operations are carried out at a work center. In the SAP system work centers are business objects that can represent the following real work centers, for example: Machines, machine groups Production lines Assembly work centers Employees, groups of employees Use Together with bills of material and routings, work centers belong to the most important master data in the production planning and control system. Work centers are used in task list operations and work orders. Task lists are for example routings, maintenance task lists, inspection plans and standard networks. Work orders are created for production, quality assurance, plant maintenance and for the Project System as networks. Data in work centers is used for Scheduling Operating times and formulas are entered in the work center, so that the duration of an operation can be calculated. Costing Formulas are entered in the work center, so that the costs of an operation can be calculated. A work center is also assigned to a cost center. Capacity planning The available capacity and formulas for calculating capacity requirements are entered in the work center. Simplifying operation maintenance Various default values for operations can be entered in the work center. The following graphic illustrates the use of work center data.
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Use of work center data Structure A work center is created for a plant and is identified by a key. The work center category, which you define in Customizing the work center, determines which data can be maintained in the work center. The data is grouped thematically together in screens and screen groups. Examples of such screen or screen groups are: Basic Data Assignments (to cost centers, Human Resource Management System (HR)) Capacities Scheduling Default values Hierarchy Technical data 45 Integration Task Lists Work centers are assigned to operations in task lists. If you change default values in a work center, the changes are effective in the task list if a reference indicator has been set for the default value. Work Center Hierarchies Work centers can be arranged in hierarchies. These are important in capacity planning. You use
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; hierarchies to cumulate available capacities and capacity requirements in a hierarchy work center. Important Transaction codes for Work Center in SAP Function Create Change Display T code CR01 CR02 CR03 46 Routings Definition A routing is a description of which operations (process steps) have to be carried out and in which order to produce a material (product). As well as information about the operations and the order in which they are carried out, a routing also contains details about the work centers at which they are carried out as well as about the required production resources and tools (includes jigs and fixtures). Standard values for the execution of individual operations are also saved in routings. Routings (generic) consist of the following objects:
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Routing Rate routing Reference operation set Reference rate routing Use A routing is used as a source for creating a production order or a run schedule header by copying. Structure A routing is composed of a header and one or more sequences. The header contains data that is valid for the whole routing. A sequence is a series of operations. Operations describe individual process steps, which are carried out during production (see Routing graphic) A routing is identified by its group and group counter. 47
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : email@example.com; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Group and Group counter Routings within a group are distinguished by their group counter. In the graphic the three routings in group A are identified by their group counter 1,2 or 3. 48 Group
KMR Software Services Pvt Ltd www.kmrsoft.com ; Email : firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile : +91 9966 003349; Skype : KMRSS.SAP ; Assignment of a material to be produced to a routing Before you can produce a material with a routing, you have to assign the material to the routing. The routing and the material can exist in different plants. According to the task list type, a routing can Have one or more materials to be produced assigned to it. (This is relevant for normal routings and rate routing that are used directly for producing a material.
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