S11 tech session draft 2014.03.11

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Information about S11 tech session draft 2014.03.11

Published on March 13, 2014

Author: PaulMenig

Source: slideshare.net


S11 Tech Session March 11, 2014
Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations: Now and for the Foreseeable Future

Technology & Maintenance Council . . . Providing Technology Solutions for the Trucking Industry

Attention Please •  This is an open meeting of the Technology & Maintenance Council, held in accordance with ATA Antitrust Guidelines which are listed in your meeting packet. •  Audio or video recordings are not permitted at this session. However, photography is permissible. •  The opinions expressed in this meeting are those of the individual and not necessarily the opinion of his/her company nor of TMC unless stated otherwise.

Constructive Comments Are Always Appreciated! TMC welcomes your comments, but please make certain that they are constructive and appropriate before you turn in your evaluation sheet! Thank You for Your Cooperation!

25 Years of Emissions Reductions 1988 0.60 PM 12.0 NOx 1990 0.60 PM 6.0 NOx 1991 0.25 PM 5.0 NOx DEF Added

SmartWay – A Voluntary Success SmartWay

Fuel Economy Regs Now Starting

Climate Action Plan

Climate Action Plan

Climate Action Plan

Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations: Now and for the Foreseeable Future Paul Menig

Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations: Now and for the Foreseeable Future

Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations: Now and for the Foreseeable Future

Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations: Now and for the Foreseeable Future

Our Distinguished Panel Today Dwayne Haug Sam Waltzer Scott Webb Arvon Mitcham Stephan Lemieux

Overview of California’s Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas Regulation 15 ATA Technology & Maintenance Council March 11, 2014 Stephan Lemieux

California’s Climate Change Initiatives • California's Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) • Governor’s Executive Order • Strategies for reducing GHG emissions outlined in Scoping Plan •  Included Tractor-Trailer GHG Regulation 16

California Authority to Regulate GHG Under Clean Air Act • In 2007, U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Massachusetts v. EPA that GHGs are covered by the Clean Air Act's definition of air pollutant • Clean Air Act (CAA) §209(a) and (b) •  §209(a) CAA prevents all states except California from adopting or attempting to enforce new motor vehicle emissions standards •  §209(b) EPA must grant California a waiver from the general prohibitions of § 209(a) if California determines its standards are, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable federal standards 17

Climate Change Progress • California is on target for meeting 2020 GHG reduction goal • Many GHG measures adopted over last 5 years, including: •  Low Carbon Fuel Standard •  Advanced Clean Car standards •  Cap-and-Trade •  Tractor-Trailer GHG Regulation 18

California GHG Inventory – 2011 (million metric tons CO2 equivalent) Source: California GHG Inventory for 2011 http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/inventory/data/data.htm

Importance of Class 8 Trucks in the Heavy-Duty Sector Source: EMFAC2011 – CY 2014 run (excluding buses) Class 8 75% Class 4 - 6 19% Class 7 7% Class 4 - 8: VMT Class 8 82% Class 7 5% Class 4 - 6 14% Class 4 - 8: CO2

Out-of-State Trucks Play Significant Role in Climate Emissions in CA Out-of-State 32% In-State 68% Class 8 : VMT share Out-of-State 19% In-State 81% Class 8: Trucks on CA roads, on a typical day Source: EMFAC2011 – CY 2014 run (excluding buses)

Tractor-Trailer GHG Regulation Overview • Goals: •  Reduce GHG emissions from long-haul tractors •  Improve aerodynamics & tire rolling resistance • Applies to 53’ dry and reefer vans and tractors pulling them • All parties involved in goods movement responsible for compliance • Based on elements of EPA SmartWay program • Implementation began in 2010 22

Tractor Requirements Day Cabs Sleeper Cabs 2014 MY & newer* Subject to federal HD GHG Phase 1 Subject to federal HD GHG Phase 1 2011-2013 MY LRR tires SmartWay designated 2010 & older LRR tires LRR tires 23 *Tractor-Trailer GHG Regulation tractor requirements recently sunsetted to harmonize with federal HD GHG Phase 1 requirements

Aerodynamics on Tractors • Body design • Roof fairing • Bumpers • Side mirrors • Fuel tank skirts • Side extenders • SmartWay Certified Tractors Fuel-tank skirts Integrated roof fairing Cab side gap fairings Aerodynamic bumper Aerodynamic mirrors Aero profile tractor

53’ Dry and Reefer Trailer Requirements • Box-type trailers •  SmartWay designated or •  Retrofitted with SmartWay verified •  Low Rolling Resistance (LRR) tires and •  Aerodynamic (aero) devices • 2011+ MY trailers compliant as of 1/1/2010 • 2010 & older MY trailers •  Aerodynamic devices as of 1/1/13 •  Unless registered for optional delayed compliance phase-in plan •  LRR tires by 1/1/2017 25

Trailer Requirements (continued) • Delayed compliance registration closed • All trailers not registered for delayed compliance or qualified exemption must comply with the aero requirements • By January 1, 2020, all delayed compliance trailers must be compliant with aero and tire requirements 26

Exemptions •  Container chassis •  Drop frame vans •  Curtain side vans •  Authorized emergency vehicles •  Drayage tractors & trailers Exemptions requiring registration: •  Short-haul tractors •  Storage trailers •  Local-haul tractors and trailers 27

Aerodynamics on Trailers • Front fairings • Side skirts • Under carriage devices • Trailer boat tails/end fairings

SmartWay Verified LRR Tires & Retreads 29 New Tires Retreads Number of Manufacturers/Brands 68 11 Total Number of Verified Models 366 38 Ø  Steer 146 NA Ø  Drive 149 19 Ø  Trailer 71 19

The Trailer Aero Technology Industry Keeps Growing 2008 2012 2013 Companies Making SmartWay Verified Aero Devices 5 21 33 Technologies Available 11 59 76 Aero Devices Sold >22001 >180,0001 >400,0001 Typical Cost of Devices $2,800 $1,250 <$1,000 Estimated Return on Investment (ROI) for Trailer Aero2 30 months 11 months <11 months 30 1 Not all manufacturers contributed data 2 105k tractor highway miles per year with an average 2.5 trailers per tractor

Fleets Going Beyond 31

Next Steps (national Phase 2)? 32

For More Information •  Stephan Lemieux, Manager On-Road Heavy Duty Diesel Section •  slemieux@arb.ca.gov •  (626) 450-6162 •  Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas Regulation •  Web address: http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/hdghg/hdghg.htm •  Listserv: http://www.arb.ca.gov/listserv/listserv_ind.php?listname=hdghg •  The TRUCK STOP web address: •  http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/truckstop/truckstop.htm •  DIESEL HOTLINE: •  (866) 6-DIESEL (866-634-3735) •  Email: 8666diesel@arb.ca.gov 33

• TMC S.11 Tech Session Dwayne O. Haug AVP Equipment Purchasing March 11, 2014

WERNER ENTERPRISES PROFILE 35 2013 Revenue: $2 billion 2013 Net Income: $86 million NASDAQ: WERN Alliance Carriers: 8,500 Trucks: 7,300 Trailers: 23,380 Premium provider of transportation and logistics services, specializing in Truckload, Intermodal, LTL, Ocean and Air services.

Werner offers complete 3PL supply chain solutions across all shipping modes and geographies, from network design through implementation. Freight Management With a network of 7,300 trucks, 8,500 alliance carriers and ocean, air and rail providers, we offer unsurpassed delivery solutions worldwide. Freight Movement Providing door-to-door services for companies of all sizes and industries as they compete in today’s global marketplace is what sets us apart. Global Implementation Our tools provide customers instant visibility across their supply chain, which allows them to better manage their business. Technological Advantages Comprehensive Solutions 36

Source: ATA, ACT Research, KeyBanc Supply -- Truckload 37 U.S. Class 8 Truck Production “Aging equipment and relatively good truck tonnage levels provided an impetus to purchase new trucks, but economic, fiscal, and political uncertainty led some customers to stick with their existing trucks longer than they normally would.” -Transport Topics 6.6 yrs. Current Average Age of U.S. Class 8 Truck Fleet Class 8 Maintenance Expense Units Replacement Level

Green Initiatives 38 Werner Enterprises is a SmartWaySM Transport partner. SmartWay is a collaboration between the EPA and the freight industry, to increase energy efficiency and reduce air pollution. Werner has earned a Shipper Index Factor score (SIF) of 1.25, the highest possible score. Fuel Efficiency Initiatives: §  Aerodynamic Trucks §  Installation of fuel idling reduction equipment, including fuel fired heaters and APU’s §  MPH optimization §  Out of route mile and empty mile reduction §  Trailer skirts §  Tire-inflation systems Alternate Fuel Initiatives: §  Testing LNG and CNG trucks Werner’s Impact: §  5 years of MPG improvement §  Continued MPG improvement opportunities §  150,000 ton reduction in carbon footprint from MPG improvement, last 3 years

Environmental Sustainability 39 Current Fuel Efficiency Initiatives •  Aerodynamic trucks & trailers •  Weight reduction strategies •  Automated tire inflation systems •  Newest diesel engine technology •  Computerized truck idling program and paperless log system for drivers •  Speed Management •  Continual in-depth testing of the latest fuel saving technologies •  “ArrowShield” trailer skirt development Werner’s Impact From 2007 to 2012 we reduced: 77 Million Gallons 860,000 Tons YOY improvement to mpg

Fuel – Provider and Shipper Costing 40 Driver Wages and Benefits 38% Fuel 32% Equipment 16% Repair and Maintenance 10% Permits and Licenses 4% * Source: ATRI Research 2011 Update Average Carrier Cost Breakdown "Carriers can tell you what all of the expense line items are, but none of them can tell you what fuel will be next week." -Avondale

Roof   Fairings   Side  Fuel  Tank   Fairing  w/   extension   Sun   Visors   Synthe:c   Lubricants   DPF   Single  Drive   Axle  Trucks   Tire  Pressure   Monitoring   Speed   Reduc:on   Bunk   Heaters   Diesel  APU    Electric  APU   Trailer   End   Fairings   Under   Tray   System   Trailer  Side  Panels   (Skir:ng)   Wide   Based   Tires   Low  Rolling   Resistant   Tires   FlyswaLer   Mud  Flap   Fuel   Addi:ves   Hydrogen   Technologies   Propane   Injec:on   LNG/CNG   Surface   Deturbulator   Drive  in   Climate   Controlled   Parking   Direc:ons/     Mapping   SoRware   Lightweight   Components   Trailer  Gap   Fairing   Base  Truck  $???,000   Aero      @$7,000   Ambient  Air   Technology   Rounded   Side   Mirrors   DEF   Aero                  36%   Mechanical      @$3,000   Mechanical                18%   Tires/Wheels      @$1,500   Tires/Wheels                  10%   Lightweight      @$1,500   Lightweight                    4%   Climate      @$10,000   Climate                                                17%   Alterna:ve  Fuel          @$??,000    Conversion     Alterna:ve  Fuel                            ?   Conversion                           Safety   Systems   Safety  &  Mapping        @$10,000   Safety  &  Mapping                    4%                 Fuel  Line   Magnets   Exhaust   Stack  Tips   Aero  Tabs   Aero   Wheel   Covers   Air  Intake   Spacers   Misc.  Truck        @$8,000   Misc.  Truck                59%   Base  Trailer      $??,000   Fuel  Injector   Delivery  Systems   Rounded   Front   Bumpers   Equipment – Optimized for Fuel Consumption and Emissions 41

Solutions 42 Behavior Modifications: •  Obtainable with little to no capital investment Equipment Modifications: •  Optimized for fuel consumption and emissions; reductions are highly effective but do require capital investments Initiatives in Testing: •  Indicator of carriers who are looking at long-term improvements •  Requires capital investments

Our Most Important Asset 43

•  Thank You For more information visit: www.werner.com Follow us on Face book and Twitter

MESILLA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION Fuel Efficiency and Vehicle Emissions Regulations <draft> TMC—Nashville March 11, 2014 Scott Webb

46 COMPANY OVERVIEW •  Founded by Royal Jones and Jimmy Ray in 1981 •  Headquartered in Las Cruces, New Mexico •  $300M in annual revenue •  Excel at offering service to, from and through the Southern border of the US •  1,150 mile average length of haul •  Our fleet –  1,150 trucks •  850 company trucks •  300 owner-operators –  4,700 trailers

1981: MPG focus in driver orientation —human factors 1984: Test track quantification of specs 1985: Fixed fifth wheel on all tractors-aerodynamics 1986: MPG measurement and management of all drivers—human factors 1981: Fan clutch —drive train resistance Fleet Fuel Mileage History: 1980-2000 Year Fleet Average MPG 3.5 6.5 1981 2000

2009: Over 15 drivers achieve more than 12 MPG in a quarter 2008: Trailer skirts--aerodynamics 2003: Super Single tires all new tractors and trailers—rolling resistance 2005: Harley and $25k fuel award—human factors 2007: APU—idle reduction Tractor wheel covers—areodynamics 100% ProStar fleet—aerodynamics Tractor tag axles—drive train resistance 2010: Narrow mud flaps-aerodynamics Tire sealant-rolling resistance Fleet Fuel Mileage History: 2000-2010 Year Fleet Average MPG 6.5 9 2000 2010

Fleet Fuel Mileage History: 2010-2020 Year Fleet Average MPG 8 10 2010 2020 High MPG is profitably attainable! 2010: EGR nightmare—engine efficiency, maintenance 2012: Roof cap extenders—aerodynamics Solar Panels—drive train resistance Trailer Tails--aerodynamics 2013: Hourglass panels—aerodynamics SCR engines—engine efficiency Driver Performance Incentive—human factors 2014: More teams to run optimal speed—human factors

Expectations of Upcoming Regulations $2,000% $1,500% $1,000% $750% $0# $500# $1,000# $1,500# $2,000# $2,500# 2008# 2009# 2010# 2011# Typical#Cost#per#Trailer# to#Install#Skirts# •  MVT has and will continue to embrace most regulations related to fuel economy •  Fuel savings technology is not just good for the environment and the communities we serve—it is good for business •  Selfishly we would like to see more industry adoption of fuel savings technologies to reduce everyone’s cost per unit and improve ROI

Desires for Future Regulations •  Let the market decide through voluntary programs like Smartway •  Make sure regulations reduce net emissions •  Considerable opportunity to meet political objectives through the mandate of Biodiesel •  Per US EPA, there is up to an 86% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by substituting petrochemical diesel with Biodiesel •  All terminal fueling at our main terminal in El Paso has been with B20 Biodiesel since 2012—over 500k gallons per month Source: Renewable Fuel Standard Program Regulatory Impact Analysis, US EPA, February 2010

WE BELIEVE SO STRONGLY IN BIODIESEL •  We built our own plant to make it—mostly out of used cooking oil

United  States  Medium-­‐  and  Heavy-­‐ Duty  Vehicle  Fuel  Efficiency  and   Greenhouse  Gas  Emissions:   Phase  2  Rulemaking   •  2014  Technology  and  Maintenance  Council  (TMC)  Annual  Con   •  March,  2014   •  United  States  Na:onal  Highway  Traffic  Safety  Administra:on   •  United  States  Environmental  Protec:on  Agency   •  Presented  by:       Arvon  L.  Mitcham   Program  Manager/Engineer   Assessment  and  Standards  Division   Office  of  Transporta:on  and  Air  Quality   Office  of  Air  and  Radia:on  

Topic  Overview   • PART  1:    Overview  of  Heavy  Duty  Green   House  Gas  Emissions,  Phase  1  Regula:ons   (HD  GHG  PHASE  1)   • PART  2:    Discuss  Heavy  Duty  Green  House   Gas  Emissions,  Phase  2  Regula:ons               (HD  GHG  PHASE  2)   54


U.S.  Medium-­‐  and  Heavy-­‐Duty  Sector  Energy   Use  in  2010   56 Source: Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (U.S. Energy Information Administration) MD/HD

U.S.  MD/HD  Sector  Emission  in  2010 57 Transporta/on  Related  Greenhouse  Gas   Emissions  (Tg  CO2eq)  in  2010   Source: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks 1990-2010 (EPA 2012) MD/HD

Heavy  Duty  GHG  Phase  1  Regula:ons   •  The  joint  (NHTSA  &  EPA)  medium  and  heavy-­‐duty  vehicle  final   rule  was  published  in  the  Federal  Register  on  September  15,   2011   •  First  ever  MD/HD  Truck  Fuel  Efficiency  &  GHG  Standards  with  broad   support  from  major  stakeholders   •  Builds  on  Light  Duty  standards  &  past  MD  and  HD  criteria   pollutant  standards   •  Expedited  implementa:on  of  off-­‐the-­‐shelf  technologies   •  Single  coordinated  Na:onal  Program  that  helps  manufacturers   to  produce  a  single  fleet  of  vehicles  to  meet  related  Federal   and  State  requirements   58

Heavy  Duty  GHG  Phase  1  :    Costs  and  Benefits   • Will  reduce  oil  imports,  fuel  consump:on,  CO2   emissions  and  opera:ng  costs  for  thousands  of   businesses  over  the  life:me  of  2014-­‐18  MY  trucks   •  530  million  barrels  less  oil   •  270  MMT  lower  GHGs   •  $50  Billion  in  fuel  savings  ($42B  net  first  cost)   •  $49  Billion  in  net  benefits  to  society   59

Heavy  Duty  GHG  Phase  1:    Costs  and  Benefits   • Annual  addi:onal  hardware  cost:  $5,000  -­‐  $6,000  for   new  combina:on  tractors   • Fuel  Savings:    ~400,000  to  6.3  Million  gallons  of  fuel   saved   • Annual  Mone:zed  Fuel  Savings:    $1,500  -­‐  $39,500   • Payback  Period:  1-­‐2  years  with  net  savings  of  up  to   $73,000  over  the  useful  life  of  that  truck   60

Heavy Duty GHG Phase 1 Vehicle/Category Coverage 61 CLASS 2b 8,501 to 10,000 lb RV’s

Phase 1 – Divided diverse MD/HD vehicle sector into 4 distinct categories   62 Full-­‐size  pickup   trucks  &  work   vans   Semi  tractors,              no  trailers   Voca:onal   vehicles,  regulated   via  the  chassis   HD   Engines  

Heavy  Duty  GHG  Phase  1  Regulatory   Structure   • HD  pickups  and  vans   •  Tested  using  chassis  dynamometers;  like  LD   •  g/mi  standard  versus  work  factor  (vs.  LD  GHG  footprint)   •  No  fuel  economy  or  GHG  labeling  was  proposed   • Voca:onal  vehicles   •  Engine  tested  over  same  cycles  as  NOx  &  PM,  g/hp-­‐hr  standard   and  g/ton-­‐mi  standard   •  Vehicle  cer:fied  using  GEM  (Greenhouse  Gas  Emissions  Model)   simula:on;  only  :res  serve  as  an  input     63

Heavy  Duty  GHG  Phase  1  Regulatory   Structure   • Combina:on  tractors   •  Engine  tested  over  same  cycles  as  NOx  &  PM,  g/hp-­‐hr   standard   •  9  subdivisions  for  different  cab  designs   •  Vehicle  cer:fied  using  GEM  simula:on,  g/ton-­‐mi  standard   •  Tires,  aero,  vehicle  speed  limiter,  and  mass  reduc:on  serve   as  inputs   64

Heavy  Duty  GHG  Phase  1  Regulatory   Structure   •  NHTSA  regulates  fuel  consump:on.     –  Fuel  consump:on  is  calculated  based  on  CO2.       •  EPA  regulates  CO2,  N2O,  CH4  and  HFCs.   •  Both  agencies  offer  manufacturers  flexibili:es     •  Credit  Averaging,  Banking  and  Trading  (ABT)   •  Innova:ve  and  Advanced  technology  credit  genera:ng   op:ons   65

Heavy  Duty  GHG  Phase  1  Timing   •  EPA  standards  are  mandatory  beginning  in  MY   2014   •  NHTSA  standards  are  mandatory  beginning  in  MY   2016  with  MY  2014  &  2015:  Voluntary  early   compliance   66 Model  Year  (MY)   2014   2015   2016   2017   2018   2019+   EPA   M   M   M   M   M   M   NHTSA   V   V   M   M   M   M  


President  Obama’s  2013  Climate  Ac:on  Plan:     Commitment  to  a  Phase  2  Regulatory  Program   for  Heavy-­‐Duty  Vehicles   “During  the  President’s   second  term,  the   Administra:on  will  once   again  partner  with  industry   leaders  and  other  key   stakeholders  to  develop   post-­‐2018  fuel  economy   standards  for  heavy-­‐duty   vehicles  …..”   68

Presiden:al  Announcement    “Today, I’m directing the Secretary of Transportation, Anthony Foxx, and Gina McCarthy, the Administrator of the EPA, to develop fuel economy standards for heavy- duty trucks that will take us well into the next decade. They’re going to partner with manufacturers and autoworkers and states and other stakeholders, truckers, to come up with a proposal by March of next year [2015], and they’ll complete the rule a year after that [2016].” - President Obama, February 18, 2014   69

Key  Elements  of  Announcement   • Timing   •  EPA  and  NHTSA  are  expected  to  propose  Phase  2  standards  by  March   31st,  2015   •  President  Obama  directed  EPA  and  NHTSA  to  finalize  Phase  2  standards   by  March  31st,  2016   • EPA  and  NHTSA  will  consider  advanced  technologies   for  engines,  vehicles,  and  trailers  in  Phase  2   •  Engine  and  power-­‐train  efficiency  improvements,  including  waste  heat   recovery   •  Aerodynamics   •  Weight  reduc:on   •  Improved  :re  rolling  resistance   •  Hybridiza:on   •  Automa:c  engine  shutdown   •  Accessory  improvements  (water  pumps,  fans,  auxiliary  power  units,  air   condi:oning,  etc.)   70

HD  GHG  Phase  2  Regulatory  Development   • Phase  1  stringencies  developed  with  Phase  2  in  mind   •  Recogni:on  of  addi:onal  and  new  efficiency  technologies  and  to  achieve   addi:onal  reduc:ons   • Objec:ves   •  Build  upon  success  of  Phase  I   •  Further  refine  test  procedures  and  GEM  model   •  Recognize  addi:onal  and  new  technologies   •  Achieve  addi:onal  reduc:ons   •  Work  toward  global  harmoniza:on   • Key  Ac:vi:es   •  Seek  input  from  stakeholders   •  Establish  interagency  coordina:on  efforts   •  Scoping  technology  feasibility  and  cost  assessment  needs   71

NHTSA  Research:  Vehicle  &  Trailer  Technologies   •  A/C  Reduced  Reheat   •  Air  Compressor  Improvements   •  Automated  Manual  Transmission   •  Automa:c  Engine  Shutdown   •  Automa:c  Tire  Pressure  Control   •  BaLery  Auxiliary  Power  Unit     •  Cab  Insula:on  to  Reduce  A/C   •  Chassis  Fric:on  Reduc:on  &   Improved  Lube   •  Diesel  Auxiliary  Power  Unit   •  Driver  Coaching  Features   •  Driver  Management  Features   •  Dual  Clutch  Transmission   •  Fan  Power  Demand  Reduc:on   •  Fuel  Fired  Heater   •  Full  EV   •  Hybrid  Technologies   •  Improved  Aerodynamics   •  Improved  Transmissions  (more   gears,  higher  ra:o  spread,  shiR   points)   •  Low  Rolling  Resistance  Tires   •  Manual  Transmission   •  Shore  Power   •  Single  Wide  Tires   •  Tractor  Axle  6X2  or  Clutched  6X4   •  Speed  limiters   •  Weight  Reduc:on   72Technology  applica:on  will  vary  by  vehicle  class,  voca:on,  and  engine  fuel  type  

NHTSA  Research:    Engine  Technologies   •  Advanced  BoLoming  Cycle   •  Air  Handling  Improvement   •  Coolant  Pump   •  Cylinder  Deac:va:on   •  Down-­‐sizing  &  boosted  vs.  NA   •  Electric  Turbo-­‐compounding   •  Engine  Down-­‐sizing   •  Engine  Down-­‐speeding  (reduced   cruise  RPM,  combined  with   transmission  technology)   •  Engine  Fric:on  Reduc:on   •  Engine  Oil  Pump  Improvement   •  GDI  +  l  EGR   •  Lean  Burn  GDI  w/  SCR   •  Improved  Selec:ve  Cataly:c   Reduc:on  (SCR)  Conversion,   combined  with  reducing  or   removing  EGR   •  Lower  Fric:on  Engine  Oil   •  Mechanical  Turbo-­‐compounding   •  Natural  Gas   •  Reduced  ARer-­‐treatment   Backpressure   •  Stoichiometric  Gasoline  Direct   Injec:on  (GDI)   •  Stop  /  Start   •  Turbo  Efficiency  Improvement   •  Variable  Valve  Timing   73Technology  applica:on  will  vary  by  vehicle  class,  voca:on,  and  engine  fuel  type  

Other  NHTSA  Research   •  Comprehensive  analysis  on  the  need  for  crash  worthiness   standards  on  Class  7  and  8  property  carrying  motor  vehicles   involved  in  interstate  commerce,  including  an  evalua:on  of   the  need  for  roof  strength,  pillar  strength,  air  bags,  and   frontal  and  back  wall  standards  (Report  to  Congress,  Spring   2014)     •  Sponsoring  a  second  study  by  the  Na:onal  Academies  of   Science  on    technologies  and  the  regulatory  framework   •  Ini:ated  in  2013   •  Interim  report  in  early  2014  (to  inform  Phase  2  rulemaking)   •  Final  report  in  late  2016  (to  inform  agencies  beyond  Phase  2)   74

EPA  Research:  Test  Procedure  Development   • Refine  and  evaluate  aerodynamic  and  powertrain  test   procedure  approaches   • ALempt  to  refine  GEM  to  simulate  an  actual   powertrain   • Compare  test  procedure  and  GEM  results   • Validate  GEM  over  120+  vehicle  variant  tests   • Assess  different  Phase  2  combina:ons  of  cer:fica:on   tes:ng  and  simula:on   • EPA  developing  GEM  refinements  in-­‐house  and  with   contractor  support 75

Vehicle  &  Powertrain  Tests  Suppor:ng  GEM   •  Vehicle  chassis  and  powertrain  tes:ng   •  One  Class  6  box  delivery  truck  chassis  dyno  tests  with  7x6  test  matrix   •  One  Class  6    flat  bed  voca:onal  truck  chassis  dyno  tests  with  7x6  test  matrix   •  Kenworth  T700  Class  8  tractor-­‐trailer  chassis  dyno  tests  with  7x6  test  matrix   •  Daimler  Cascadia  Class  8  truck-­‐trailer  chassis  dyno  tests   •  One  transit  city  bus  chassis  dyno  tests     •  One  garbage  truck  chassis  dyno  tests     •  MD  powertrain  test  with  7x6  test  matrix   •  HD  powertrain  test  is  being  planned  with  DOE-­‐EPA  interagency  agreement   •  Driving  cycle  refinement  is  being  planed  with  DOE-­‐EPA  interagency   agreement   •  Vehicle  tes:ng   •  Class  6    open  box  truck  tes:ng  underway   •  Coordina:ng  addi:onal  tes:ng  opportuni:es   •  GEM  Valida:ons  will  be  done  against    over  160  vehicle  variants 76

GEM  Development  and  Enhancement   •  The  Agency  formed  a  team  to  develop  the  next  genera:on  of   the  GEM  (Greenhouse  Gas  Emissions  Model)   •  The  key  technical  features  of  this  enhanced  GEM  include   •  More  advanced  engine  controller   •  Engine  fuel  cut-­‐off  model  during  braking  and  decelera:on   •  Idle  controller   •  Transmission  models   •  Automa:c  transmission  and  Automated  manual  transmission   •  Enhanced  driver  model   •  Fric:onal  clutch  model   •  GEM  Graphic  User  Interface  (GUI)   77

Current  GEM  Status   •  EPA  modeling  team  is  working  with  SwRI  to   conclude  modeling  development  and  valida:ons   •  All  sub-­‐models  have  been  developed   •  GEM  is    being  validated  against  three  different   trucks  over  a  total  of  24  vehicle  driving  cycles   •  Majority  of  the  comparisons  between  simula:ons  and   tes:ng  data  are  within  95%  accuracy   •  Extensive  valida:ons  against  massive  vehicle  test   data  are  under  way  whenever  the  tes:ng  data   become  available   78

For More Information •  EPA’s rulemaking documents and implementation information can be found under “Heavy-Duty Regulations” at http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/regulations.htm •  NHTSA’s rulemaking documents can be found at http://www.nhtsa.gov/fuel-economy • Phase 1 regulations can be found at: •  Federal Register 76 FR 57106, September 15, 2011 •  Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR Parts 1036, 1037, 1065, 1066; and 49 CFR Parts 523, 534, 535 79 2014 TMC

Thank  you     •  Matthew W. Spears, Center Director, Heavy-Duty Diesel Standards •  Assessment and Standards Division, Office of Transportation and Air Quality •  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency •  2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 •  spears.matthew@epa.gov •  734-214-4921 •  James Tamm •  Fuel Economy Division Chief •  Department of Transportation •  National Highway Traffic Safety Administration •  1200 New Jersey Ave, SE •  Washington , DC 20590 •  Phone: 202-493-0515 •  E-Mail: james.tamm@dot.gov 80

• ATA’s TMC • S. 11 Technical Session • March 11, 2014 • Sam Waltzer USEPA SmartWay Technology Program

Recent progression of heavy-duty tractor- trailer GHG programs in U.S. CARB Fleet Rule •  Fleets required to use SmartWay verified components for new and legacy tractor-trailers Partnerships Regulations SmartWay Technology •  Objective verification of technology performance SmartWay Partnership •  Objective ranking and recognition of fleet freight efficiency Phase 2: EPA- NHTSA HD GHG Rule •  Updated tractor and engine requirements with consideration of trailers SmartWay Technology Update •  Updated verification criteria and protocols 2006 2008 20112004 20162014 Phase 1: EPA-NHTSA HD GHG Rule •  New tractor and engine requirements to reduce GHG emissions and improve truck fuel efficiency

83 Fleets want… To know how a technology will perform in their fleet To know the trade-offs (e.g., weight, maintenance time, driver acceptance) for fuel savings? Understanding top performance limits Simple sources of information and a say in the program Listening to stakeholders Manufacturers want… Apples-to-apples comparisons of technology performance Innovative standardized test methods that provide flexibility and reduce burden Potential for other types of technologies

Current SmartWay-designated Trailer 84 Low Rolling Resistance Tires Rear fairing or “boat tail” Front fairing or “gap reducer” Side fairing or “side skirt” •  USEPA’s SmartWay-designated tractors and trailers represent the most fuel-efficient models available •  Supports the SmartWay Partnership •  SmartWay-Designated trailers •  53’ dry, van trailers •  Aerodynamic improvements (≥ 5% total fuel improvement) that provide fleets flexibility •  Equipment verification •  Aerodynamic devices (front-fairing, side skirts, rear-fairing) proven using track test •  Tires demonstrating reduced rolling resistance using standard lab tests •  Low rolling resistance tires (1.0 – 1.5% fuel improvement)

2014 Interim SmartWay-designated Trailer 85 Scope Recognition Levels Current Program SmartWay Trailer 6.5% total fuel savings Verified tires (1.5%) & 5% or more aero 53’ Van trailers Tomorrow? SmartWay “Pup” Trailer? New SmartWay “Elite” Trailer 10.5% total fuel savings Verified tires (1.5%) & 9% or more aero combinations (tested together or by matched categories) 53’ Refrigeration trailers Today’s Interim Adds

Categories of Devices 2014 Interim SmartWay-verified (trailer) Aerodynamic Devices: Today’s Interim Replaces with… 9% Systems (Combinations) 4 % Side Skirts Rear Fairings (Tails) Systems Current Program Side Skirts Side Skirt (4%) Advanced Side Skirt (5% or more) Systems and combinations? Rear Fairing (Tails) Rear Fairing (1%) Advanced Rear Fairing (5% or more) Systems and combinations? Front Fairing Front Fairing (1% or more) 1% Front Fairing Rear Fairings (Tails) 5% Side Skirts Rear Fairings (Tails) Systems

Current Program Today’s Interim Adds 2014 Interim SmartWay-verified (trailer) Aerodynamic Devices: Tires Lab Test Crr Aero verification matrix % Fuel saved 4 Choices for original and supplemental tests Aero verification method % Fuel saved Original Track Test (same) 1  New Track Test 2  Coastdown 3  Wind Tunnel 4  CFD

SmartWay-verified Aero Device Matrix sample Original verification

89 Advancing the Conversation Innovations in standardized test methods Trailer aerodynamic device testing Fuel consumption testing Tire rolling resistance testing Tunnel CFD Coastdown Understanding top performance limits Translating standardized test results to estimate in-fleet performance

Finding out more and getting involved For more information •  SmartWay Technology website •  Webinars Providing Feedback •  Interim trailer designation criteria with intent to finalize October 2014 •  Tech_Center@epa.gov and waltzer.sam@epa.gov 90


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