advertisement

Ross7eCh11

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about Ross7eCh11
Business-Finance

Published on April 16, 2008

Author: Maitane

Source: authorstream.com

advertisement

Slide1:  CHAPTER 11 An Alternative View of Risk and Return: The APT Chapter Outline:  Chapter Outline 11.1 Factor Models: Announcements, Surprises, and Expected Returns 11.2 Risk: Systematic and Unsystematic 11.3 Systematic Risk and Betas 11.4 Portfolios and Factor Models 11.5 Betas and Expected Returns 11.6 The Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Arbitrage Pricing Theory 11.7 Parametric Approaches to Asset Pricing 11.8 Summary and Conclusions Arbitrage Pricing Theory:  Arbitrage Pricing Theory Arbitrage arises if an investor can construct a zero investment portfolio with a sure profit. Since no investment is required, an investor can create large positions to secure large levels of profit. In efficient markets, profitable arbitrage opportunities will quickly disappear. 11.1 Factor Models: Announcements, Surprises, and Expected Returns:  11.1 Factor Models: Announcements, Surprises, and Expected Returns The return on any security consists of two parts. First the expected returns Second is the unexpected or risky returns. A way to write the return on a stock in the coming month is: 11.1 Factor Models: Announcements, Surprises, and Expected Returns:  11.1 Factor Models: Announcements, Surprises, and Expected Returns Any announcement can be broken down into two parts, the anticipated or expected part and the surprise or innovation: Announcement = Expected part + Surprise. The expected part of any announcement is part of the information the market uses to form the expectation, R of the return on the stock. The surprise is the news that influences the unanticipated return on the stock, U. 11.2 Risk: Systematic and Unsystematic:  11.2 Risk: Systematic and Unsystematic A systematic risk is any risk that affects a large number of assets, each to a greater or lesser degree. An unsystematic risk is a risk that specifically affects a single asset or small group of assets. Unsystematic risk can be diversified away. Examples of systematic risk include uncertainty about general economic conditions, such as GNP, interest rates or inflation. On the other hand, announcements specific to a company, such as a gold mining company striking gold, are examples of unsystematic risk. 11.2 Risk: Systematic and Unsystematic:  11.2 Risk: Systematic and Unsystematic Systematic Risk; m Nonsystematic Risk;  n  Total risk; U We can break down the risk, U, of holding a stock into two components: systematic risk and unsystematic risk: 11.3 Systematic Risk and Betas:  11.3 Systematic Risk and Betas The beta coefficient, b, tells us the response of the stock’s return to a systematic risk. In the CAPM, b measured the responsiveness of a security’s return to a specific risk factor, the return on the market portfolio. We shall now consider many types of systematic risk. 11.3 Systematic Risk and Betas:  11.3 Systematic Risk and Betas For example, suppose we have identified three systematic risks on which we want to focus: Inflation GDP growth The dollar-euro spot exchange rate, S($,€) Our model is: Systematic Risk and Betas: Example:  Systematic Risk and Betas: Example Suppose we have made the following estimates: bI = -2.30 bGDP = 1.50 bS = 0.50. Finally, the firm was able to attract a “superstar” CEO and this unanticipated development contributes 1% to the return. Systematic Risk and Betas: Example:  Systematic Risk and Betas: Example We must decide what surprises took place in the systematic factors. If it was the case that the inflation rate was expected to be by 3%, but in fact was 8% during the time period, then FI = Surprise in the inflation rate = actual – expected = 8% – 3% = 5% Systematic Risk and Betas: Example:  Systematic Risk and Betas: Example If it was the case that the rate of GDP growth was expected to be 4%, but in fact was 1%, then FGDP = Surprise in the rate of GDP growth = actual – expected = 1% – 4% = – 3% Systematic Risk and Betas: Example:  Systematic Risk and Betas: Example If it was the case that dollar-euro spot exchange rate, S($,€), was expected to increase by 10%, but in fact remained stable during the time period, then FS = Surprise in the exchange rate = actual – expected = 0% – 10% = – 10% Systematic Risk and Betas: Example:  Systematic Risk and Betas: Example Finally, if it was the case that the expected return on the stock was 8%, then 11.4 Portfolios and Factor Models:  11.4 Portfolios and Factor Models Now let us consider what happens to portfolios of stocks when each of the stocks follows a one-factor model. We will create portfolios from a list of N stocks and will capture the systematic risk with a 1-factor model. The ith stock in the list have returns: Relationship Between the Return on the Common Factor & Excess Return:  Relationship Between the Return on the Common Factor & Excess Return Excess return The return on the factor F If we assume that there is no unsystematic risk, then ei = 0 Relationship Between the Return on the Common Factor & Excess Return:  Relationship Between the Return on the Common Factor & Excess Return Excess return The return on the factor F If we assume that there is no unsystematic risk, then ei = 0 Relationship Between the Return on the Common Factor & Excess Return:  Relationship Between the Return on the Common Factor & Excess Return Excess return The return on the factor F Different securities will have different betas Portfolios and Diversification:  Portfolios and Diversification We know that the portfolio return is the weighted average of the returns on the individual assets in the portfolio: Portfolios and Diversification:  Portfolios and Diversification The return on any portfolio is determined by three sets of parameters: In a large portfolio, the third row of this equation disappears as the unsystematic risk is diversified away. Portfolios and Diversification:  Portfolios and Diversification So the return on a diversified portfolio is determined by two sets of parameters: The weighed average of expected returns. The weighted average of the betas times the factor F. In a large portfolio, the only source of uncertainty is the portfolio’s sensitivity to the factor. 11.5 Betas and Expected Returns:  11.5 Betas and Expected Returns The return on a diversified portfolio is the sum of the expected return plus the sensitivity of the portfolio to the factor. Relationship Between b & Expected Return:  Relationship Between b & Expected Return If shareholders are ignoring unsystematic risk, only the systematic risk of a stock can be related to its expected return. Relationship Between b & Expected Return:  Relationship Between b & Expected Return Expected return b A B C D SML 11.6 The Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Arbitrage Pricing Theory:  11.6 The Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Arbitrage Pricing Theory APT applies to well diversified portfolios and not necessarily to individual stocks. With APT it is possible for some individual stocks to be mispriced - not lie on the SML. APT is more general in that it gets to an expected return and beta relationship without the assumption of the market portfolio. APT can be extended to multifactor models. 11.7 Empirical Approaches to Asset Pricing:  11.7 Empirical Approaches to Asset Pricing Both the CAPM and APT are risk-based models. There are alternatives. Empirical methods are based less on theory and more on looking for some regularities in the historical record. Be aware that correlation does not imply causality. Related to empirical methods is the practice of classifying portfolios by style e.g. Value portfolio Growth portfolio 11.8 Summary and Conclusions:  11.8 Summary and Conclusions The APT assumes that stock returns are generated according to factor models such as: As securities are added to the portfolio, the unsystematic risks of the individual securities offset each other. A fully diversified portfolio has no unsystematic risk. The CAPM can be viewed as a special case of the APT. Empirical models try to capture the relations between returns and stock attributes that can be measured directly from the data without appeal to theory.

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

www.bnet.fordham.edu

Hier sollte eine Beschreibung angezeigt werden, diese Seite lässt dies jedoch nicht zu.
Read more

Ross7eCh11

کلمه عبور برای دریافت لینک دانلود این فایل، احتیاج به وارد کردن کلمه عبور ...
Read more

Ross7eCh11_文库下载

Ross7eCh11. 相关文档推荐 Ross7eCh11 暂无评价 27页 2财富值搜你所想,读你所爱 拒绝盗版,营造绿色文库 如要投诉违规内容 ...
Read more

Ross7eCh11 - Docin.com豆丁网-分享文档 发现价值

Ross7eCh11. CHAPTER11 AlternativeView APTChapter Outline 11.1 Factor Models: Announcements, Surprises, ExpectedReturns 11.2 Risk: Systematic Unsystematic11 ...
Read more

Ross7eCh01_文库下载

Ross7eCh01 Ross7eCh02 Ross7eCh03 Ross7eCh04 Ross7eCh05 Ross7eCh07 Ross7eCh09 Ross7eCh11 Ross7eCh12 Ross7eCh13 Ross7eCh14 Ross7eCh15 Ross7eCh16...
Read more

Ross7eCh11 An Alternative View of Risk and Return The APT ...

".Ross7eCh11 An Alternative View of Risk and Return The APT."
Read more

Ross7eCh20_图文_百度文库

Ross7eCh11. 暂无评价. 27页 ...
Read more

公司财务英文版课件下载_经济法律_课件 ...

Ross7eCh11.ppt [1.29MB] Ross7eCh12.ppt [1.26MB] Ross7eCh13.ppt [1.35MB] Ross7eCh14.ppt [1.21MB] Ross7eCh15.ppt [1.39MB] Ross7eCh16.ppt [1.42MB]
Read more