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Published on October 7, 2007

Author: Janelle

Source: authorstream.com

FEMA Shelter Presentation:  FEMA Shelter Presentation Taking Shelter From the Storm: FEMA’s In-Residence Shelter Initiative BPAT Report on the May 3, 1999 Tornadoes in Oklahoma and Kansas Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters Taking Shelter From the Storm:  Taking Shelter From the Storm FEMA’s In-Residence Shelter Initiative Phase I: Feasibility Study:  Phase I: Feasibility Study Completed in 1997 Established Extreme Wind Risk Zones for both Hurricanes and Tornadoes Established Design Parameters Phase II: Guidance Document and Plans:  Phase II: Guidance Document and Plans Guidance Document Detailed Construction Drawings and Specifications Cost estimates Guidance Document and Plans:  The Project Team is Composed of: Guidance Document and Plans The Engineering Staff of FEMA’s Mitigation Directorate The consulting engineering firm of Greenhorne & O’Mara, Inc. Wind Engineering Faculty from Texas Tech University The National Association of Home Builders Research Center The Guidance Document:  The Guidance Document Explains the effect that extreme winds can have on homes Allows the homeowner to assess the risk to their home Provides cost estimates for each of the shelter alternatives The Effects of Extreme Winds:  Fujita Tornado Scale Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale The Effects of Extreme Winds Assessing Risks:  Assessing Risks Two Primary Risk Factors are used to determine the risk of being threatened by an extreme wind event the historical severity of wind events in your area the historical occurrence of severe wind events in your area Assessing Risks:  Assessing Risks FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY MITIGATION DIRECTORATE Assessing Risks:  Assessing Risks FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY MITIGATION DIRECTORATE Assessing Risks:  The combining of these two factors allows the homeowner to determine the risk to their home Assessing Risks FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY MITIGATION DIRECTORATE Design Parameters:  Design Parameters Wind speed - 250 mph Missile speed 100 mph horizontally 67 mph vertically Missile size - 15 lb. 2x4 Plans and Specifications:  Plans and Specifications A complete set of plans and specifications come with the Guidance Document Plans include information for both new and retrofit construction Plans and Specifications:  Plans and Specifications The plans were prepared so that a contractor or experienced homeowner could fabricate a shelter Each set of plans and specifications includes material and quantity estimates and costs for each shelter design Slide15:  Example– Detailed Construction Plan for Insulating Concrete Form System Plans and Specifications Estimated Shelter Costs:  Estimated Shelter Costs Safe Room Marketing Strategy:  Safe Room Marketing Strategy Identify Target Audience Utilize Community Structure and Strength Focus on what CAN be done Document and Share Resources and Successes Identify Target Audience:  Identify Target Audience Everyone living in Zones II, III, and IV State and local agencies and organizations, private sector, universities and colleges, science and research professional organizations. Utilize Community Structure and Strength:  Utilize Community Structure and Strength Educate and Provide Resources at the Community Level Encourage State and Community Initiatives and Projects Oklahoma, Arkansas, Iowa, Mississippi, and Alabama Safe Room Grant Program Tulsa, Oklahoma Partnerships with Builders Focus on what CAN be done:  Focus on what CAN be done Communities, individuals and businesses can take actions to save lives from future tornadoes and high wind events Residential safe rooms and shelters are the most effective way to provide “near absolute protection” for individuals and families Focus on what CAN be done:  Focus on what CAN be done Form National, Regional and Local partnerships to promote the safe room initiative Federal Agencies: Small Business Association, HUD/FHA Private Partnerships: National Storm Shelter Association (NSSA) Model safe rooms are being built and used for community education events throughout tornado and hurricane regions Document and Share Resources and Successes:  Document and Share Resources and Successes Established a Safe Room Web Site www.fema.gov/mit/saferoom Safe Room Publications, links, funding, events, projects. Encourage the Documentation - text and photographs – of safe room projects Promote Mitigation Successes: news coverage, articles, publications Over 150,000 copies of Taking Shelter From the Storm distributed Building a Safer Future:  Building a Safer Future Ft. Morgan Middle School, Colorado “Safe Room Team” Building a Safer Future:  Building a Safer Future One example of FEMA's education and training activities in wind hazard mitigation is the model safe room exhibit at the National Emergency Training Center (NETC), in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Midwest Tornadoes of May 3, 1999:  OBSERVATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND TECHNICAL GUIDANCE Midwest Tornadoes of May 3, 1999 BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT TEAM FEMA 342: OKLAHOMA AND KANSAS FEMA Building Performance Assessment Teams:  FEMA Building Performance Assessment Teams Team Members Representatives of public and private sectors and expertise in: Structural and wind engineering Building design and construction Code development and enforcement Meteorology FEMA Building Performance Assessment Teams:  FEMA Building Performance Assessment Teams Team Objectives Inspect damage to buildings Assessment performance of buildings Evaluate design and construction practices Evaluate code requirements and enforcement Make recommendations as necessary FEMA BPAT Report:  FEMA BPAT Report BPAT Report focused on three broad areas: Property protection using building codes Further improving property protection and personal protection Sheltering to provide near absolute protection Buildings Inspected :  Buildings Inspected Residential Building Inspected single and multi-family, one- to two-story manufactured & modular homes accessory structures Slide31:  Buildings Inspected Non- Residential Building Inspected tilt-up pre-cast concrete with steel joists load-bearing masonry walls w/ steel joist or pre-cast concrete hollow-core floor pre-engineered buildings Observations:  Observations Windborne Debris debris can breach the building envelope that results in over pressurization of the building debris can cause human injury to individuals who are not in a safe shelter missiles often completely covered the ground in many houses, the floors were covered with small tree branches and fragments of broken framing members Observations - Residential:  Observations - Residential Lack of continuous load path Damaged building components: Roof and Wall Sheathing Structural Connections Exterior Wall Coverings Garage Doors Windows and Doors Masonry Veneer / Chimneys Manufactured Housing Slide35:  BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT TEAM Example of Proper Continuous Load Path in Residential Construction Slide37:  Examples of Residential Building Damage Garage doors Chimneys Observations - Non-Residential:  Observations - Non-Residential Lack of Continuous Load Path Increased Load Breach of Building Envelope Damaged building components: wall systems roof coverings roof systems Slide39:  Continuous Load Path Slide40:  Examples of Non-Residential Building Damage Pre-cast concrete Light roof systems Observations - Personal Protection and Sheltering:  Observations - Personal Protection and Sheltering Type of Shelters Use of Shelters Maintenance and Design Issues Shelter Accessibility Shelter Location General Observations Slide42:  In-Residence Shelters in KS Slide43:  Small Group Shelters in KS Slide44:  Large Group Shelter in KS BPAT Conclusions:  BPAT Conclusions Conclusions - Life Safety Shelters provide the best means of protection against tornadoes Conclusions - Property Protection More attention to continuous load path Building envelope can be better protected Poor design and construction contributes to windborne debris BPAT Recommendations:  BPAT Recommendations Residential and Non-Residential Buildings provide safe refuge by constructing engineered shelters design buildings to the most current codes and engineering standards voluntary actions - construct buildings to be more wind resistant BPAT Shelter Recommendations:  BPAT Shelter Recommendations Continue to Promote In-Residence Shelters Recommendations for essential facilities and public buildings: Evaluate existing areas used for refuge Where there is inadequate protection, retrofit refuge areas or add shelters Design guidance is needed Tornado and Hurricane Community Shelters:  Tornado and Hurricane Community Shelters FEMA 361: Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters Purpose of Design Manual :  Purpose of Design Manual Provide technical design and construction guidance Outline a minimum level of design for high wind shelters Present samples of shelter designs Contents of Manual:  Contents of Manual Guidance for risk assessment Information on building performance Design and performance criteria Human factors criteria Emergency management Case Studies and Testing Results Risk Assessment Concepts:  Risk Assessment Concepts Design wind event / severity Probability/history of occurrence Single and annual event deaths Potential for loss of life Shelter costs Risk Assessment Tools:  Risk Assessment Tools Refuge area evaluation checklists Benefit cost model Updated Design Wind Speed Map:  Updated Design Wind Speed Map Designing for Wind Pressures:  Designing for Wind Pressures Design wind speed from new map References Chapter 6 of ASCE 7-98 Design parameters defined Considers building frame & exterior systems Provides load combinations Designing for Windborne Debris:  Designing for Windborne Debris Representative missile 15 lb. 2x4 wood board member 100 mph horizontal speed 67 mph vertical (falling) speed Pass/fail missile impact test Sample wall & roof sections provided Other Design Considerations:  Other Design Considerations Building code design and compliance issues Life safety design and compliance issues Flood and seismic design issues Quality control issues Human Factors Criteria:  Human Factors Criteria Shelter ventilation Square footage Egress and ADA compliance Lighting Emergency provisions Emergency power Emergency Management Considerations:  Emergency Management Considerations Shelter Operations Plans community, commercial, private shelter recommended components sample plan Shelter Maintenance Plan Signage Case Study Examples:  Case Study Examples Community shelter design 200 mph design wind speed stand-alone building School shelter design 250 mph design wind speed addition to an existing facility Additional Guidance:  Additional Guidance Appendixes include wall sections and door assemblies that successfully passed missile impact testing Additional Resources:  Additional Resources To order a copy of the Safe Room and Community Shelter Resource CD, call the FEMA Publications and Distribution Facility at 1-800-480-2520 and request FEMA 388-CD. Additional Resources:  Additional Resources FEMA 320 FEMA 361 FEMA 342

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