Sanctity of Human Body

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Information about Sanctity of Human Body

Published on February 5, 2009

Author: msaeedshafi


The Human Body : The Human Body Prof. Dr. Saeed Shafi Dead Body : Dead Body What we think of human body? What value we place upon it? What ways we should respect it? Ethical issues : Ethical issues Relationship between a person and that person’s body Should bodies be dissected/prosected? Should bodies be displayed in the museum/public places? Obtaining bodies for Dissection : Obtaining bodies for Dissection Criminals executed for murder (U.K,16th century) Grave-robbing (need not matching the demand) Earliest grave-robbers were surgeon, anatomist or their pupils Stolen bodies were called resurrected corpses Obtaining bodies for Dissection : Obtaining bodies for Dissection UK anatomy act 1832, abolished the use of dissection as a punishment for murderer Stopped the resurrectionists Unclaimed bodies most uncontroversial. Main sources were Benevolent institutions and mental hospitals This made poverty the sole criteria of dissection Legislations : Legislations In UK, Human tissue act 1961 Allows use of bodies for post mortem examination, therapeutic purposes and for the purpose of medical education and research Anatomy act (1984) covers the acquisition of bodies for teaching, studying or researching morphology Slide 8: Human Tissue Act 2004 (c. 30) Part 1 — Removal, storage and use of human organs and other tissue for scheduled purposes Why treatment with cadavers is considered to be of ethical significance ? : Why treatment with cadavers is considered to be of ethical significance ? Cadaver has Intrinsic value: it is an end in and of itself. Intrinsic value of a living person is bestowed upon cadaver at death. It reminds us of the presence that once was utterly inseparable from it. Instrumental value: it can be used as means to an end. Source of memories, grieving process, organs, provides opportunities for teaching and clinical practice Person-now- dead : Person-now- dead Intrinsic value: wishes while alive Instrumental value: wishes and feelings of still living relatives and friends some times clash of autonomy and interests of family members Unclaimed bodies : Unclaimed bodies Dissection of unclaimed bodies Consent????? The interests of a person-now-dead have been made subservient to other interests (the educational needs of health science students) Exploitation of disadvantaged sector ??? Are the benefits so great? : Are the benefits so great? In terms of anatomical knowledge, as a means of self discovery about death and dying, that society is morally justified in jeopardizing the autonomy of a limited number of disadvantaged individuals ????? Slide 13: Long term healing and wholeness do come through the medical expertise of students as future-doctors BUT Is there a close correlation between dissecting cadavers (or studying prosections) and future medical expertise? Slide 14: Death I knew was cold. And death was still. But nobody has mentioned that all the softness went out. His spirit has departed and taken along the warmth and activity and, yes, the softness. He was gone, Eric, where are you? But I am not very good at separating person from body. May be that comes with practice. The red hair, the dimples, the chipmunky look—that was Eric Lament for a son p.8 Nicholas Wolterstoff Islamic perspective on dissection : Islamic perspective on dissection In fact, there is no religious text tackling directly the issue of using the organs of the dead for medical or scientific research. The issue is controversial among Muslim scholars; each making his own Ijtihad (Personal Reasoning). Sheikh `Attiya Saqr, former Head of Al- Azhar Fatwa Committee Apposing viewpoints : Apposing viewpoints Sacredness of human life/body “Breaking the bone of dead person is equal in sinfulness and aggression to breaking it while a person is alive” The human body as an amanah Subjecting the human body to material ends Sanctity of the human body Duty to re-inter human bones or remains if for any reasons they are taken out of the graves Avoiding the doubtful Favorable viewpoints : Favorable viewpoints Al-maslahah (public welfare) (1) Necessity makes the unlawful permissible (2) When two interests conflict let one which will bring greater benefit take precedence (3) If forced to choose, choose lesser of the two evils Slide 18: “It is permissible, if the deceased is of unknown personality or family, to take his/her bodily organs and use it in treating another person or for medical research. All these are in fact very important and of general benefit for all Muslims”. The Fatwa of late Sheikh Jadul-Haq `Ali Haq, former Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Slide 19: “Using the bodily parts of a dead person is also permissible for the students of medicine who do so as a way of training. However, this is to be carried out in a place specialized for that purpose and not open for everybody”. The Fatwa of Sheikh `Ikrimah Sabri, the Mufti of Al-Quds & the Khatib of Al-Aqsa Mosque Dissection of the human bodies for the purpose of medical education is allowed in Islam : Dissection of the human bodies for the purpose of medical education is allowed in Islam Basic rule in Shari`ah says: “What is necessary for the fulfillment of an obligation, becomes an obligation itself.” It is obligatory to treat people when they need. To perform this obligation it is necessary to study human anatomy. For this purpose dissection has to be done as and when necessary. Dr. Muzzamil Siddiq, former President of Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) Body World : Body World Gunther Von Hagens : Gunther Von Hagens Body World : Body World Slide 26: In Europe, ''Body Worlds'' shows attracted serious protests from Catholic and Protestant churches. But in Southern California – 900,000 visitors reaction was essentially blithe. Whether that is a sign of open-mindedness or overpowering curiosity, I do not know But what makes the exhibition palatable is the entire strangeness of the objects on display. 200 flayed corpses after dissection, Identity -- familiarity -- has been shed with the flesh. The connection between the polymerized bones and arteries on display and the living bones and arteries in the bodies of the audience feels merely analogous. The athletic postures these cadavers assume also hide death from us and allow viewers to witness the continuity between their own warmblooded coherence and the alien objects on view, a far more intimidating prospect. Editorial Observer of The New York Times, April6, 2005 Some Thoughts on Seeing the Polymerized Remains of Human Cadavers Slide 27: The real ground for protest here -- for dismissal, that is -- is a sense of emptiness. The ''Body Worlds'' creator says the exhibitions' purpose is ''health education.'' And in the absence of detailed, factual, unembarrassed health education in American schools, that claim makes a certain sense. But there was surprisingly little knowledge on display. The posed cadavers are merely curios, reminders, at best, that the foundation for our knowledge of the human body was revealed through autopsy -- a word that means seeing for oneself. Like everyone else, I came to see the plastic dead. But I found myself watching the living. The personhood of those cadavers had long since been discarded, but it beat strong in the people who came to see them. Death is not a neutral fact, not to any of us. But all of the grace and beauty, intelligence and athleticism to be found at this exhibition was there in the living humans, who were still at some unknowable distance from death and still rejoicing at that fact, whether they knew it or not. :  It is Allah who causeth the seed-grain and the date stone to split and sprout. He causeth the living to issue from the dead, and He is the One to cause the dead to issue from the living. That is Allah: then how are ye deluded away from the truth? (Al-An’am;6:95) Every soul shall have a taste of death: and only on the Day of Judgment shall you be paid your full recompense. Only he who is saved far from the Fire and admitted to the Garden will have attained the object (of Life): for the life of this world is but goods and chattels of deception. : Every soul shall have a taste of death: and only on the Day of Judgment shall you be paid your full recompense. Only he who is saved far from the Fire and admitted to the Garden will have attained the object (of Life): for the life of this world is but goods and chattels of deception. Slide 31: Iqbal Says: Zindgy kia hey anaser main zahoor-e-tarteeb Moot kia hey inhi ajza ka pareshan hona Reflections : Reflections ‘‘faculty do not encourage common reflection on the experience . . . as a consequence, students learn . . . to endure and to control and master anatomy and feelings alone . . . cop(ing) by detaching themselves from the experience . . . they only focus on finding the anatomic structures they have learned about . . . separated and isolated from everyday life . . . learn (ing) to be . . . cold . . .’’ (Netterstromand Kayser, 2008). REFERENCES : REFERENCES Ethics of Health Care (Ashley BM, O'Rourke KD) Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers (Mary Roach) In the name of Science (Jeyling Chou) Keeping Your Hands Clean: The bloodless sacrifice of cadaver donation and dissection (Michelle Cleeves) Questions? : Questions?

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