Sam Baldwin | CSP, PV and a Renewable Future

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Information about Sam Baldwin | CSP, PV and a Renewable Future

Published on April 25, 2009

Author: gwsolar

Source: slideshare.net

CSP, PV, and a Renewable Future Institute for Analysis of Solar Energy George Washington University 24 April 2009 Sam Baldwin Chief Technology Officer and Member, Board of Directors Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy

Energy-Linked Challenges Economic — economic development and growth; energy costs Security — foreign energy dependence, reliability, stability Environmental — local (particulates), regional (acid rain), global (GHGs) Scale and Time Constants Responses CSP Technologies System Design Growing Markets Value of CSP R&D Needs The Renewable Future Technologies Scale Utility Integration Policy & Incentives Mobilizing Capital Human Resources

Economic — economic development and growth; energy costs

Security — foreign energy dependence, reliability, stability

Environmental — local (particulates), regional (acid rain), global (GHGs)

Scale and Time Constants

Responses

CSP Technologies

System Design

Growing Markets

Value of CSP

R&D Needs

The Renewable Future

Technologies

Scale

Utility Integration

Policy & Incentives

Mobilizing Capital

Human Resources

Nations that HAVE oil (% of Global Reserves) Saudi Arabia 26% Iraq 11 Kuwait 10 Iran 9 UAE 8 Venezuela 6 Russia 5 Mexico 3 Libya 3 China 3 Nigeria 2 U.S. 2% Nations that NEED Oil (% of Global Consumption) U.S. 24. % China 8.6 Japan 5.9 Russia 3.4 India 3.1 Germany 2.9 Canada 2.8 Brazil 2.6 S. Korea 2.6 Mexico 2.4 France 2.3 Italy 2.0 Global ~85 MM Bbl/day Source: EIA International Energy Annual The Oil Problem

Impacts of Oil Dependence Domestic Economic Impact Trade Deficit : Oil ~ 57% of $677B trade deficit in 2008 Foreign Policy Impacts Strategic competition for access to oil Oil money supports undesirable regimes Oil money finds its way to terrorist organizations Vulnerabilities to system failures: tanker spills; pipeline corrosion; … to natural disasters: Katrina; … to political upheaval: Nigeria; … to terrorist acts: Yemen; Saudi Arabia; … Economic Development Developing world growth stunted by high oil prices; increases instability Natural Gas? Largest producers: Algeria, Iran, Qatar, Russia, Venezuela Russia provides 40% of European NG imports now; 70% by 2030. Russia cut-off of natural gas to Ukraine

Domestic Economic Impact

Trade Deficit : Oil ~ 57% of $677B trade deficit in 2008

Foreign Policy Impacts

Strategic competition for access to oil

Oil money supports undesirable regimes

Oil money finds its way to terrorist organizations

Vulnerabilities

to system failures: tanker spills; pipeline corrosion; …

to natural disasters: Katrina; …

to political upheaval: Nigeria; …

to terrorist acts: Yemen; Saudi Arabia; …

Economic Development

Developing world growth stunted by high oil prices; increases instability

Natural Gas?

Largest producers: Algeria, Iran, Qatar, Russia, Venezuela

Russia provides 40% of European NG imports now; 70% by 2030.

Russia cut-off of natural gas to Ukraine

Oil Futures

Oil Sources Constraints Cost Energy Water Atmosphere Source: David Greene, ORNL Resources Oil Shale U.S.—Over 1.2 trillion Bbls-equiv. in highest-grade deposits Tar Sands Canadian Athabasca Tar Sands—1.7 T Bbls-equivalent Venezuelan Orinoco Tar Sands (Heavy Oil)—1.8 T Bbls-equiv. Coal Coal Liquefaction—4 Bbls/ton

Constraints

Cost

Energy

Water

Atmosphere

Resources

Oil Shale

U.S.—Over 1.2 trillion Bbls-equiv. in highest-grade deposits

Tar Sands

Canadian Athabasca Tar Sands—1.7 T Bbls-equivalent

Venezuelan Orinoco Tar Sands (Heavy Oil)—1.8 T Bbls-equiv.

Coal

Coal Liquefaction—4 Bbls/ton

Potential Impacts of GHG Emissions Temperature Increases Precipitation Changes Glacier & Sea-Ice Loss Water Availability Wildfire Increases Ecological Zone Shifts Extinctions Agricultural Zone Shifts Agricultural Productivity Ocean Acidification Ocean Oxygen Levels Sea Level Rise Human Health Impacts Feedback Effects U.S.: 5.9 GT CO 2 /yr energy-related World: 28.3 GT CO 2 /yr Hoegh-Guldberg, et al, Science, V.318, pp.1737, 14 Dec. 2007

Temperature Increases

Precipitation Changes

Glacier & Sea-Ice Loss

Water Availability

Wildfire Increases

Ecological Zone Shifts

Extinctions

Agricultural Zone Shifts

Agricultural Productivity

Ocean Acidification

Ocean Oxygen Levels

Sea Level Rise

Human Health Impacts

Feedback Effects

Climate Change “ We urge all nations … to take prompt action to reduce the causes of climate change …”. National Academies’ of Science, 2005: Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom, U.S.A . Joint Science Academies’ Statement : “ There is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring.” “… most of the warming in recent decades can be attributed to human activities.” “ The scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action.” “ Long-term global efforts to create a more healthy, prosperous, and sustainable world may be severely hindered by changes in climate.” National Academies’ of Science, 2008: “ Immediate large-scale mitigation action is required ”

“ We urge all nations … to take prompt action to reduce the causes of climate change …”.

National Academies’ of Science, 2005: Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom, U.S.A .

Joint Science Academies’ Statement :

“ There is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring.”

“… most of the warming in recent decades can be attributed to human activities.”

“ The scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action.”

“ Long-term global efforts to create a more healthy, prosperous, and sustainable world may be severely hindered by changes in climate.”

National Academies’ of Science, 2008: “ Immediate large-scale mitigation action is required ”

New York City during the August 2003 blackout Kristina Hamachi LaCommare, and Joseph H. Eto, LBNL Costs of Power Interruptions

Scale of the Challenge Increase fuel economy of 2 billion cars from 30 to 60 mpg. Cut carbon emissions from buildings by one-fourth by 2050—on top of projected improvements. With today’s coal power output doubled, operate it at 60% instead of 40% efficiency (compared with 32% today). Introduce Carbon Capture and Storage at 800 GW of coal-fired power. Install 1 million 2-MW wind turbines. Install 3000 GW-peak of Solar power. Apply conservation tillage to all cropland (10X today). Install 700 GW of nuclear power. Source: S. Pacala and R. Socolow, “Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technology”, Science 13 August 2004, pp.968-972.

Increase fuel economy of 2 billion cars from 30 to 60 mpg.

Cut carbon emissions from buildings by one-fourth by 2050—on top of projected improvements.

With today’s coal power output doubled, operate it at 60% instead of 40% efficiency (compared with 32% today).

Introduce Carbon Capture and Storage at 800 GW of coal-fired power.

Install 1 million 2-MW wind turbines.

Install 3000 GW-peak of Solar power.

Apply conservation tillage to all cropland (10X today).

Install 700 GW of nuclear power.

Source: S. Pacala and R. Socolow, “Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technology”, Science 13 August 2004, pp.968-972.

Time Constants Political consensus building ~ 3-30+ years Technical R&D ~10+ Production model ~ 4+ Financial ~ 2++ Market penetration ~10++ Capital stock turnover Cars ~ 15 Appliances ~ 10-20 Industrial Equipment ~ 10-30/40+ Power plants ~ 40+ Buildings ~ 80 Urban form ~100’s Lifetime of Greenhouse Gases ~10’s-1000’s Reversal of Land Use Change ~100’s Reversal of Extinctions Never Time available for significant action ??

Political consensus building ~ 3-30+ years

Technical R&D ~10+

Production model ~ 4+

Financial ~ 2++

Market penetration ~10++

Capital stock turnover

Cars ~ 15

Appliances ~ 10-20

Industrial Equipment ~ 10-30/40+

Power plants ~ 40+

Buildings ~ 80

Urban form ~100’s

Lifetime of Greenhouse Gases ~10’s-1000’s

Reversal of Land Use Change ~100’s

Reversal of Extinctions Never

Time available for significant action ??

Solar Energy Price of electricity from grid-connected PV systems are ~20 ¢/kWh . (Down from ~$2.00/kWh in 1980) Nine parabolic trough plants with a total rated capacity of 354 MW have operated since 1985, with demonstrated system costs of ~14 ¢/kWh.

Price of electricity from grid-connected PV systems are ~20 ¢/kWh . (Down from ~$2.00/kWh in 1980)

Nine parabolic trough plants with a total rated capacity of 354 MW have operated since 1985, with demonstrated system costs of ~14 ¢/kWh.

Photovoltaics Source: EERE/STP

Best Research-Cell Efficiencies 026587136 University Linz Siemens ECN, The Netherlands Princeton UC Berkeley Source: NREL 40.8 19.9 Efficiency (%) University of Maine Boeing Boeing Boeing Boeing ARCO NREL Boeing Euro-CIS 2000 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 NREL/ Spectrolab NREL NREL Japan Energy Spire No. Carolina State University Multijunction Concentrators Three-junction (2-terminal, monolithic) Two-junction (2-terminal, monolithic) Crystalline Si Cells Single crystal Multicrystalline Thin Si Thin Film Technologies Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 CdTe Amorphous Si:H (stabilized) Emerging PV Dye cells Organic cells (various technologies) Varian RCA Solarex UNSW UNSW ARCO UNSW UNSW UNSW Spire Stanford Westing- house UNSW Georgia Tech Georgia Tech Sharp AstroPower NREL AstroPower Spectrolab NREL Masushita Monosolar Kodak Kodak AMETEK Photon Energy University So. Florida NREL NREL NREL Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 14x concentration NREL United Solar United Solar RCA RCA RCA RCA RCA RCA Spectrolab Solarex 12 8 4 0 16 20 24 28 32 36 University of Lausanne University of Lausanne 2005 Kodak UCSB Cambridge NREL

PV Shipments and U.S. Market Share

Trough Systems Power Towers Dish Systems Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Source: NREL Linear Fresnel Dish Systems Source: EERE/STP

Parabolic Trough Operation

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 354 MW Luz Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS) Nine Plants built 1984 - 1991 Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

1-MW Arizona Trough Plant Tucson, AZ Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

64 MW e Acciona Nevada Solar One Solar Parabolic Trough Plant Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

50 MW AndaSol One and Two Parabolic Trough Plant w/ 7-hr Storage, Andalucía Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Abengoa PS10 and PS 20; Seville, Spain Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

US Projects Under Development Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory 424 MW 4503 MW

International Projects Under Development Source: Mark Mehos, National Renewable Energy Laboratory 658 MW 3180 MW

Value of Dispatchable Power? Meets Utility Peak Power Demands Storage provides higher value because power production can match utility needs lower costs because storage is cheaper than incremental turbine costs National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Solar Resource Hourly Load 0 6 12 18 24 Generation w/ Thermal Storage

Storage provides

higher value because power production can match utility needs

lower costs because storage is cheaper than incremental turbine costs

Concentrating Solar Power U.S. Southwest Cost Reduction Potential Estimates from Sargent & Lundy and WGA Solar Task Force indicate CSP costs can go below 6 cents/kWh assuming R&D and deployment. Factors Contributing to Cost Reduction Scale-up ~37% Volume Production ~ 21% Technology Development 42% Direct-Normal Solar Resource for the Southwest U.S. Map and table courtesy of NREL Filters: Transmission >6.75 kWh/m 2 d Environment X Land Use X Slope < 1% Area > 1 km 2 5 acres/MW 27% annual CF

Cost Reduction Potential

Estimates from Sargent & Lundy and WGA Solar Task Force indicate CSP costs can go below 6 cents/kWh assuming R&D and deployment.

Factors Contributing to Cost Reduction

Scale-up ~37%

Volume Production ~ 21%

Technology Development 42%

CSP R&D Opportunities CSP Solar Field R&D : Accounts for ~50-60% of capital cost High-performance long-life low-cost reflectors with self-cleaning or hydrophobic coatings; Increase optical accuracy and aiming. Receiver: Stable, high temperature, high performance selective surfaces. CSP Thermal Storage : Accounts for ~20-25% of capital cost Stable, high temperature heat transfer and thermal storage materials to 600C (1200 C for advanced technology), with low vapor pressure, low freezing points, low cost ($15/kW th ) , appropriate viscosity & density, etc. Advanced CSP Systems : Power block accounts for ~10-15% of capital cost; 37.6% efficiency Brayton Cycles for higher temperature, higher efficiency Fuels: High-temperature thermochemical cycles for CSP production—353 found & scored; 12 under further study; Develop falling particle receiver and heat transfer system for up to 1000 C cycles. Develop reactor/receiver designs and materials for up to 1800 C cycles

CSP Solar Field R&D :

Accounts for ~50-60% of capital cost

High-performance long-life low-cost reflectors with self-cleaning or hydrophobic coatings; Increase optical accuracy and aiming.

Receiver: Stable, high temperature, high performance selective surfaces.

CSP Thermal Storage :

Accounts for ~20-25% of capital cost

Stable, high temperature heat transfer and thermal storage materials to 600C (1200 C for advanced technology), with low vapor pressure, low freezing points, low cost ($15/kW th ) , appropriate viscosity & density, etc.

Advanced CSP Systems :

Power block accounts for ~10-15% of capital cost; 37.6% efficiency

Brayton Cycles for higher temperature, higher efficiency

Fuels:

High-temperature thermochemical cycles for CSP production—353 found & scored; 12 under further study; Develop falling particle receiver and heat transfer system for up to 1000 C cycles. Develop reactor/receiver designs and materials for up to 1800 C cycles

BUILDINGS Passive Solar Design Daylighting Solar Water Heaters Active Solar Heating/Cooling Source: Building Technology Program Core Databook, August 2003. http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/frame.asp?p=tableview.asp&TableID=509&t=xls ; Annual Energy Outlook 2008. Often Forgotten Solar Buildings: Total Primary Energy 38.9 quads (2006) INDUSTRY Industrial Process Heat Solar Water Heaters Daylighting Industry: Total Primary Energy 32.7 quads (2006)

BUILDINGS

Passive Solar Design

Daylighting

Solar Water Heaters

Active Solar Heating/Cooling

INDUSTRY

Industrial Process Heat

Solar Water Heaters

Daylighting

A Renewable Future Power: (Energy Information Administration) 2007: Total: 3900 TWh; Fossil: 3000 TWh; Nuclear: 800 Twh; RE: 350 Twh Wind: 26 TWh Solar: 0.5 TWh 2030: Total: 5000 TWh ISSUES: HOW FAR? HOW FAST? HOW WELL? AT WHAT COST? BEST PATHWAYS? Efficiency Renewable Energy Biomass Power Geothermal Hydropower Ocean Energy Solar Photovoltaics / Battery Storage Solar Thermal / Thermal Storage / Natural Gas Solar: 2000 TWh/y  1500 GW  40 GW/y Wind / CAES / Natural Gas Wind: 2000 TWh/y  600 GW  15 GW/y Transmission Infrastructure/Smart Grid End-Use Systems Smart End-Use Equipment (dispatched w/ PV) Plug-In Hybrids/Smart Charging Stations 4100 Bmiles in 2030 3 miles/kWh ( [email_address] )  1400 TWh/y CHALLENGES Efficiency Improvements. Supply R&D: PV, CSP, Wind. Storage R&D: CAES, Thermal, Battery. Materials Supply Grid Integration Manufacturing Ramp-up; Supply-Chain Development Policy Training

Power: (Energy Information Administration)

2007: Total: 3900 TWh;

Fossil: 3000 TWh; Nuclear: 800 Twh;

RE: 350 Twh Wind: 26 TWh Solar: 0.5 TWh

2030: Total: 5000 TWh

ISSUES:

HOW FAR?

HOW FAST?

HOW WELL?

AT WHAT COST?

BEST PATHWAYS?

Efficiency

Renewable Energy

Biomass Power

Geothermal

Hydropower

Ocean Energy

Solar Photovoltaics / Battery Storage

Solar Thermal / Thermal Storage / Natural Gas

Solar: 2000 TWh/y  1500 GW  40 GW/y

Wind / CAES / Natural Gas

Wind: 2000 TWh/y  600 GW  15 GW/y

Transmission Infrastructure/Smart Grid

End-Use Systems

Smart End-Use Equipment (dispatched w/ PV)

Plug-In Hybrids/Smart Charging Stations

4100 Bmiles in 2030 3 miles/kWh ( [email_address] )

 1400 TWh/y

CHALLENGES

Efficiency Improvements.

Supply R&D: PV, CSP, Wind.

Storage R&D: CAES, Thermal, Battery.

Materials Supply

Grid Integration

Manufacturing Ramp-up; Supply-Chain Development

Policy

Training

Energy Efficiency: 1970-2007 Efficiency; Structural Change: Total 106.8 New Supply Gas 1.8Q RE 2.8 Nucl 8.2 Oil 10.3 Coal 10.5 Total 33.8

U.S. Refrigerator Energy Consumption (Average energy consumption of new refrigerators sold in the U.S.) Source: LBNL Savings: ~1400 kWh/year * $0.10/kWh *100 M households = $14 B/year



Plug-In Hybrids Battery Storage, Power Electronics, System Int. A123 -- Nano-Structured Iron-Phosphate Cathode. Wind 200 GW  450 GW

Battery Storage, Power Electronics, System Int.

A123 -- Nano-Structured Iron-Phosphate Cathode.

Wind 200 GW  450 GW

Wind Energy Cost of wind power from 80 cents per kilowatt-hour in 1979 to a current range of ~5+ cents per kWh (Class 5-6). Low wind speed technology: x20 resource; x5 proximity >8000 GW of available land-based wind resources ~600 GW at $0.06-0.10/kWh, including 500 miles of Transmission. Offshore Resources. Directly Employs 85,000 people in the U.S. 11,600 2006 ~16,800 2007 Source: EERE/WTP ~25,500 2008

Cost of wind power from 80 cents per kilowatt-hour in 1979 to a current range of ~5+ cents per kWh (Class 5-6).

Low wind speed technology: x20 resource; x5 proximity

>8000 GW of available land-based wind resources

~600 GW at $0.06-0.10/kWh, including 500 miles of Transmission.

Offshore Resources.

Directly Employs 85,000 people in the U.S.

Wind Energy GE Wind 1.5 MW Source: EERE/WTP Source: S. Succar, R. Williams, “CAES: Theory, Resources, Applications…” 4/08

Geothermal Technologies Current U.S. capacity is ~2,800 MW; 8,000 MW worldwide. Current cost is 5 to 8 ¢/kWh ; Down from 15 ¢/kWh in 1985 2010 goal: 3-5 ¢/kWh .

Current U.S. capacity is ~2,800 MW; 8,000 MW worldwide.

Current cost is 5 to 8 ¢/kWh ; Down from 15 ¢/kWh in 1985

2010 goal: 3-5 ¢/kWh .

A Renewable Electricity Future? Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Smart Grid Distributed Generation Plug-in Hybrids c-Si Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 500x Wind

Materials Commodity Materials Steel, Cement, Glass, Copper Silicon Speciality Materials CIGS, CdTe, others. Lithium; Cobalt; Ruthenium Responses Supply chain development Efficiency; Substitution (LiFePO 4 ) Material World Production Material at 20 GW/y % Current Production Indium 250 MT/y 400 MT/y 160% Selenium 2,200 MT/y 800 MT/y 36% Gallium 150 MT/y 70 MT/y 47% Tellurium 450 MT/y (2000 MT/y unused) 930 MT/y 38% (of total) Cadmium 26,000 MT/y 800 MT/y 3%

Commodity Materials

Steel, Cement, Glass, Copper

Silicon

Speciality Materials

CIGS, CdTe, others.

Lithium; Cobalt; Ruthenium

Responses

Supply chain development

Efficiency; Substitution (LiFePO 4 )

Grid Integration Assess potential effects of large-scale Wind/Solar deployment on grid operations and reliability: Behavior of solar/wind systems and impacts on existing grid Effects on central generation maintenance and operation costs, including peaking power plants Engage with utilities to mitigate barriers to technology adoption Prevent grid impacts from becoming basis for market barriers, e.g. caps on net metering and denied interconnections to “preserve” grid Provide utilities with needed simulations, controls, and field demos Develop technologies for integration: Smart Grid/Dispatch. Barriers: Variable output; Low capacity factor; Located on weak circuits; Lack of utility experience; Economics of transmission work against wind/solar. ISSUES Geographic Diversity Ramp Times Islanding System Interactions

Assess potential effects of large-scale Wind/Solar deployment on grid operations and reliability:

Behavior of solar/wind systems and impacts on existing grid

Effects on central generation maintenance and operation costs, including peaking power plants

Engage with utilities to mitigate barriers to technology adoption

Prevent grid impacts from becoming basis for market barriers, e.g. caps on net metering and denied interconnections to “preserve” grid

Provide utilities with needed simulations, controls, and field demos

Develop technologies for integration:

Smart Grid/Dispatch.

Barriers: Variable output; Low capacity factor; Located on weak circuits; Lack of utility experience; Economics of transmission work against wind/solar.

ISSUES

Geographic Diversity

Ramp Times

Islanding

System Interactions

Policy: Federal / State Technology Transfer : Partnerships; Solicitations; SBIR; Growth Fora; Incubators; IP Investment Tax Credit (ITC): solar, fuel cells, geothermal, microturbines 30% credit for solar Depreciation: Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System—5 year class Production Tax Credits Renewable Portfolio Standards Net Metering Property & Sales Tax Exemptions WGA Task Force : Exempt early CSP plants from state sales and property taxes; Encourage 30 year PPAs; Foster large-block purchases Systems Benefit Charges State & Local Bonds Permitting: Streamline, as approp. Codes & Standards Education & Certification Public Outreach ISSUES Planning Horizons Targeting Incentives/Buy-down Renewable Electricity Standards Carbon Policy?

Technology Transfer : Partnerships; Solicitations; SBIR; Growth Fora; Incubators; IP

Investment Tax Credit (ITC): solar, fuel cells, geothermal, microturbines

30% credit for solar

Depreciation: Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System—5 year class

Production Tax Credits

Renewable Portfolio Standards

Net Metering

Property & Sales Tax Exemptions

WGA Task Force : Exempt early CSP plants from state sales and property taxes; Encourage 30 year PPAs; Foster large-block purchases

Systems Benefit Charges

State & Local Bonds

Permitting: Streamline, as approp.

Codes & Standards

Education & Certification

Public Outreach

ISSUES

Planning Horizons

Targeting Incentives/Buy-down

Renewable Electricity Standards

Carbon Policy?

State Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS)

Mobilizing Capital Investment (notional numbers) Wind @ 15 GW/y  ~$27 B/y Solar @ 38 GW/y  ~$70 B/y Total  $100 B/y Offsets Fossil @ 770/40  ~$60 B/y Fuel  ~$x B/y Issues How to best mobilize capital with the most leverage at the minimum public expense?

Investment (notional numbers)

Wind @ 15 GW/y  ~$27 B/y

Solar @ 38 GW/y  ~$70 B/y

Total  $100 B/y

Offsets

Fossil @ 770/40  ~$60 B/y

Fuel  ~$x B/y

Issues

How to best mobilize capital with the most leverage at the minimum public expense?

Human Resources: Solar Decathlon Carnegie Mellon; Cornell; Georgia Tech; Kansas State; Lawrence Technological University; MIT; New York Institute of Technology; Pennsylvania State; Santa Clara University; Team Montreal ( É cole de Technologie Sup é rieure, Universit é de Montr é al, McGill University); Technische Universit ä t Darmstadt; Texas A&M; Universidad Polit é cnica de Madrid; Universidad de Puerto Rico; University of Colorado – Boulder; University of Cincinnati; University of Illinois; University of Maryland; University of Missouri, Rolla; University of Texas, Austin. Architecture Engineering Market Viability Communications Comfort Appliances Hot Water Lighting Energy Balance Getting Around Source: STP Issues At $100K/cap, $100B/y  1 M Jobs How can this scale be ramped up to quickly? How can quality control best be maintained? What outreach to state/local level will be most effective?

Issues

At $100K/cap, $100B/y  1 M Jobs

How can this scale be ramped up to quickly?

How can quality control best be maintained?

What outreach to state/local level will be most effective?

For more information http://www.eere.energy.gov [email_address]

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