Published on January 12, 2008
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors For RSS User Education & Info Literacy Committee: very preliminary lit review on reference interview & business (Susan Gardner) 1) Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors Craig, Thomas R.. Journal of Accountancy. New York: Jul 1991. Vol. 172, Iss. 1; pg. 121, 4 pgs Abstract (Summary) Audit interviews are one of the most effective evidence-gathering procedures available to the auditor. Professional interviewers know that a question's phrasing can significantly influence the response. Open questions provide greater information to the interviewer, but they also extend the length of the interview and require greater interviewing expertise. Closed questions permit the interviewer to obtain considerable information in a shorter period of time. An auditor may appropriately use both forms of questions in an interview. The auditor should try to phrase all questions in an unbiased manner. Advanced preparation, including a written agenda, will make the audit interview easier to conduct. The auditor's listening and evaluating skills are important to the interview process. At the conclusion of the interview, the auditor should summarize issues discussed with the client. 2)The Client Interview: A Crucial Tool in Estate Planning William H Soskin. Estate Planning. New York: Jun 2004. Vol. 31, Iss. 6; pg. 294, 3 pgs Abstract (Summary) A thoughtful, comprehensive client interview is an essential foundation for effective estate planning. This article offers suggestions for carefully questioning clients in order to discover their true estate planning goals. The fact that a client initially appears to be articulate and confident does not always mean that what the client first says is what the client really wants. A client - although careful and deliberate - may not understand the likely consequences of an unrestricted gift to the spouse. A fictitious conversation with a client while updating a will is presented. 3) Title: Identifying the range of customer listening tools: a logical pre-cursor to CRM? Author(s): S. Maguire, S.C.L. Koh, C. Huang Journal: Industrial Management & Data Systems ISSN: 0263-5577 Year: 2007 Volume: 107 Issue: 4 Page: 567 - 586 DOI: 10.1108/02635570710740706 file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (1 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of listening tools by several large companies to obtain information about customers' needs, preferences, and perceptions of their performance in order to facilitate customer relationship management (CRM), and identify some best practices, which are salient activities for managing customer perception and satisfaction. 4) Title: Service encounter dimensions - a dyadic perspective: Measuring the dimensions of service encounters as perceived by customers and personnel Author(s): Jean-Louis Chandon, Pierre-Yves Leo, Jean Philippe Journal: International Journal of Service Industry Management ISSN: 0956-4233 Year: 1997 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Page: 65 – 86 Abstract: Selling services supposes that customers and personnel meet. This service encounter is not haphazard. Behind each ordinary exchange, there are rules that everybody is supposed to follow. This paper looks at the different components of service encounter that are relevant for assessing service quality. A dyadic face-to-face survey undertaken in local branches of the ANPE Agency (the French National Agency for Employment) studies the perceptions of both personnel and customers. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, proposes a scale measuring the dimensions of service encounter. 5)Title: Individual differences in customer sociability. Authors: Hester, Laura1 Koger, Pamela1 McCauley, Clark1 Source: European Journal of Social Psychology; Dec85, Vol. 15 Issue 4, p453-456, 4p Abstract: Two studies examined the quality of clerk--customer interactions. In the first study, customers in a mall were followed from one purchase to another and retest reliability of customer sociability was found to be 0.73. A second study of the same and another mall found a retest reliability of 0.56 for customer sociability and a correlation of 0.57 between sociability of different salespersons serving the same customer. These results indicate that the sociability of salesperson--customer interactions is determined by stable individual differences in customer sociability, and suggest that salespeople do better to echo than to escalate customer sociability. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] 6)Title: Using Microanalysis of Communication to Compare Solution-Focused and Client-Centered Therapies. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (2 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors Authors: Tomori, Christine1,2 firstname.lastname@example.org Bavelas, Janet Beavin3 email@example.com Source: Journal of Family Psychotherapy; 2007, Vol. 18 Issue 3, p25-43, 19p Abstract: Microanalysis in psychotherapy is the close examination of the moment-by-moment communicative actions of the therapist. This study microanalyzed demonstration sessions by experts on solution-focused and client-centered therapies, specifically, the first 50 therapist utterances of sessions by Steve de Shazer, Insoo Kim Berg, Carl Rogers, and Nathaniel Raskin. The first analysis examined how the therapist communicated, namely, whether the therapist's contribution took the form of questions or of formulations (e.g., paraphrasing). The second analysis rated whether each question or formulation was positive, neutral, or negative. Two analysts demonstrated high-independent-agreement for both methods. Results showed that the solution-focused and client-centered experts differed in how they structured the sessions: The client-centered therapists used formulations almost exclusively, that is, they responded to client's contributions. Solution-focused experts used both formulations and questions, that is, they both initiated and responded to client contributions. They also differed in the tenor of their contributions: The solution-focused therapists' questions and formulations were primarily positive, whereas those of the client-centered therapists were primarily negative and rarely neutral or positive. Microanalysis can complement outcome research by providing evidence about what therapists do in their sessions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] 7) Title: Service encounter problems: which service providers are more likely to be blamed? Author(s): Charlene Pleger Bebko Journal: Journal of Services Marketing ISSN: 0887-6045 Year: 2001 Volume: 15 Issue: 6 Page: 480 – 495 Abstract: Looks at unmet customer expectations in service delivery associated with service encounter problems. Problematic service encounters are compared to those which were problem free. Four services were evaluated by customers – legal consultation, hair stylist, film processing and retail store. These services covered a range of both process and outcome tangibility. Expectations, perceptions and the “gaps” between them were used to evaluate service quality across a range of service encounters. If problems were reported, customers were asked to evaluate three attribution factors: who was at fault for the problem, could it have been prevented and could it occur in future service encounters. These findings indicate that when there is a service encounter problem, and that service has some level of intangibility, unmet customer expectations are significantly greater than in services with some level of tangibility. Suggests how service providers might prevent customer perceptions of service quality from significantly diverging from file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (3 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors customer expectations in these situations. 8) Title: Exploring the future roles and capabilities of customer service professionals Author(s): Julia A. Kiely, Colin G. Armistead Journal: Managing Service Quality ISSN: 0960-4529 Year: 2004 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Page: 26 – 39 Abstract: The study investigates the roles and capabilities likely to be required of customer service professionals (CSPs) in future service encounters. Following a literature review and the results from customer focus groups, a matrix for future customer service roles is developed in which the domains of technical interaction and emotional interaction are displayed. The matrix is tested against interview data from executives in leading service organisations and four key CSP roles are developed, corresponding to the customer service domains displayed in the matrix. The study concludes with a discussion of these four roles and the management implications of the study. 9) Title: Customization of the service experience: the role of the frontline employee Author(s): Lance A. Bettencourt, Kevin Gwinner Journal: International Journal of Service Industry Management ISSN: 0956-4233 Year: 1996 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Page: 3 - 20 DOI: 10.1108/09564239610113442 Publisher: MCB UP Ltd Abstract: Emphasizes that customizing the delivery of service on the frontline is a key to customer satisfaction. Offers insight into frontline customization by offering specific research propositions to guide future empirical inquiry. Explores the issues of how frontline employees classify customers, enact specific behavioural strategies, and perceive personalization efforts. Presents the findings from an exploratory qualitative study to provide illustrative support for the literature-based propositions. Offers managerial implications for firms to take advantage of the employee customization opportunity. 10) Title: Communication dynamics in the service encounter: A linguistic study in a hotel conference department Author(s): Jan Mattsson, Marten J. den Haring Journal: International Journal of Service Industry Management ISSN: 0956-4233 Year: 1998 Volume: 9 Issue: 5 Page: 416 - 435 DOI: 10.1108/09564239810238839 Publisher: MCB UP Ltd Abstract: The importance of service encounters for the purpose of creating and maintaining good file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (4 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors customer relationships is widely recognised. This study focuses on the quality of face-to-face communication during service encounters between service providers and their customers at a help desk of a hotel conference department. Communication is believed to be influenced by the social activities that are pursued in a particular encounter. A stepwise method based on linguistic theory is developed to record, analyse and interpret transcriptions of verbal and non-verbal behaviour by means of audio and video recordings. Utterances have been coded with regard to their function and content and are organised in a so called molecular coding scheme. This scheme models the dynamic interplay between communicators and makes it possible to analyse contextual influences on communication. It is believed that the approach advocated here could be of use for managers of service operations where communication is paramount. 11) INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION IN THE REFERENCE INTERVIEW by CROUCH, RICHARD KEITH CHAMBERLAIN, Ph.D., University of Toronto (Canada), 1981; AAT NK50242 Abstract (Summary) The librarian's role is to minimize the inquirer's intellectual and emotional effort in seeking information. The effectiveness of the reference interview, in which the inquirer's information need is clarified preparatory to a search, depends on open interpersonal communication. 12) Title Introduction: A perspective on interviewing. Monograph Title Systematic interviewing: Communication skills for professional effectiveness. Author Dillard, John M.1; Reilly, Robert R. Affiliation (1)Texas A & M U, College Station, TX, US Source Dillard, John M.; Reilly, Robert R. (1988). Systematic interviewing: Communication skills for professional effectiveness. (pp. 2-12). Columbus, OH, England: Merrill Publishing Co. xii, 302 pp. Abstract (From the chapter) details how individuals acquire . . . [interviewing] skill and explores the meaning and nature of professional interviewing /// discusses types, characteristics, the uses of interviews to provide a foundation for the chapters that follow /// interviewing is presented as more than the verbal exchange of information / relationship deeply rooted in non-verbal and verbal communication and aimed at specific goals /// steps toward achieving competence in professional interviewing /// self-appraisal / information providing / information collecting / selection / performance evaluation / complaint receiving / decision making / persuasion (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) 13) Title Beyond employment interview validity: A comprehensive narrative review of recent research and trends over time. Author Posthuma, Richard A.1; Morgeson, Frederick P.2; Campion, Michael A.3 Affiliation (1)U Texas, Coll of Business Administration, El Paso, TX, file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (5 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors US; (2)Michigan State U, Eli Broad Graduate School of Management, East Lansing, MI, US; (3)Purdue U, Krannert Graduate School of Management, West Lafayette, IN, US Source Personnel Psychology. Vol 55(1), Spr 2002, pp. 1-81 14) Title The multidisciplinary study of questioning. Author Dillon, J. T.1 Affiliation (1)U California School of Education, Riverside Source Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol 74(2), Apr 1982, pp. 147-165 Abstract Surveys the literature on questioning in fields including linguistics, cognitive psychology, social anthropology, education, counseling, and interviewing. Questions are considered as stimuli that elicit cognitive and expressive responses, social relationships, and interactional discourse. The posing of questions also reveals clues as to the nature of cognitive and behavioral functioning. A multidisciplinary approach to the study of questioning is proposed to build on common interests and complementary expertise and to resolve contradictory conclusions and areas of uncertainty. (122 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) 15.) Title What Do People Expect from Public Services? Requests in Public Service Encounters AU: Author Asmuss, Birte SO: Source Hermes, 2007, 38, 65-83 AB: Abstract What do customers expect from public services? This question has been addressed in numerous ways, & there are plenty of reasons why this question is worthwhile asking. One of them has to do with service quality: If counselors in public service encounters know about customer expectations, they may be able to adjust their actions accordingly & thereby increase public service quality. One way to find out about customer expectation is to look closer at the actual encounter between the public & public services. The current study will investigate public service encounters at the Danish Public Employment Service. Here, one specific activity will be investigated in more detail, namely requests. Requests are a common & crucial activity in public service encounters. Research on requests has shown that participants in interaction orient to aspects of entitlement & contingencies in regard to the recipient's ability to comply with the request. The current study will investigate in how far these findings correspond with the customer's orientation to public service encounters at the Public file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (6 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors Employment Service. The study will conclude by discussing implications for the workplace. References. Adapted from the source document 16) TI: Title Evaluations of Overhelping and Underhelping Communication: Do Old Age and Physical Disability Matter? AU: Author Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Anas, Ann P; Gruneir, Andrea J S SO: Source Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 2006, 25, 1, Mar, 97-107 17)TI: Title Conversation or Interrogation? The Interactional Dynamics of Service Encounters in the Context of the Polish Call Centers AU: Author Pawelczyk, Joanna SO: Source Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 2005, 40, 169-195 AB: Abstract The phenomenon of globalization, i.e., quot;a set of far- reaching,transnational, economic, social & cultural changesquot; profoundly influences the patterns of language choice & use. One workplace that seems to be particularly influenced by the new, global demands regarding the communication skills of its employees is the call center. 18)TI: Title TI: Title Managing Prospect Affiliation and Rapport in Real-Life Sales Encounters AU: Author Clark, Colin; Drew, Paul; Pinch, Trevor SO: Source Discourse Studies, 2003, 5, 1, Feb, 5-31 AB: Abstract Detailed examination of audio recordings of business-to- business quot;field-salesquot; encounters are used to report one way that salespeople elicit verbal expressions of affiliation from their file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (7 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors prospective customers - by reciprocating second assessments which affiliate with, trade off, & build on prospects' own assessments. 19)TI: Title Are You Being Served? AU: Author Cameron, Deborah SO: Source Critical Quarterly, 1997, 39, 2, summer, 97-100 DE: Descriptors AB: Abstract Prosodic characteristics of customer service greetings & recipient responses are discussed. The main feature addressed relates to rules of address & the growing use of an identifiable quot;customer carequot; linguistic formula. It is noted that the use of first names only by service personnel in both Britain & America is encouraged as a means to promote a sense of personalization, familiarity, or intimacy between employee & customer while allowing for more standardized interactions. 20)TI: Title Evaluation of the Indirect Influence of Courteous Service on Customer Discretionary Behavior AU: Author Ford, Wendy S Zabava AB: Abstract To determine whether courteous service communication indirectly influences customer discretionary behavior, six hypotheses on customer-service provider behaviors were proposed. In two grocery stores, observational data on interactions between checkout cashiers were collected. Follow-up surveys were recorded from 108 encounters. Structural equation model analyses indicate that courteous service had an indirect influence on commitment behaviors of the customers, ie, the more courtesy displayed by the cashiers, the likelier customers were to provide positive service evaluations, to recommend the store to friends, & to shop at the store even if other stores were closer. However, courteous service did not predict customer helpfulness & explained relatively little about the small amount of overall variation in outcome variables. It was concluded that efforts to improve customer outcomes should extend beyond improving the courtesy of service. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (8 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors TI: Title Rhetoric and Conversation in Service Encounters AU: Author Lamoureux, Edward Lee SO: Source Research on Language and Social Interaction, 1988-1989, 22, 93-114 AB: Abstract Examined are the rhetorical uses for conversation in retail service encounters. Audio recordings of 40 service encounters were gathered using field methods & were analyzed using a seven-step conversation analysis. Various conversational strategies are discussed, including candidate explanations for customers' presence, temporal structuring of discourse, examination of products by examining servers' competence & credibility, & servers' limitations of customers' choices while appearing to leave decisions with customers. Service encounter talk is argued to be a complex & strategic adjustment to situational problems, illustrating rhetorical dimensions of everyday communication. 31 References. TI: Title Three Field Experiments on the Effects of Violations of Conversational Distance AU: Author Burgoon, Judee K; Aho, Lynn SO: Source Communication Monographs, 1982, 49, 2, June, 71-88 AB: Abstract The effects of interpersonal reward & violations of conversational distancing expectations on compliance & interaction behaviors were tested in 3 retail shopping settings. Ss were salespeople (N = 70, 49, 104) who were approached by confederates posing as customers or students conducting interviews on consumer behavior. Two levels of interpersonal reward (high vs low levels of apparent status, attractiveness, purchasing power &/or expertise) & three levels of distance (close violation, norm, far violation) were manipulated. TI: Title Communicative Patterns at French Market Places AU: Author Lindenfeld, Jacqueline file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (9 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors SO: Source Semiotica, 1978, 23, 3-4, 279-290 AB: Abstract Covert features of interpersonal relations are investigated using verbal exchanges at French marketplaces. Two conversations (at Rouen & Paris) were recorded. The first conversation was between a M vendor & 2 F customers, the second between a F vendor & 2 F customers. The analysis is conducted in the context of P. Grice's theory (see LLBA 11/4, 7704655) & focuses on speaker- listener relationships based on speech acts patterning in natural discourse. Consideration of nonlinguistic features is limited. Both conversations are included in their entirety. TI: Title A Funny Thing Happened! The Management of Consumer Emotions in Service Encounters AU: Author Locke, Karen SO: Source Organization Science, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 40-59, Jan-Feb 1996 AB: Abstract The impact of physician (MD) humor & comedic performance on patient & patient family emotions was examined through participant observation, semistructured interview of 43 members of the pediatric department of a metropolitan hospital, participation as part of a client family, & analysis of documents of the hospital department. Title: Questions in Reference Interviews Au: Marilyn Domas White Journal of Documentation, V. 54 no.4 (sept. 1998): 443-465. Ti: Narrative analysis of a marketing relationship: The consumer's perspective Barbara B. Stern 1 *, Craig J. Thompson 2, Eric J. Arnould 3 Psychology and Marketing 15,3 (195-214) Abstract file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (10 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors This article uses narrative analysis to study a marketing relationship elicited by means of a phenomenological interview. The focal point is the consumer's perspective, and the single incident of a marketing encounter is treated as a core event in relationship marketing. The narrative is derived by means of a phenomenological interview, which provides an in-depth account of a relationship that ends in brand switching. The consumer's role is studied by means of narrative analysis, which exposes the consumer's script for the relationship. Marketing implications are discussed in terms of the importance of the single encounter, consumer role enactment in a relationship, and the consumer's desire for relationships based on emotional satisfaction. Generic articles about reference interview that might help: TI: Title The reference librarian as non-expert: a postmodern approach to expertise AU: Author Stover, Mark SO: Source Reference Librarian; (87/88) 2004, pp.273-300 IS: ISSN 0276-3877 DE: Descriptors Reference work; Psychological aspects; Experts; Postmodernism AB: Abstract This article explores the postmodern psychotherapeutic view of the therapist as a non-expert. The author seeks to draw an analogy between the professional expertise and knowledge of the reference librarian arid the expertise of the psychotherapist, with special reference to the postmodern idea of the posture of non-expertise. Reference librarians will provide a higher degree of user satisfaction to patrons when the reference interview is approached as a collaborative and dialogic process that is grounded in the attitude of non-expertise. The stance of the reference librarian as non-expert will move the profession of librarianship away from the technocrat/expert model and back towards its earlier mission of TI: Title The reference interview as partnership: an examination of librarian, library user, and social interaction AU: Author file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (11 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors Mabry, Celia Hales SO: Source Reference Librarian; 40 (83/84) 2003, pp.41-56 IS: ISSN 0276-3877 DE: Descriptors Reference work; Staff user interaction; Interviews AB: Abstract The reflections penned in this article began as a single paragraph contributed several years ago to Charles Anderson's quot;The Exchange,quot; a column in RQ (now Reference and User Services Quarterly) (Anderson, 1995). I elaborated upon the concept through further reflection and augmented the ideas through a literature review. These ideas are meant to spark interest among library school students, new reference librarians, and veteran reference librarians who perhaps need new reason to show up with a positive attitude at that next reference shift. The thesis is that this moment in time within a given reference interview occurs only once, regardless of how many times a librarian has heard the question. We as librarians must always be alert to respond appropriately to the distinct contributions that the given library user brings to that question. In the process, we are equals in that the librarian knows more of the research technique to uncover the appropriate sources, but the library user knows more of what his specific slant on the topic will be. We would be wise to stay diligent, to listen well, and to take nothing for granted. The reference interview then becomes a lively, energetic, and stimulating discussion meant to lead to library research at its best. TI: Title Interview to interaction: towards a terminology of equality in reference work. AU: Author Francis, Mary AF: Affiliation School of Library and Information Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States SO: Source Library Student Journal, pp. np, Nov 2006 IS: ISSN 1931-6100 file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (12 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors DE: Descriptors Reference work; User services; Interviews; Librarians AB: Abstract Reference service in librarianship has historically been tied to the reference interview as predominant teaching model. Successful reference encounters involve the mutual respect of both parties as they work towards a common goal. While there are positive traits associated with the reference interview, the term also possesses negative connotations which can influence the contact between librarians and patrons. In an effort to help develop respectful relationships, the author suggests a reclassification of the reference interview as a reference interaction. (Author abstract) TI: Title 'You're a guide rather than an expert': archival reference from an archivist's point of view. AU: Author Duff*, Wendy; Fox, Allyson AF: Affiliation Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto, Canada. EA: Email Address [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org] SO: Source Journal of the Society of Archivists, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 129-153, Oct 2006 IS: ISSN 0037-9816 DE: Descriptors Reference work; Archiving; Archivists; User services AB: Abstract This study explores facilitating access and reference service provision through the eyes of reference archivists. The study examines the archival reference process through interviews with thirteen reference archivists at large archival institutions in two different countries. Participants describe examples of satisfactory and unsatisfactory reference interactions in both onsite and remote settings and provide insight into their perceptions of the best and worst aspects of providing archival reference services. Their descriptions provide a first-hand account of the archival reference processes, the barriers to providing reference services both in person file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (13 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors and remotely, as well as the knowledge and skills necessary for providing effective reference services. (Author abstract) TI: Title The importance of being ear-nest: you might hear what they're saying, but are you really listening? AU: Author Fisher, Donna M SO: Source Information Outlook; 9 (10) Oct 2005, pp.38-39 IS: ISSN 1091-0808 DE: Descriptors Reference work; End users; Interviews; Informal communication; Interpersonal skills; Intermediaries; Library staff AB: Abstract Listening is a major component of interpersonal communication and librarians in general, but reference librarians in particular, could gain considerable benefit from developing listening skills. Presents some suggestions to improve professional and personal listening skills: listen attentively, giving the speaker undivided attention; listening for non verbal messages; avoiding being judgemental by focusing on the user's requests not on their personal appearance; and thinking carefully about words before speaking and even when not speaking. TI: Title Application of the cognitive interview by the reference librarian AU: Author Moody, J; Carter, E SO: Source Reference and User Services Quarterly; 38 (4) Summer 1999, p.389-93 IS: ISSN 1094-9054 DE: Descriptors Reference work; Interviews; Cognitive aspects AB: Abstract Much has been written about the importance of the reference interview and various techniques have been suggested to enhance its effectiveness. One method is the 'cognitive interview', which has been file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (14 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors used successfully in a variety of other disciplines. Presents the theoretical background and empirical research to support the cognitive interview and its application to the reference interview, structured around five principles: context reinstatement; focused retrieval; extensive retrieval; varied retrieval; and multiple representations. Each principle is shown to be supported by the literature. TI: Title Closing the reference interview: implications for policy and practice AU: Author Nolan, Chistopher W SO: Source RQ; 31 (4) Summer 92, 513-523.s IS: ISSN 0033-7072 DE: Descriptors Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction; Termination; Interviews AB: Abstract Little of the extensive literature on the reference interview discusses the process of closing the interview. Discusses reasons why patrons and librarians decide to terminate the interview, revealing that many originate in interpersonal or institutional goals unrelated to the provision of exact answers. Argues the necessity for librarians to develop explicit goals for the reference interview, identifies several policy issues that should be included in any such discussion, and suggests practical steps to improve the closure of interviews. 00 TI: Title Questions and answers: finding out about information needs AU: Author Allen, Bryce SO: Source Canadian Library Journal; 46 (3) June 89, 191-193.s IS: ISSN 0008-4352 DE: Descriptors Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction; Research; Interviews AB: Abstract file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (15 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors Reports on a research project undertaken with the aim of showing how users respond to questions about their information needs. It began with the idea that there are at least 3 factors which might influence how users respond: the knowledge of users about the topic; the way they structure the topic knowledge; and the questions asked by librarians. Results indicated that the leadership role of librarianship in interactions with users is highly important, so it follows that librarians must exercise skill both in selecting the questions they ask and in making use of the details elicited by those questions. 00 P.B. Record 10 of 28 TI: Title How reference librarians can help translate the visceral needs of students into measurable, obtainable goals AU: Author Lilla, Rick SO: Source Current Studies in Librarianship; 13 (1and2) Spring/Fall 89, 6-15.s IS: ISSN 0742-8227 DE: Descriptors Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction; Interviews AB: Abstract Discusses what specifically is meant by the term visceral need--the actual need, not yet consciously known to the user--and what difference if any, it may have for the reference librarian. Examines whether it is a legitimate role of the reference librarian to act as a counsellor and help translate a visceral need into a refined subject need and considers what techniques and methods can help equip the librarian to translate this visceral need into a concrete obtainable subject. 00 P.B. TI: Title How significant is nonverbal communication in the reference interview? An overview AU: Author Nawe, J SO: Source file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (16 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors Maktaba; 11 (1) 1989, 19-22.s IS: ISSN 0070-7988 DE: Descriptors Services; User services; Reference work; Bibliographic enquiries; Non verbal communication; Interviews AB: Abstract Considers the part played by nonverbal communication in a librarian's ability to develop expertise in the librarian-user interface of a reference work interview. Special attention is directed to gestures and facial expressions. 00 N.L.M. TI: Title The effective reference interview AU: Author Dewdney, Patricia SO: Source Canadian Library Journal; 45 (3) June 88, 183-184 IS: ISSN 0008-4352 DE: Descriptors Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract The ability to conduct an effective reference interview is an important skill for librarians, since library users do not always present their information needs clearly. Reports a study undertaken to investigate the effects of teaching librarians how to conduct reference interviews in a public library setting, and which compared 2 types of training: microskills training and neutral questioning. TI: Title Interpersonal information processing AU: Author Penland, Patrick R; Mathai, Aleyamma SO: Source Reference Librarian; (21) 1988, 209-227.s IS: ISSN 0276-3877 DE: Descriptors Services; User services; Reference work; Research; Psychological file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (17 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors aspects; User behaviour AB: Abstract In the past, librarians have attempted to characterise, estimate and explain the behaviour of human beings who seek out their services and products. While these contributions may have been creatively original among librarians of the past, practitioners today have generally eschewed the pscyhological advances of other fields. Following the lead of those research priorities for the 80s, identified by professional leaders, presents a case for the pschological measurement of information processing behaviour. 00 Original abstract—amended TI: Title The face value rule in reference work AU: Author Wilson, Patrick SO: Source RQ; 25 (4) Summer 86, 468-475.s IS: ISSN 0033-7072 DE: Descriptors Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Several possible rules governing the reference interview are examined; one calls for inquiry into clients' underlying wants, another for inquiry into underlying needs. Both of these rules are claimed to be the equivalent to a rule calling for inquiry into purpose. The 'purpose rule' is constrasted with a 'face value rule' calling for clarification of initial requests but no explicit inquiry into purpose. The latter is defended as a legitimate expression of one conception of the reference librarian's professional role, implying a restricted view of the librarian's responsibility for the outcomes of reference inquiries. TI: Title Neutral questioning: a new approach to the reference interview AU: Author Dervin, Brenda; Dewdney, Patricia SO: Source RQ; 25 (4) Summer 86, 506-513.s file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (18 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors IS: ISSN 0033-7072 DE: Descriptors Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Neutral questioning is a strategy for conducting the reference interview in a way that allows the librarian to understand the query from the user's viewpoint. Neutral questions are open in form, avoid premature diagnosis of the problem, and structure the interview along dimensions important to the users. Derived from extensive studies into information-seeking behaviour, this strategy has now been taught to over a thousand practitioners through workshops developed in 1981. Empirically based research to test the effects of neutral questioning is in progress. Informal evaluation indicates that neutral questioning may become a useful component of in-service training for libraries. TI: Title Reference interviewing skills: twelve common questions AU: Author Sheldrick Ross, Catherine; Dewdney, Patricia; Ross, C Sheldrick SO: Source Public Libraries; 25 (1) Spring 86, 7-9 IS: ISSN 0163-5506 DE: Descriptors Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract 'How to find out what people really want to know' is the name of a workshop developed by the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Western Ontario to help librarians, library assistants, and other information providers develop communications skills. Lists 12 questions asked by workshop participants about reference interviewing skills in relation to commonly experienced communication problems, and attempts to provide answers. TI: Title Referens simplex or the mysteries of reference interviewing revealed AU: Author file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (19 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors Oser, Fred SO: Source Reference Librarian; (16) Winter 86, 53-78.s IS: ISSN 0276-3877 DE: Descriptors Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Contribution to a section on the reference interview and communication challenges in a thematic issue devoted to reference services today: from interview to burnout. Examines the literature on the reference interview suggesting that most of it has had the effect of creating a model of reference work which stresses the complexity of the process. Summarises trends observed and emphasises the need for a re-evaluation. Describes with illustrations a simplified approach to the process. TI: Title The myth of the reference interview AU: Author Hauptman, Robert SO: Source Reference Librarian; (16) Winter 86, 47-52.s IS: ISSN 0276-3877 DE: Descriptors Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Contribution to a section on the reference interview and communication challenges in a thematic issue devoted to reference services today: from interview to burnout. In the context of personal observations and research, it is suggested that too much misleading, abstract and theoretical material is published on the subject of the reference interview, and that reference librarians are doing an inadequate job. TI: Title How to find out what people really want to know AU: Author file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (20 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors Sheldrick Ross, Catherine; Ross, C Sheldrick SO: Source Reference Librarian; (16) Winter 86, 19-30.s IS: ISSN 0276-3877 DE: Descriptors Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Contribution to a section on the reference interview and communication challenges in a thematic issue devoted to reference services today: from interview to burnout. Suggests that the way users ask questions and the way librarians answer them are grounded in how people think about information. Discusses factors which combine to make people think of information as a commodity. Examines the importance of finding out the context of the user's question. Describes 2 skills that may be learned by librarians and incorporated in the reference interview: open questioning and neutral questioning. TI: Title The unexamined interview is not worth having AU: Author Naiman, Sandra M SO: Source Reference Librarian; (16) Winter 86, 31-46.s IS: ISSN 0276-3877 DE: Descriptors Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Contribution to a section on the reference interview and communication challenges in a thematic issue devoted to reference services today: from interview to burnout. The most important factor in the reference interview is the librarian's empathy. It requires the ability to suspend a personal frame of reference and the willingness to enter into the client's frame of reference. Aspects of empathy are examined and shortcomings in the reference librarian's approach are considered. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (21 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors TI: Title Interpersonal dimensions of the reference interview: a historical review of the literature AU: Author Bunge, Charles A SO: Source Drexel Library Quarterly; 20 (2) Spring 84, 4-23.s DE: Descriptors Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Contribution to an issue devoted to behavioural perspectives. Provides an overview of the literature on the reference interview. Examines the establishment and acceptance of reference service in US library practice, and uses textbooks on reference services as markers in the survey. It does not claim to be exhaustive in its citations to specific items within the literature, but attempts to outline and document changes in focus and emphasis, as authors through the years have discussed the reasons for, the nature of, the techniques used in, and the knowledge and skills useful to the reference interview. TI: Title Question clarification in the reference encounter AU: Author Cummins, Thompson R SO: Source Canadian Library Journal; 41 (2) Apr 84, 63-67. bibliog IS: ISSN 0008-4352 DE: Descriptors Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Briefly surveys the background of interpersonal communication during the reference interview, considers the nature of the communication dyad represented by information seeker and librarian, explores the phenomenon of users' needs and their expression, examines some specific question clarification principles and traces some methodologies which have potential for studying in this area. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (22 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors TI: Title Library inreach AU: Author Isaacson, David SO: Source RQ; 23 (1) Fall 83, 65-74.s IS: ISSN 0033-7072 DE: Descriptors Psychological aspects; Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Library inreach is the application of psychological techniques to the reference interview. While some of the inreach literature is useful to reference librarians seeking to improve their interpersonal skills, argues that numerous studies in this genre show evidence of a misguided philanthropic motivation, because they suggest that the librarian's primary responsibility is to provide counselling rather than information service. The failure to distinguish clearly between the responsibilites of the reference librarian and the responsibilities of other professionals offering personal service raises a sometimes troubling ethical issue this paper seeks to identify. TI: Title Communication theory's role in the reference interview AU: Author Glogoff, Stuart SO: Source Drexel Library Quarterly; 19 (2) Spring 83, 56-72.s DE: Descriptors Communication theory; Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Contribution to an issue on foundations of library practice. The negotiation of reference questions is a complex act of human communication between the librarian and the library patron. Communication science theory, especially in the areas involving human behaviour and including verbal and nonverbal communication, contributes to the theoretical foundation of the reference interview file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (23 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors and should be included in library science education. Identification of this area of knowledge and showing its applicability to the reference interview is essential in the development of interview techniques and to providing the basis for future research in this area. TI: Title The dimensions of the reference interview AU: Author White, Marilyn Domas SO: Source RQ; 20 (4) Summer 81, 373-381.s IS: ISSN 0033-7072 DE: Descriptors Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; Staff User interaction AB: Abstract Many interviewing techniques and approaches useful in the reference interview have been developed for other purposes, such as for survey research or therapy. Develops a conceptual base for analysing interviewing literature for its usefulness to the reference interview by identifying 4 dimensions of the reference interview: structure, coherence, pace, and length. The factors affecting each dimension are discussed. TI: Title Before the answer: evaluating the reference process AU: Author Jennerich, Elaine Z SO: Source RQ; 19 (4) Summer 80, 360-366.s IS: ISSN 0033-7072 DE: Descriptors Staff User interaction; Use; Public libraries; Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work AB: Abstract Presents a state of the art review of the reference interview. The interview is discussed in terms of its components and which of them can be measured and evaluated. Components include; performance of file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (24 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors professionals versus non-professionals; physical setting; verbal and non-verbal behaviour; user satisfaction. TI: Title The information interview: a comprehensive bibliography and an analysis of the literature AU: Author Crouch, Wayne W SO: Source Syracuse, NY., ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources, 1979, 49p DE: Descriptors Interviews; Use; Staff User interaction; Services; User services; Reference work; ED 180 501 AB: Abstract Report not available from NTIS. Provides a brief analysis of the literature since 1960 which deals with the information interview (defined as any interview in which one person is attempting to understand what information another person wants) as it involves library personnel; a comprehensive bibliography for that period; and a guide to the most useful items for practitioners, researchers, and teachers. TI: Title The reference interview: proceedings of the CACUL Symposium on the Reference Interview, held at the CLA Annual Conference, Montreal, 9-15 June 77 AU: Author Silvester, Elizabeth; Rider, Lillian SO: Source Montreal, Canadian Library Association, 1979, 130p. bibliog DE: Descriptors Conferences; Staff User interaction; Use; Academic libraries; Interviews; Services; User services; Reference work; CACUL (Canadian Association of College and University Libraries); Canadian Association of College and University Libraries AB: Abstract Papers relating to the reference interview as practiced in academic libraries, including discussion of teaching and learning interviewing techniques, staffing reference desks, external influences on the reference interview, and the reference interview as related to on-line file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (25 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
Effective Interviewing Skills for Auditors computer-assisted reference service. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/susan/Desktop/RSS1-refinterview.htm (26 of 26) [1/12/2008 1:41:44 AM]
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