Published on March 12, 2014
Involving the total community in emergency and disaster preparedness PSF 5991 – u10a1 – Proposal Presentation Kerry Coward 12.13.13
Overview Introduction: What’s this all about? Problem Statement: What’s the problem? Research & Background Review: What’s been done before? Leadership: What do you mean “new” leadership? Demographic Analysis: Who, what, and where?
Overview (continued) Proposed Model: What we want to do (with your help!) Research Methodology: How can we do it right? Ethical Ramifications: Do we need to call a lawyer?! Conclusion: Okay, let’s wrap it up! Making Austin the Best Managed City in the Country! References: Thanks to the experts.
Appropriately addressing the needs of, and the issues related to, at-risk and vulnerable populations during disastrous events is necessary for the future of society. Introduction
It is generally accepted that the special needs population includes visually impaired, hearing impaired, mobility impaired, single working parents, non–English-speaking persons, people without vehicles, people with special dietary needs, people with medical conditions, people with intellectual disabilities, and people with dementia (FEMA, 2011). Definition
Arguably, modern-day emergency management has never been more in the public eye since the events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) and Hurricane Katrina. Over the last decade, the apparent lack of preparedness and questionable response efforts during these historic events has elevated the importance of effective disaster management. Introduction (continued)
Problem Statement (continued)
Research & Background Review No criteria have been established that measure the success of recent efforts to develop or improve emergency response and disaster preparation for people with disabilities. Studies must be performed nationwide to establish standards and goals.
While anecdotal information on persons’ experiences is abundant (NOD, 2005) little empirical data exist in the literature on disaster preparedness and safe evacuation of persons with physical disabilities under emergency or disaster conditions. Not until 2003 did the National Council on Disability (NCD), which was established in 1978, begin to gather information on the development and implementation of federal laws, policies, programs, and practices that affect people with disabilities (NCD, 2009). Research & Background Review
Research & Background Review • There are numerous case studies and analyses on emergency preparedness and response; many of which are based on the invaluable theory of capturing and utilizing lessons learned. • However, classic literature on the topic of emergency preparedness and disaster response for individuals with disabilities is far less in number, and even fewer examples exist when the topic is narrowed down to address evacuating individuals with disabilities.
Research & Background Review For those living with a disability and those caring for the disabled in these vulnerable areas, adequate coverage of emergency communications and emergency assistance is often subpar.
This begs the question: “Are our current public safety practices able to handle the additional service demands associated with emergency response and disaster preparedness for individuals with disabilities, vulnerable populations, and at-risk communities, including the evacuation of individuals with disabilities?” Research Question
Leadership • Leadership theories play a large role in the cultivation of organizations as well as individuals. • Leadership also influences the evolution and progression of society. • Leadership is needed to ensure changes are made in historical thought processes of how the disabled community is defined and how critical it is for these individuals to be included in disaster response and emergency preparedness plans.
Demographic Analysis Therefore, the majority of the world's people with disabilities live in low and middle-income countries (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011). While the prevalence of disability is higher in high- income countries, due to increased survival and longevity, the incidence of disability is higher in low and middle-income countries.
Proposed Model 1. Institutional Review Board (IRB) submittal 2. Developing forms and procedures 3. Choosing the setting and environment 4. Obtain any necessary permissions 5. Recruitment and selection of participants 6. Conduct pilot test (if resources permit) 7. Choose and train assistants 8. Build and ensure ethical safeguards 9. Set interview and survey schedules 10. Develop any necessary backup plans 11. Collect data 12. Score, analyze, and evaluate data.
Ethical Ramifications As described in the Belmont Report, the ethical considerations one must take into account when conducting research with human subjects include: respect for persons; beneficence; and justice. Best practice examples for applying these principles include: informed consent; assessment of risks and benefits; and selection of subjects (1979) In the public sector, especially those organizations whose operations are a necessity for the well-being, safety, and protection of the public, transparency is a critical necessity.
Thank you City Hall members! Kerry Coward Volunteer Services Coordinator City of Austin Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 512-299-8391 firstname.lastname@example.org
References American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, The. (2000). Fourth Edition ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. Available from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/demographics. Belmont Report (1979). The Belmont Report: Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. Retrieved December 13, 2011, from hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html Cone, J. D., & Foster, S. L. (2006). Dissertations and theses from start to finish: Psychology and related fields (2nd ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA]. (2011). People with disabilities and other access and functional needs. Retrieved from: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prepare/specialplans.shtm#resources Fox, M. H., White, G. W., Rooney, C., & Rowland, J. L. (2007). Disaster Preparedness and Response for Persons With Mobility Impairments. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 17(4), 196-205. McGuire, L. C., Ford, E. S., & Okoro, C. A. (2007). Natural disasters and older US adults with disabilities: implications for evacuation. Disasters, 31(1), 49-56. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 7717.2007.00339.x
References National Council on Disability [NCD]. (2009). Effective Emergency Management: Making Improvements for Communities and People with Disabilities. National Council on Disability, Washington, DC, August 12, 2009. National Organization on Disability [NOD]. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.nod.org Njelesani, J., Cleaver, S., Tataryn, M., & Nixon, S. (2012). Using a Human Rights-Based Approach to Disability in Disaster Management Initiatives. Natural Disasters, Dr. Cheval, S. (Ed.), InTech. The University of Toronto, Canada. March 2012. Psychology Today. (2013). Psych Basics. What is Bias? Retrieved from: http://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/bias U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Newsroom: Profile America - Facts for Features. World Health Organization [WHO]. (2011). World Report on Disability 2011, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 14.07.2011. Zhao, F., Xing, K., Yang, S., Lu, C., & Chung, S. (2010). Hurricane Evacuation Planning for Special Needs Populations. Center for Special Needs of Special Population (TRANSPO). Florida International University. FTA-FL-04-7104-2010.04. Miami, FL. May 2010.
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