Published on March 13, 2014
Technology & Maintenance Council . . . Providing Technology Solutions for the Trucking Industry
Attention Please • This is an open meeting of the Technology & Maintenance Council, held in accordance with ATA Antitrust Guidelines which are listed in your meeting packet. • Audio or video recordings are not permitted at this session. However, photography is permissible. • The opinions expressed in this meeting are those of the individual and not necessarily the opinion of his/her company nor of TMC unless stated otherwise.
Constructive Comments Are Always Appreciated! TMC welcomes your comments, but please make certain that they are constructive and appropriate before you turn in your evaluation sheet! Thank You for Your Cooperation!
25 Years of Emissions Reductions 1988 0.60 PM 12.0 NOx 1990 0.60 PM 6.0 NOx 1991 0.25 PM 5.0 NOx DEF Added
SmartWay – A Voluntary Success SmartWay
Fuel Economy Regs Now Starting
Climate Action Plan
Climate Action Plan
Climate Action Plan
Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations: Now and for the Foreseeable Future Paul Menig
Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations: Now and for the Foreseeable Future
Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations: Now and for the Foreseeable Future
Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations: Now and for the Foreseeable Future
Our Distinguished Panel Today Dwayne Haug Sam Waltzer Scott Webb Arvon Mitcham Stephan Lemieux
Overview of California’s Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas Regulation 15 ATA Technology & Maintenance Council March 11, 2014 Stephan Lemieux
California’s Climate Change Initiatives • California's Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) • Governor’s Executive Order • Strategies for reducing GHG emissions outlined in Scoping Plan • Included Tractor-Trailer GHG Regulation 16
California Authority to Regulate GHG Under Clean Air Act • In 2007, U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Massachusetts v. EPA that GHGs are covered by the Clean Air Act's definition of air pollutant • Clean Air Act (CAA) §209(a) and (b) • §209(a) CAA prevents all states except California from adopting or attempting to enforce new motor vehicle emissions standards • §209(b) EPA must grant California a waiver from the general prohibitions of § 209(a) if California determines its standards are, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable federal standards 17
Climate Change Progress • California is on target for meeting 2020 GHG reduction goal • Many GHG measures adopted over last 5 years, including: • Low Carbon Fuel Standard • Advanced Clean Car standards • Cap-and-Trade • Tractor-Trailer GHG Regulation 18
California GHG Inventory – 2011 (million metric tons CO2 equivalent) Source: California GHG Inventory for 2011 http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/inventory/data/data.htm
Importance of Class 8 Trucks in the Heavy-Duty Sector Source: EMFAC2011 – CY 2014 run (excluding buses) Class 8 75% Class 4 - 6 19% Class 7 7% Class 4 - 8: VMT Class 8 82% Class 7 5% Class 4 - 6 14% Class 4 - 8: CO2
Out-of-State Trucks Play Significant Role in Climate Emissions in CA Out-of-State 32% In-State 68% Class 8 : VMT share Out-of-State 19% In-State 81% Class 8: Trucks on CA roads, on a typical day Source: EMFAC2011 – CY 2014 run (excluding buses)
Tractor-Trailer GHG Regulation Overview • Goals: • Reduce GHG emissions from long-haul tractors • Improve aerodynamics & tire rolling resistance • Applies to 53’ dry and reefer vans and tractors pulling them • All parties involved in goods movement responsible for compliance • Based on elements of EPA SmartWay program • Implementation began in 2010 22
Tractor Requirements Day Cabs Sleeper Cabs 2014 MY & newer* Subject to federal HD GHG Phase 1 Subject to federal HD GHG Phase 1 2011-2013 MY LRR tires SmartWay designated 2010 & older LRR tires LRR tires 23 *Tractor-Trailer GHG Regulation tractor requirements recently sunsetted to harmonize with federal HD GHG Phase 1 requirements
Aerodynamics on Tractors • Body design • Roof fairing • Bumpers • Side mirrors • Fuel tank skirts • Side extenders • SmartWay Certified Tractors Fuel-tank skirts Integrated roof fairing Cab side gap fairings Aerodynamic bumper Aerodynamic mirrors Aero profile tractor
53’ Dry and Reefer Trailer Requirements • Box-type trailers • SmartWay designated or • Retrofitted with SmartWay verified • Low Rolling Resistance (LRR) tires and • Aerodynamic (aero) devices • 2011+ MY trailers compliant as of 1/1/2010 • 2010 & older MY trailers • Aerodynamic devices as of 1/1/13 • Unless registered for optional delayed compliance phase-in plan • LRR tires by 1/1/2017 25
Trailer Requirements (continued) • Delayed compliance registration closed • All trailers not registered for delayed compliance or qualified exemption must comply with the aero requirements • By January 1, 2020, all delayed compliance trailers must be compliant with aero and tire requirements 26
Exemptions • Container chassis • Drop frame vans • Curtain side vans • Authorized emergency vehicles • Drayage tractors & trailers Exemptions requiring registration: • Short-haul tractors • Storage trailers • Local-haul tractors and trailers 27
Aerodynamics on Trailers • Front fairings • Side skirts • Under carriage devices • Trailer boat tails/end fairings
SmartWay Verified LRR Tires & Retreads 29 New Tires Retreads Number of Manufacturers/Brands 68 11 Total Number of Verified Models 366 38 Ø Steer 146 NA Ø Drive 149 19 Ø Trailer 71 19
The Trailer Aero Technology Industry Keeps Growing 2008 2012 2013 Companies Making SmartWay Verified Aero Devices 5 21 33 Technologies Available 11 59 76 Aero Devices Sold >22001 >180,0001 >400,0001 Typical Cost of Devices $2,800 $1,250 <$1,000 Estimated Return on Investment (ROI) for Trailer Aero2 30 months 11 months <11 months 30 1 Not all manufacturers contributed data 2 105k tractor highway miles per year with an average 2.5 trailers per tractor
Fleets Going Beyond 31
Next Steps (national Phase 2)? 32
For More Information • Stephan Lemieux, Manager On-Road Heavy Duty Diesel Section • email@example.com • (626) 450-6162 • Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas Regulation • Web address: http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/hdghg/hdghg.htm • Listserv: http://www.arb.ca.gov/listserv/listserv_ind.php?listname=hdghg • The TRUCK STOP web address: • http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/truckstop/truckstop.htm • DIESEL HOTLINE: • (866) 6-DIESEL (866-634-3735) • Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 33
• TMC S.11 Tech Session Dwayne O. Haug AVP Equipment Purchasing March 11, 2014
WERNER ENTERPRISES PROFILE 35 2013 Revenue: $2 billion 2013 Net Income: $86 million NASDAQ: WERN Alliance Carriers: 8,500 Trucks: 7,300 Trailers: 23,380 Premium provider of transportation and logistics services, specializing in Truckload, Intermodal, LTL, Ocean and Air services.
Werner offers complete 3PL supply chain solutions across all shipping modes and geographies, from network design through implementation. Freight Management With a network of 7,300 trucks, 8,500 alliance carriers and ocean, air and rail providers, we offer unsurpassed delivery solutions worldwide. Freight Movement Providing door-to-door services for companies of all sizes and industries as they compete in today’s global marketplace is what sets us apart. Global Implementation Our tools provide customers instant visibility across their supply chain, which allows them to better manage their business. Technological Advantages Comprehensive Solutions 36
Source: ATA, ACT Research, KeyBanc Supply -- Truckload 37 U.S. Class 8 Truck Production “Aging equipment and relatively good truck tonnage levels provided an impetus to purchase new trucks, but economic, fiscal, and political uncertainty led some customers to stick with their existing trucks longer than they normally would.” -Transport Topics 6.6 yrs. Current Average Age of U.S. Class 8 Truck Fleet Class 8 Maintenance Expense Units Replacement Level
Green Initiatives 38 Werner Enterprises is a SmartWaySM Transport partner. SmartWay is a collaboration between the EPA and the freight industry, to increase energy efficiency and reduce air pollution. Werner has earned a Shipper Index Factor score (SIF) of 1.25, the highest possible score. Fuel Efficiency Initiatives: § Aerodynamic Trucks § Installation of fuel idling reduction equipment, including fuel fired heaters and APU’s § MPH optimization § Out of route mile and empty mile reduction § Trailer skirts § Tire-inflation systems Alternate Fuel Initiatives: § Testing LNG and CNG trucks Werner’s Impact: § 5 years of MPG improvement § Continued MPG improvement opportunities § 150,000 ton reduction in carbon footprint from MPG improvement, last 3 years
Environmental Sustainability 39 Current Fuel Efficiency Initiatives • Aerodynamic trucks & trailers • Weight reduction strategies • Automated tire inflation systems • Newest diesel engine technology • Computerized truck idling program and paperless log system for drivers • Speed Management • Continual in-depth testing of the latest fuel saving technologies • “ArrowShield” trailer skirt development Werner’s Impact From 2007 to 2012 we reduced: 77 Million Gallons 860,000 Tons YOY improvement to mpg
Fuel – Provider and Shipper Costing 40 Driver Wages and Benefits 38% Fuel 32% Equipment 16% Repair and Maintenance 10% Permits and Licenses 4% * Source: ATRI Research 2011 Update Average Carrier Cost Breakdown "Carriers can tell you what all of the expense line items are, but none of them can tell you what fuel will be next week." -Avondale
Roof Fairings Side Fuel Tank Fairing w/ extension Sun Visors Synthe:c Lubricants DPF Single Drive Axle Trucks Tire Pressure Monitoring Speed Reduc:on Bunk Heaters Diesel APU Electric APU Trailer End Fairings Under Tray System Trailer Side Panels (Skir:ng) Wide Based Tires Low Rolling Resistant Tires FlyswaLer Mud Flap Fuel Addi:ves Hydrogen Technologies Propane Injec:on LNG/CNG Surface Deturbulator Drive in Climate Controlled Parking Direc:ons/ Mapping SoRware Lightweight Components Trailer Gap Fairing Base Truck $???,000 Aero @$7,000 Ambient Air Technology Rounded Side Mirrors DEF Aero 36% Mechanical @$3,000 Mechanical 18% Tires/Wheels @$1,500 Tires/Wheels 10% Lightweight @$1,500 Lightweight 4% Climate @$10,000 Climate 17% Alterna:ve Fuel @$??,000 Conversion Alterna:ve Fuel ? Conversion Safety Systems Safety & Mapping @$10,000 Safety & Mapping 4% Fuel Line Magnets Exhaust Stack Tips Aero Tabs Aero Wheel Covers Air Intake Spacers Misc. Truck @$8,000 Misc. Truck 59% Base Trailer $??,000 Fuel Injector Delivery Systems Rounded Front Bumpers Equipment – Optimized for Fuel Consumption and Emissions 41
Solutions 42 Behavior Modifications: • Obtainable with little to no capital investment Equipment Modifications: • Optimized for fuel consumption and emissions; reductions are highly effective but do require capital investments Initiatives in Testing: • Indicator of carriers who are looking at long-term improvements • Requires capital investments
Our Most Important Asset 43
• Thank You For more information visit: www.werner.com Follow us on Face book and Twitter
MESILLA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations <draft> TMC—Nashville March 11, 2014 Scott Webb
46 COMPANY OVERVIEW • Founded by Royal Jones and Jimmy Ray in 1981 • Headquartered in Las Cruces, New Mexico • $300M in annual revenue • Excel at offering service to, from and through the Southern border of the US • 1,150 mile average length of haul • Our fleet – 1,150 trucks • 850 company trucks • 300 owner-operators – 4,700 trailers
1981: MPG focus in driver orientation —human factors 1984: Test track quantification of specs 1985: Fixed fifth wheel on all tractors-aerodynamics 1986: MPG measurement and management of all drivers—human factors 1981: Fan clutch —drive train resistance Fleet Fuel Mileage History: 1980-2000 Year Fleet Average MPG 3.5 6.5 1981 2000
2009: Over 15 drivers achieve more than 12 MPG in a quarter 2008: Trailer skirts--aerodynamics 2003: Super Single tires all new tractors and trailers—rolling resistance 2005: Harley and $25k fuel award—human factors 2007: APU—idle reduction Tractor wheel covers—areodynamics 100% ProStar fleet—aerodynamics Tractor tag axles—drive train resistance 2010: Narrow mud flaps-aerodynamics Tire sealant-rolling resistance Fleet Fuel Mileage History: 2000-2010 Year Fleet Average MPG 6.5 9 2000 2010
Fleet Fuel Mileage History: 2010-2020 Year Fleet Average MPG 8 10 2010 2020 High MPG is profitably attainable! 2010: EGR nightmare—engine efficiency, maintenance 2012: Roof cap extenders—aerodynamics Solar Panels—drive train resistance Trailer Tails--aerodynamics 2013: Hourglass panels—aerodynamics SCR engines—engine efficiency Driver Performance Incentive—human factors 2014: More teams to run optimal speed—human factors
Expectations of Upcoming Regulations $2,000% $1,500% $1,000% $750% $0# $500# $1,000# $1,500# $2,000# $2,500# 2008# 2009# 2010# 2011# Typical#Cost#per#Trailer# to#Install#Skirts# • MVT has and will continue to embrace most regulations related to fuel economy • Fuel savings technology is not just good for the environment and the communities we serve—it is good for business • Selfishly we would like to see more industry adoption of fuel savings technologies to reduce everyone’s cost per unit and improve ROI
Desires for Future Regulations • Let the market decide through voluntary programs like Smartway • Make sure regulations reduce net emissions • Considerable opportunity to meet political objectives through the mandate of Biodiesel • Per US EPA, there is up to an 86% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by substituting petrochemical diesel with Biodiesel • All terminal fueling at our main terminal in El Paso has been with B20 Biodiesel since 2012—over 500k gallons per month Source: Renewable Fuel Standard Program Regulatory Impact Analysis, US EPA, February 2010
WE BELIEVE SO STRONGLY IN BIODIESEL • We built our own plant to make it—mostly out of used cooking oil
United States Medium-‐ and Heavy-‐ Duty Vehicle Fuel Eﬃciency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Phase 2 Rulemaking • 2014 Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) Annual Con • March, 2014 • United States Na:onal Highway Traﬃc Safety Administra:on • United States Environmental Protec:on Agency • Presented by: Arvon L. Mitcham Program Manager/Engineer Assessment and Standards Division Oﬃce of Transporta:on and Air Quality Oﬃce of Air and Radia:on
Topic Overview • PART 1: Overview of Heavy Duty Green House Gas Emissions, Phase 1 Regula:ons (HD GHG PHASE 1) • PART 2: Discuss Heavy Duty Green House Gas Emissions, Phase 2 Regula:ons (HD GHG PHASE 2) 54
PART 1: OVERVIEW OF HEAVY DUTY GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS, PHASE 1 REGULATIONS (HD GHG PHASE 1)
U.S. Medium-‐ and Heavy-‐Duty Sector Energy Use in 2010 56 Source: Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (U.S. Energy Information Administration) MD/HD
U.S. MD/HD Sector Emission in 2010 57 Transporta/on Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Tg CO2eq) in 2010 Source: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks 1990-2010 (EPA 2012) MD/HD
Heavy Duty GHG Phase 1 Regula:ons • The joint (NHTSA & EPA) medium and heavy-‐duty vehicle ﬁnal rule was published in the Federal Register on September 15, 2011 • First ever MD/HD Truck Fuel Eﬃciency & GHG Standards with broad support from major stakeholders • Builds on Light Duty standards & past MD and HD criteria pollutant standards • Expedited implementa:on of oﬀ-‐the-‐shelf technologies • Single coordinated Na:onal Program that helps manufacturers to produce a single ﬂeet of vehicles to meet related Federal and State requirements 58
Heavy Duty GHG Phase 1 : Costs and Beneﬁts • Will reduce oil imports, fuel consump:on, CO2 emissions and opera:ng costs for thousands of businesses over the life:me of 2014-‐18 MY trucks • 530 million barrels less oil • 270 MMT lower GHGs • $50 Billion in fuel savings ($42B net ﬁrst cost) • $49 Billion in net beneﬁts to society 59
Heavy Duty GHG Phase 1: Costs and Beneﬁts • Annual addi:onal hardware cost: $5,000 -‐ $6,000 for new combina:on tractors • Fuel Savings: ~400,000 to 6.3 Million gallons of fuel saved • Annual Mone:zed Fuel Savings: $1,500 -‐ $39,500 • Payback Period: 1-‐2 years with net savings of up to $73,000 over the useful life of that truck 60
Heavy Duty GHG Phase 1 Vehicle/Category Coverage 61 CLASS 2b 8,501 to 10,000 lb RV’s
Phase 1 – Divided diverse MD/HD vehicle sector into 4 distinct categories 62 Full-‐size pickup trucks & work vans Semi tractors, no trailers Voca:onal vehicles, regulated via the chassis HD Engines
Heavy Duty GHG Phase 1 Regulatory Structure • HD pickups and vans • Tested using chassis dynamometers; like LD • g/mi standard versus work factor (vs. LD GHG footprint) • No fuel economy or GHG labeling was proposed • Voca:onal vehicles • Engine tested over same cycles as NOx & PM, g/hp-‐hr standard and g/ton-‐mi standard • Vehicle cer:ﬁed using GEM (Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model) simula:on; only :res serve as an input 63
Heavy Duty GHG Phase 1 Regulatory Structure • Combina:on tractors • Engine tested over same cycles as NOx & PM, g/hp-‐hr standard • 9 subdivisions for diﬀerent cab designs • Vehicle cer:ﬁed using GEM simula:on, g/ton-‐mi standard • Tires, aero, vehicle speed limiter, and mass reduc:on serve as inputs 64
Heavy Duty GHG Phase 1 Regulatory Structure • NHTSA regulates fuel consump:on. – Fuel consump:on is calculated based on CO2. • EPA regulates CO2, N2O, CH4 and HFCs. • Both agencies oﬀer manufacturers ﬂexibili:es • Credit Averaging, Banking and Trading (ABT) • Innova:ve and Advanced technology credit genera:ng op:ons 65
Heavy Duty GHG Phase 1 Timing • EPA standards are mandatory beginning in MY 2014 • NHTSA standards are mandatory beginning in MY 2016 with MY 2014 & 2015: Voluntary early compliance 66 Model Year (MY) 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019+ EPA M M M M M M NHTSA V V M M M M
PART 2: DISCUSS HEAVY DUTY GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS, PHASE 2 REGULATIONS (HD GHG PHASE 2)
President Obama’s 2013 Climate Ac:on Plan: Commitment to a Phase 2 Regulatory Program for Heavy-‐Duty Vehicles “During the President’s second term, the Administra:on will once again partner with industry leaders and other key stakeholders to develop post-‐2018 fuel economy standards for heavy-‐duty vehicles …..” 68
Presiden:al Announcement “Today, I’m directing the Secretary of Transportation, Anthony Foxx, and Gina McCarthy, the Administrator of the EPA, to develop fuel economy standards for heavy- duty trucks that will take us well into the next decade. They’re going to partner with manufacturers and autoworkers and states and other stakeholders, truckers, to come up with a proposal by March of next year , and they’ll complete the rule a year after that .” - President Obama, February 18, 2014 69
Key Elements of Announcement • Timing • EPA and NHTSA are expected to propose Phase 2 standards by March 31st, 2015 • President Obama directed EPA and NHTSA to ﬁnalize Phase 2 standards by March 31st, 2016 • EPA and NHTSA will consider advanced technologies for engines, vehicles, and trailers in Phase 2 • Engine and power-‐train eﬃciency improvements, including waste heat recovery • Aerodynamics • Weight reduc:on • Improved :re rolling resistance • Hybridiza:on • Automa:c engine shutdown • Accessory improvements (water pumps, fans, auxiliary power units, air condi:oning, etc.) 70
HD GHG Phase 2 Regulatory Development • Phase 1 stringencies developed with Phase 2 in mind • Recogni:on of addi:onal and new eﬃciency technologies and to achieve addi:onal reduc:ons • Objec:ves • Build upon success of Phase I • Further reﬁne test procedures and GEM model • Recognize addi:onal and new technologies • Achieve addi:onal reduc:ons • Work toward global harmoniza:on • Key Ac:vi:es • Seek input from stakeholders • Establish interagency coordina:on eﬀorts • Scoping technology feasibility and cost assessment needs 71
NHTSA Research: Vehicle & Trailer Technologies • A/C Reduced Reheat • Air Compressor Improvements • Automated Manual Transmission • Automa:c Engine Shutdown • Automa:c Tire Pressure Control • BaLery Auxiliary Power Unit • Cab Insula:on to Reduce A/C • Chassis Fric:on Reduc:on & Improved Lube • Diesel Auxiliary Power Unit • Driver Coaching Features • Driver Management Features • Dual Clutch Transmission • Fan Power Demand Reduc:on • Fuel Fired Heater • Full EV • Hybrid Technologies • Improved Aerodynamics • Improved Transmissions (more gears, higher ra:o spread, shiR points) • Low Rolling Resistance Tires • Manual Transmission • Shore Power • Single Wide Tires • Tractor Axle 6X2 or Clutched 6X4 • Speed limiters • Weight Reduc:on 72Technology applica:on will vary by vehicle class, voca:on, and engine fuel type
NHTSA Research: Engine Technologies • Advanced BoLoming Cycle • Air Handling Improvement • Coolant Pump • Cylinder Deac:va:on • Down-‐sizing & boosted vs. NA • Electric Turbo-‐compounding • Engine Down-‐sizing • Engine Down-‐speeding (reduced cruise RPM, combined with transmission technology) • Engine Fric:on Reduc:on • Engine Oil Pump Improvement • GDI + l EGR • Lean Burn GDI w/ SCR • Improved Selec:ve Cataly:c Reduc:on (SCR) Conversion, combined with reducing or removing EGR • Lower Fric:on Engine Oil • Mechanical Turbo-‐compounding • Natural Gas • Reduced ARer-‐treatment Backpressure • Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injec:on (GDI) • Stop / Start • Turbo Eﬃciency Improvement • Variable Valve Timing 73Technology applica:on will vary by vehicle class, voca:on, and engine fuel type
Other NHTSA Research • Comprehensive analysis on the need for crash worthiness standards on Class 7 and 8 property carrying motor vehicles involved in interstate commerce, including an evalua:on of the need for roof strength, pillar strength, air bags, and frontal and back wall standards (Report to Congress, Spring 2014) • Sponsoring a second study by the Na:onal Academies of Science on technologies and the regulatory framework • Ini:ated in 2013 • Interim report in early 2014 (to inform Phase 2 rulemaking) • Final report in late 2016 (to inform agencies beyond Phase 2) 74
EPA Research: Test Procedure Development • Reﬁne and evaluate aerodynamic and powertrain test procedure approaches • ALempt to reﬁne GEM to simulate an actual powertrain • Compare test procedure and GEM results • Validate GEM over 120+ vehicle variant tests • Assess diﬀerent Phase 2 combina:ons of cer:ﬁca:on tes:ng and simula:on • EPA developing GEM reﬁnements in-‐house and with contractor support 75
Vehicle & Powertrain Tests Suppor:ng GEM • Vehicle chassis and powertrain tes:ng • One Class 6 box delivery truck chassis dyno tests with 7x6 test matrix • One Class 6 ﬂat bed voca:onal truck chassis dyno tests with 7x6 test matrix • Kenworth T700 Class 8 tractor-‐trailer chassis dyno tests with 7x6 test matrix • Daimler Cascadia Class 8 truck-‐trailer chassis dyno tests • One transit city bus chassis dyno tests • One garbage truck chassis dyno tests • MD powertrain test with 7x6 test matrix • HD powertrain test is being planned with DOE-‐EPA interagency agreement • Driving cycle reﬁnement is being planed with DOE-‐EPA interagency agreement • Vehicle tes:ng • Class 6 open box truck tes:ng underway • Coordina:ng addi:onal tes:ng opportuni:es • GEM Valida:ons will be done against over 160 vehicle variants 76
GEM Development and Enhancement • The Agency formed a team to develop the next genera:on of the GEM (Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model) • The key technical features of this enhanced GEM include • More advanced engine controller • Engine fuel cut-‐oﬀ model during braking and decelera:on • Idle controller • Transmission models • Automa:c transmission and Automated manual transmission • Enhanced driver model • Fric:onal clutch model • GEM Graphic User Interface (GUI) 77
Current GEM Status • EPA modeling team is working with SwRI to conclude modeling development and valida:ons • All sub-‐models have been developed • GEM is being validated against three diﬀerent trucks over a total of 24 vehicle driving cycles • Majority of the comparisons between simula:ons and tes:ng data are within 95% accuracy • Extensive valida:ons against massive vehicle test data are under way whenever the tes:ng data become available 78
For More Information • EPA’s rulemaking documents and implementation information can be found under “Heavy-Duty Regulations” at http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/regulations.htm • NHTSA’s rulemaking documents can be found at http://www.nhtsa.gov/fuel-economy • Phase 1 regulations can be found at: • Federal Register 76 FR 57106, September 15, 2011 • Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR Parts 1036, 1037, 1065, 1066; and 49 CFR Parts 523, 534, 535 79 2014 TMC
Thank you • Matthew W. Spears, Center Director, Heavy-Duty Diesel Standards • Assessment and Standards Division, Office of Transportation and Air Quality • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency • 2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 • email@example.com • 734-214-4921 • James Tamm • Fuel Economy Division Chief • Department of Transportation • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration • 1200 New Jersey Ave, SE • Washington , DC 20590 • Phone: 202-493-0515 • E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 80
• ATA’s TMC • S. 11 Technical Session • March 11, 2014 • Sam Waltzer USEPA SmartWay Technology Program
Recent progression of heavy-duty tractor- trailer GHG programs in U.S. CARB Fleet Rule • Fleets required to use SmartWay verified components for new and legacy tractor-trailers Partnerships Regulations SmartWay Technology • Objective verification of technology performance SmartWay Partnership • Objective ranking and recognition of fleet freight efficiency Phase 2: EPA- NHTSA HD GHG Rule • Updated tractor and engine requirements with consideration of trailers SmartWay Technology Update • Updated verification criteria and protocols 2006 2008 20112004 20162014 Phase 1: EPA-NHTSA HD GHG Rule • New tractor and engine requirements to reduce GHG emissions and improve truck fuel efficiency
83 Fleets want… To know how a technology will perform in their fleet To know the trade-offs (e.g., weight, maintenance time, driver acceptance) for fuel savings? Understanding top performance limits Simple sources of information and a say in the program Listening to stakeholders Manufacturers want… Apples-to-apples comparisons of technology performance Innovative standardized test methods that provide flexibility and reduce burden Potential for other types of technologies
Current SmartWay-designated Trailer 84 Low Rolling Resistance Tires Rear fairing or “boat tail” Front fairing or “gap reducer” Side fairing or “side skirt” • USEPA’s SmartWay-designated tractors and trailers represent the most fuel-efficient models available • Supports the SmartWay Partnership • SmartWay-Designated trailers • 53’ dry, van trailers • Aerodynamic improvements (≥ 5% total fuel improvement) that provide fleets flexibility • Equipment verification • Aerodynamic devices (front-fairing, side skirts, rear-fairing) proven using track test • Tires demonstrating reduced rolling resistance using standard lab tests • Low rolling resistance tires (1.0 – 1.5% fuel improvement)
2014 Interim SmartWay-designated Trailer 85 Scope Recognition Levels Current Program SmartWay Trailer 6.5% total fuel savings Verified tires (1.5%) & 5% or more aero 53’ Van trailers Tomorrow? SmartWay “Pup” Trailer? New SmartWay “Elite” Trailer 10.5% total fuel savings Verified tires (1.5%) & 9% or more aero combinations (tested together or by matched categories) 53’ Refrigeration trailers Today’s Interim Adds
Categories of Devices 2014 Interim SmartWay-verified (trailer) Aerodynamic Devices: Today’s Interim Replaces with… 9% Systems (Combinations) 4 % Side Skirts Rear Fairings (Tails) Systems Current Program Side Skirts Side Skirt (4%) Advanced Side Skirt (5% or more) Systems and combinations? Rear Fairing (Tails) Rear Fairing (1%) Advanced Rear Fairing (5% or more) Systems and combinations? Front Fairing Front Fairing (1% or more) 1% Front Fairing Rear Fairings (Tails) 5% Side Skirts Rear Fairings (Tails) Systems
Current Program Today’s Interim Adds 2014 Interim SmartWay-verified (trailer) Aerodynamic Devices: Tires Lab Test Crr Aero verification matrix % Fuel saved 4 Choices for original and supplemental tests Aero verification method % Fuel saved Original Track Test (same) 1 New Track Test 2 Coastdown 3 Wind Tunnel 4 CFD
SmartWay-verified Aero Device Matrix sample Original verification
89 Advancing the Conversation Innovations in standardized test methods Trailer aerodynamic device testing Fuel consumption testing Tire rolling resistance testing Tunnel CFD Coastdown Understanding top performance limits Translating standardized test results to estimate in-fleet performance
Finding out more and getting involved For more information • SmartWay Technology website • Webinars Providing Feedback • Interim trailer designation criteria with intent to finalize October 2014 • Tech_Center@epa.gov and email@example.com 90
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