Rosaceae 2013 - notes

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Information about Rosaceae 2013 - notes

Published on November 2, 2013

Author: cvadheim

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This talk discusses CA native plants in the Rose Family (Rosaceae), It was given in Nov. 2013 as part of the series 'Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden'. These are 4-per page notes.

11/2/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden A Rose is a Rose: the family Rosaceae C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th November 2 & 5, 2013 year) © Project SOUND Roses have always been a source of inspiration © Project SOUND What do all these plants have in common? A rose by any other name would smell as sweet. Shakespeare Cotoneaster – non-native A rose is a rose is a rose. Gertrude Stein http://www.easy-drawings-and-sketches.com/draw-a-rose.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1

11/2/2013 The Roses family: family Rosaceae The Rose Family  Medium size (19th largest) : 75-100 genera and ~ 3000 species The rose is a rose And was always a rose; But the theory now goes That the apple’s a rose, And the pear is, and so’s The plum, I suppose. The dear only knows What will next prove a rose. You, of course, are a rose, But were always a rose.  Goes back ~ 90 million years (fossil ‘roses’)  Worldwide distribution except in the arctic; greatest diversity in the north temperate regions.  Trees, shrubs and perennials – only a few annuals Robert Frost http://delta-intkey.com/angio/www/rosaceae.htm © Project SOUND The Rose family is complex taxonomically © Project SOUND Economic importance of the rose family  One of the six most economically important crop plant families, and includes: apples, pears, quinces, medlars, loquats, almonds, peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, strawberries, raspberries and roses.  Old, widespread family – lots of time to diversify  First classifications were too simplistic – based on fruit characteristics (which can sometime be misleading)  We’ll come back to taxonomy when we discuss fruits next Apr. http://media.mlive.com/newsnow_impact/photo/fli0918-apples29jpgcfa7644879fb210b.jpg  Many genera are also highly valued ornamental shrubs; these include Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Photinia, Potentilla, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Sorbus, Spiraea, and others. http://santabarbaraarborist.wordpress.com/2013/02/28/if-shakespeare-was-an-arborist/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2

11/2/2013 Like any family, the Rose family has some ‘black sheep’ Let’s look at some CA native Rosaceae  Several genera are also introduced noxious weeds in some parts of the world, costing money to be controlled.  These invasive plants can have negative impacts on the diversity of local ecosystems once established.  Such naturalised pests include Acaena, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Pyracantha, Rubus and Rosa. Cotoneaster http://goweros.blogspot.com/2011/12/invasivecotoneasters-at-fox-hole.html © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Wild roses are important habitat plants CA Wild Rose – Rosa californica  Blooms: http://www.qty.com/anna3.html  Main season: May-Aug (but blooms intermittently in warm season)  Flowers: single pinks; color varies slightly  Important pollen source for bees and other insects  Fruits (hips)  Summer/fall  Edible; good syrups & jellies  goldfinches, bluebirds, grosbeaks, robins, mockingbirds, and sparrows-relish the hips  Plants/foliage http://static.flickr.com/29/37921551_c468a94b4a_m.jpg  Dense, spiny foliage provides good cover and nesting sites for birds http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/wildflower_watch_wk18.htm 3

11/2/2013 Three classes of CA native wild Rosa Interior Rose – Rosa woodsii ssp ultramontana  Thicket-Forming Roses: (Subg. Rosa, Sect. Cinnamomeae) 1. Rosa californica 2. Rosa nutkana var. nutkana 3. Rosa pisocarpa 4. Rosa woodsii  Wood and Ground Roses: (Subg. Rosa, Sect. Gymnocarpae)  5. Rosa gymnocarpa  6. Rosa spithamea  7. Rosa bridgesii  8. Rosa pinetorum  Subg. Hesperhodos  9. Rosa minutifolia © Project SOUND Interior Rose – Rosa woodsii ssp ultramontana © Project SOUND Interior Rose: much like CA Wild Rose  Native to much of w. North America – British Columbia to CA & NM  Size:  5-8+ ft tall  Spreading; can form thickets  In CA: High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains http://archive.is/JkiE  Yellow Pine Forest, Subalpine Forest, Pinyon-Juniper Woodland, Joshua Tree Woodland, wetland-riparian between 3500 and 11500 feet  Moist or seasonally wet  Growth form: J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database      Foliage:    ? Ssp or var.?? Woody shrub Upright to mounded with age Stress deciduous Sparse, straight prickles Typical rose leaf (compound); smaller than garden rose Medium green; may be yellow in fall  Roots: suckers from roots – not rhizomes (as once thought) © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4

11/2/2013 Flowers: the best a wild rose can offer The place of roses in the edibles garden  Blooms: spring/summer usually May-June in our area  Seed dispersion – birds & mammals  Flowers:  Some genera in Rosaceae have fruits that are especially tempting – and high in vitamin C    ©2008 Thomas Stoughton http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/3214/rosa-woodsii-woods-rose/  Single rose Pale to medium pink Very fragrant – among the best Wonderful tea, potpourri, flavoring ©2006 Larry Blakely  Collect in fall when red and slightly soft – best after first cold snap  Rosehips make delicious:  Fruits (hips):   Red when ripe The best tasting of any – really premium ©2009 Barry Breckling http://web.ewu.edu/ewflora/Rosaceae/Rosa%20woodsii.html Quite adaptable © Project SOUND  Soils:  Texture: better with medium to coarse/rocky  pH: any local  Light:   ©2001 Gary A. Monroe Full sun (coast) to part-shade (hot, inland) Best flowers/fruits w/ at least morning sun     Tea (dried) Jelly Syrup Etc. © Project SOUND Inland Rose: good if you’ve got the right spot  Good for N & E-facing slopes - even with no water  Barriers/hedges/hedgerows  Large shrub at back of beds  Try in a large container  Water:  Winter: needs good rain/irrigation  Summer: fairly drought tolerant but best with some summer water (Water Zone 2 or 2-3)  Fertilizer: none/light (1/2 strength)  Other: organic mulch OK ©2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5

11/2/2013 What makes a rose smell like a rose? Many uses of rose scent  Some roses [Damascus Rose] known for scent – used to make rose oil  Rose oil – ‘Attar of roses’  Perfume distillation  It turns out the answer is complex: a number of aromatic compounds are involved http://hildablue.com/2013/03/16/how-to-recognize-quality-rosewater-and-how-to-make-your-own/ Beta-damascenone presence and quantity is considered as the marker for the quality of rose oil.  The unique ones that give the scent are: beta-damascenone, betadamascone, beta-ionone, and rose oxide.  Even though these compounds exist in less than 1% quantity of rose oil, they make up for slightly more than 90% of the odor content due to their low odor detection thresholds  Rose water – easy to make http://www.thecraftycrow.net/2009/07/making-things-from-the-garden.html Many native roses have a lovely rose scent      Jar Rose petals (scented) Hot water Time 1 Tbsp vodka as preservative  Potpourri © Project SOUND Perhaps you want a real ‘specimen’ wild rose © Project SOUND Baja Rose – Rosa minutifolia http://qbgdocents.org/Bloom_board/Bloom_Board_May_10/IMG_0796.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6

11/2/2013 ‘The Thorny Rose Affair – Baja Rose – Rosa minutifolia Lenz, 1982  April, 1882 – botanizing expedition to Baja  Jones was beginning a significant career as field botanists; Parry lead the expedition – experience in border surveys  4/12 - Rosa minutifolia discovered growing along the side of the road on the protected slopes of the hills just inland from the beach.  Marcus Eugene Jones 1852-1934 The controversy which arose and was to cause so much ill feeling between Jones and others revolved around who first discovered the rose and Jones's accusation that Parry stole his rose.  Otay Mesa east of San Diego (rare) and n. Baja (pretty common) http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/minutifolia.html  Chaparral, north-facing Diegan Sage Scrub ; common constituent of the coastal scrub community in northern Baja http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/map_minutifolia.html Charles Christopher Parry 1823-1890 http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/minut_Calif.html © Project SOUND Baja rose: small leaves & many prickles © Project SOUND Botanical terms: thorns vs. prickles  Size:   4-6 ft tall 5-6 ft wide  Thorn: a modified branch with a sharp point [pyracantha]  Growth form:  ©2010 Anna Bennett   Upright to mounded stems; tangled, dense Young foliage often red-tinged Many stout, straight prickles – this one is really prickly (one proposed name: Rosa horrida  Prickle: a sharp pointed outgrowth of the epidermis (the outer ‘skin’ ) of a stem [example: rose]  Foliage:   http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/minut_twig_full.html Compound rose leaves, but small (< ¼ “ leaflets) and wrinkled – very unusual Drought-deciduous; re-leaf with first rains © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/minut_twig_full.html © Project SOUND 7

11/2/2013 Flowers are bright & showy Growing roses from seed  Blooms: very early – usually Jan-Apr in w. L.A. County; tied to rain cycle  Choose very ripe hips  Let them soften several days in water  Flowers: Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database    Single rose flowers Often very bright pink, magenta color; fragrant Great for insect pollinators ©2010 Anna Bennett  Clean remaining pulp from seeds  Stratify: I use moistened coffee filters (1:1 water: hydrogen peroxide) – several months in fridge  Fruits :  Edible, but small and rather prickly; birds & critters don’t seem to mind  Plant & cross your fingers  Vegetative reproduction: © Project SOUND http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Rosa_minutifolia © Project SOUND http://www.hazmac.biz/050801/050801RosaMinutifolia.html Baja Rose: drier parts of the garden Requirements: think coastal Baja  Soils:   Winter: need adequate water  Summer: like a little summer water, esp. at monsoon time (August) Barrier hedge   Water: Rock gardens, and climbing over boulders   Light: full sun to part-shade Erosion control on slopes   Texture: adaptable – even clays  pH: any local Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Remove the seeds; sterilize with 5% bleach solution With desert chaparral plants:  Backs of beds  Try in large container  Fertilizer: likes poor soils  Other: much more adaptable to garden conditions than one might expect – even grown N. CA gardens http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/minut_habitat_full.html © Project SOUND http://commons.wikimedia .org/wiki/Rosa_minutifolia Enceliafarinosa, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Fremontodendron mexicanum, Mirabilis californica, Trichostema lanatum, Salvia apiana, and Simmondsia chinensis © Project SOUND 8

11/2/2013 Not all ‘Roses’ look like roses – until you know what to look for Rose family members share some physical characteristics: leaves  Generally arranged spirally, but sometimes opposite  Simple or pinnately compound (either odd- or even-pinnate).  Leaf margin is most often serrate. http://www.hiltonpond.org/ThisWeek080501.html  Paired stipules are generally present (primitive feature)  Spines may be present on the midrib of leaflets and the rachis of compound leaves. © Project SOUND Rose family members also share some floral traits  Generally "showy“ © Project SOUND Rose family members also exhibit some variability: fruits & seeds  They are radially symmetrical and almost always hermaphroditic (both male & female parts in same flower).  Many fruits of the family are edible.  Generally have five sepals, five petals and many spirally arranged stamens. http://montana.plant-life.org/families/Rosaceae.htm Flowers in ‘parts of 5’  The bases of the sepals, petals, and stamens are fused together to form a characteristic cup-like structure called hypanthium.  Often arranged in racemes, spikes, or heads © Project SOUND  There are many different types of fruit; we’ll discuss these more in April 2014 Hawthorn © Project SOUND 9

11/2/2013 Some common CA Rosaceae genera           Adenostoma – chamise Amelanchier – serviceberry Argentina – silverweed Cercocarpus – mountain mahogany Chamaebatiaria – desert sweet Crataegus – hawthorn Fallugia – Apache plume Fragaria – strawberry Geum – avens Heteromeles – toyon Some common CA Rosaceae genera           Holodiscus – oceanspray Horkelia – horkelia Lyonothamnus – Catalina ironwood Potentilla – cinquefoil Prunus – plum Purshia – bitterbrush Rosa – rose Rubus – blackberry Sorbus – mountain ash Spiraea – spirea © Project SOUND Toyon/California Christmas Berry – Heteromeles arbutifolia © Project SOUND Heteromeles arbutifolia 'Davis Gold'  Similar in all ways to redberried form except has yellow fruits when ripe  Reportedly also more disease resistant http://redwoodbarn.com/images/toyonyellow.jpg Note that the leaves and flowers are what you’d expect for Rose family 10

11/2/2013 *Redshanks – Adenostoma sparsifolium *Redshanks – Adenostoma sparsifolium    Coastal CA from San Luis Obispo Co. to Baja Locally: Santa Monica, San Gabriel Mtns. dry, well-drained slopes and mesas at elevations from 1,000 to 7,000 feet (most 1,500 to 5,000 feet ) http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6677,6681,6683 © Project SOUND Redshanks: large chaparral shrub/tree 6-18+ ft tall 10-15 ft wide  Used externally in the treatment of arthritis.  Growth form:   © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College   Large woody shrub/tree Many trunks/branches with shreddy red bark on older limbs – ‘born to burn’ Nice natural shape – rounded Moderate growth rate; lives 100+ years http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ADSP Sclerophyllous leaves: thick, linear/narrow, sticky  Crushed twigs have been mixed with oil and used as a salve  Roots: has lignotubers (sprouting ©2004 Steven Perkins roots) © Project SOUND  Infusion of leaves used in the treatment of colds and chest complaints, and also as a mouth wash to treat toothaches.  An infusion of dried leaves or branches used in the treatment of stomach ailments, inducing either bowel movements or vomiting.  Foliage:  © Project SOUND Medicinal uses of Redshanks  Size:   © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences http://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Adenostoma_sparsifolium.htm © Project SOUND Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences 11

11/2/2013 What a flower show! Plant Requirements  Texture: adaptable; often grows in shallow soils in nature – likes well-drained  pH: any local  Blooms: in summer – usually June-Aug.  Flowers:   http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/adenostoma-sparsifolium   Small white/cream flowers Clearly rose flowers when you look closely On dense flowering branches – plant covered with blooms in a good year Very important pollinator plant  Soils:  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: needs good rains or irrigation – normally gets more than here.  Summer: summer dry to occasional ‘summer monsoon’ Steven Perkins @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Vegetative reproduction: in  Other: organic mulch some areas, most reproduction is now vegetative; sprouting roots In Santa Monica Mtns © Project SOUND Redshanks: dramatic  Often trimmed up as a small tree to accent its form, distinctive bark © Project SOUND http://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Adenostoma_sparsifolium.htm Holly-leaf & Catalina Island Cherries Prunus ilicifolia  Has nice natural shape as a large shrub J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Adenostoma_sparsifolium  Not for fire-prone areas http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/taxa/index.php?taxon=26425 http://www.wildscaping.com/plants/plantprofiles/Prunus_ilicifolia.htm © Project SOUND 12

11/2/2013 The biggest difference is in the leaves Holly-leaf & Catalina Island Cherries Prunus ilicifolia  Holly-leaf Cherry (ssp. ilicifolia): southern North Coast Ranges, Central- & Southwestern California (except Channel Islands) to Baja  Holly-leaf Cherry:      Catalina Island (ssp. lyoni): Channel Islands and mainland Baja California  Both: shrubs grow in the moister areas of dry chaparral shrub lands and foothill woodlands. Has serrated leaf margins More shrub-like 10-25 ft tall (usually) 10-20 ft wide  Catalina Island Cherry:     Has smooth leaf margins More tree-like 20-40+ ft (usually) 10-20 ft wide http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Rosaceae/Prunus_ilicifolia.html http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/catalinacherry.html Holly-leaf Cherry in nature  Often found in canyons and on north-facing slopes  alluvial fan sage scrub, chaparral, coast live oak riparian forest, coast live oak woodland, coastal sage scrub, sycamore riparian woodland, walnut woodland  Most often interspersed with other shrubs  Usually fairly slow growing  May live up to 100+ years © 2006 BonTerra Consulting Catalina Island Cherry on Catalina http://www.coestatepark.com/prunus_ilicifolia_at_coe.htm 13

11/2/2013 Attractive flowers & berries  Blooms: You can grow your own from seed…or buy one at our fall plant sale  Mar-May  Flowers small, white, clustered  Showy, lightly scented  Excellent for native pollinators  Fresh seed – fall  Be patient – seeds may take 4-9 months to sprout – or may sprout right away  Fruits (cherries) Ripe Sept-Oct Red to dark red Big pit; sweet flesh Many birds, animals love them!  Are edible – with preparations     http://www.lifeandleaf.com/category/leaf/seed/ http://www.ecnca.org/Plants/Photo_Pages/Prunus_ilicifolia.htm Native Cherries in the garden…almost anywhere  Make a nice, small evergreen tree  Can be pruned to suit many garden needs:  Shrub  Hedge  Screen  Great choice for scent and habitat gardens – get a lot for your money Good hedge/screen plants  Many plants in Rosaceae – esp. those with edible fruits - can be pruned and shaped extensively  Hedged  Espaliered  Fine on slopes/banks  So you can have native fruit trees even in a small space  Hardy: good for roadways, commercial plantings  More on these in 2014  Fine in large containers & planters http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/images/new_botimages/large/0511_j.jpg 14

11/2/2013 Native Rosaceae span a range of water requirements *Antelope Bush – Purshia tridentata  Many (especially those from S. CA) are remarkably drought tolerant once established  Some actually are better with less water:  Slower growth  Better health – decreases risk of fungal and other diseases/pests  Others are ‘opportunists’  Some just need regular water to look nice in the garden ©2009 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND *Antelope Bush – Purshia tridentata © Project SOUND Antelope Bush: drought tolerant shrub  British Columbia to CA/NV/CO  Size:    San Gabriel & Bernardino Mtns. (particularly on the desert side)  Growth form:  Dry slopes in many plant communities with 12 to 36 inches precipitation http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgibin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77219  Lewis & Clark Expedition sent back first specimen – used by Frederick Pursh who first described it (1814) 4-10 ft tall to 8 ft wide; usually 4-5  ©1987 Gary A. Monroe   Woody shrub; two forms:  Taller, mounded shrub  Low-growing (< 4 ft.) ‘groundcover’ form Many branches – dense Natural layering  Foliage:   Small, three-lobed leaves Shiny green above; light below  Roots: deep taproots; often ©2005 Steve Matson ©2010 Lee Dittmann associated w/ N-fixing bacteria © Project SOUND ©2003 Michael Charters http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Purshia_tridentata © Project SOUND 15

11/2/2013 Flowers for pollinators Adaptable & hardy  Texture: adaptable; best in medium-coarse  pH: 6.0-7.5  Blooms: late spring/early summer depending on weather  Light:  Flowers:    Small, rose-type, cream or yellow Profuse bloomer – thousands of flowers Irresistible to native pollinators  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: quite drought tolerant; probably best as Water Zone 2 ©2010 Lee Dittmann  Seeds:   Large seeds for family In turban-shaped dry capsule  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Vegetative reproduction: natural ©2008 Matt Below   layering; re-sprouting (some better than others – ask nursery if purchasing) ©2012 Jean Pawek ©2010 Lee Dittmann ©2012 Aaron Arthur © Project SOUND Antelope Bush: a sensible choice • • • •  Soils: Erosion control on dry slopes Water-wise shrub In habitat garden: insects & birds Medicinal garden: leaf poultice/wash for itches, rashes, insect bites, OK with organic mulch Should be pruned back by 1/3 each year to maintain vigor – normally browsed © Project SOUND Douglas’ Spiraea – Spiraea douglasii Leaf tea was used as a general tonic and for colds, pneumonia, liver disease, to expel worms, and as an emetic and laxative for stomach ache and constipation. Twigs, leaves, and berries were used as a laxative. ©2006 Steven Thorsted ©2010 Lee Dittmann http://www.unce.unr.edu/programs/sites/nemo/lid/plantlist/plantdetails.asp?ID=40 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16

11/2/2013 Douglas’ Spiraea – Spiraea douglasii Woodsy perennial of moist places  Southern AK to n. California  2 var. (var. douglasii; var. menziesii)  Redwood Forest, Red Fir Forest, wetland-riparian, 0-6400 feet  Damp meadows, riparian zones, bogs, marshes, open swamps, and the margins of ponds and lakes  Size:   2-6 ft tall 4-10+ ft wide  Growth form:    http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45201 Spreading herbaceous perennial Many wand-like stems Fast-growing  Foliage:   Simple, medium-green leaves; light colored below Stress-deciduous  Roots: spreads by suckers (under-ground shoots) to form dense thickets. ©2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND Flowers: a gardener’s delight! ©2009 Julie Kierstead Nelson The colors of the Rose family: limited  Blooms: summer – June-Sept.  Members of the Rosaceae that occur in the wild NEVER have blue flowers or true red flowers  Flowers:      Medium to bright pink Many tiny ‘rose’ flowers on wand-like stalks Long stamens make flower stalks appear ‘fuzzy’ Really lovely Excellent native pollinator habitat – esp. bees  This is because the Rosaceae lacks the genes to produce true blue or pure red flower pigments.  Interestingly, they do have other genes which produce the red-orange fruits  Seeds:  © Project SOUND Eaten by birds and critters http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2012_08_01_archive.html ©2003 Michael Charters  Vegetative reproduction: © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/spiraea-douglasii © Project SOUND 17

11/2/2013 Spiraeas are forest plants Use Spiraea for:  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: any local   Light:       Part-shade Dappled shade under trees  Water: Summer color in woodland gardens; informal hedge In large containers Under pines, redwoods On moist slopes, stream banks In any moist area of garden  Winter: plenty; tolerates seasonally flooding  Summer: best with regular water (Water Zone 2-3 to 3); will die back at Zone 2, but will not spread as fast  Fertilizer: fine  Other: loves leaf mulch ©2006 Steve Matson © 2004, Ben Legler: © Project SOUND Beach Strawberry - Fragaria chiloensis ssp. http://nosleepingdogs.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/spiraea-douglasii-full-plant.jpg?w=470&h=783 © Project SOUND * Woodland Strawberry – Fragaria vesca ssp. californica pacifica © 2002 George Jackson © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 18

11/2/2013 Species reminiscent of strawberries Pacific Silverweed – Argentina egedii ssp. egedii (Potentilla anserina vars. grandis, pacifica)  Potentilla  Argentina  Geum  All have similar leaves  Flowers are also similar – and yellow  Grow as herbaceous groundcovers – some more spreading than others  Fruits are dry capsules USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. The genus Geum © 2005 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy © Project SOUND  ~ 40 species, mostly in the northern hemisphere, but also in southern Africa and the Andes of South America. http://flickr.com/photos/27830975@N05/3061843001/in/photostream/ © Project SOUND * Apache Plume – Fallugia paradoxa  At least three different evolutionary clades (groups) http://www.anniesannuals.com/plt_lst/lists/general/lst.gen.asp?prodid=1487 Some species have been developed into common garden cultivars  All of the Geum species of North America have enlarged, persisting styles at the top of each ovary. In some species [Geum], the styles are straight and bristly, while in others they have feathery plumes. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 19

11/2/2013 * Large-leaved Avens – Geum macrophyllum * Large-leaved Avens – Geum macrophyllum  Much of N. America: British Columbia Great Lakes to Baja  Locally in San Bernardino Mtns  Forests, including Yellow Pine forest  Mostly moist, partially shaded areas such as moist forest openings, stream banks, meadows and shrub thickets http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26835 ©2007 Matt Below http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages/gilaflora/geum_macrophyllum.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Avens: perennial groundcover plants Flowers: often mistaken for buttercups  Size:  Blooms: spring-early summer; April  < 2 ft tall (flower stalks taller)  2-3 ft wide to June or July  Flowers:  Growth form:    Herbaceous perennial Spreads entirely by seed – not a true vegetative spreader    Foliage:   Al Schneider @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Stress deciduous Basal leaves with long erect petioles, a larger, more or less heart-shaped terminal leaflet © Project SOUND  Like a yellow strawberry or buttercup flower On flowering stems above plant – like strawberry but longer Have ‘invisible’ dark dots that are nectar guides for insects Mostly pollinated by small pollinator flies  Seeds: seeds in balls that look like pincushions – unusual; stick to clothes Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND 20

11/2/2013 Geum vs. Potentilla (Cinquefoil): close cousins Likes some water  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: 5:00-7:00 (moderate alkalinity tolerance)  Both:  Bright yellow, 5-petaled flowers and a distinctive calyx appearing to have 10 sepals (there are five true sepals that alternate with five narrower, sepal-like bracts).  Light:  Part-shade; dappled sun under trees  Geum (Avens)  Pinnately compound leaves ©2007 Matt Below  Potentialla (Cinquefoil) – © Project SOUND Avens has its place      Winter: adequate  Summer: occasional to regular water – Water Zones 2 to 2-3  Fertilizer: fine  lack the long, persistent, twisty styles of Geum.  palmately compound leaves with leaflets arranged like fingers on a palm http://www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Potentilla_simplex_page.html  Water:  Other: self-sows freely in moist soils; remove seed heads if an issue Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND Small Rosaceae make great pot plants As a natural lawn substitute in moist areas – could combine with Yarrow Good groundcover under trees Around water features, rain garden As an attractive pot plant  Use a large enough container; some have extensive root systems  Use a good, well-drained potting mixture, modified for special needs (if any) Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2013/01/a-winters-tale-in-southern-california.html Raised bed with assorted monkey flowers (Mimulus spp.), Large-leaved Avens (Geum macrophyllum), and annuals including Sticky Phacelia (Phacelia viscida), Wind Poppy (Stylomecon heterophylla), Baby Blue Eyes (Nemophila menziesii), and Chinese Houses (Collinsia heterophylla). ©2010 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND  Monitor soil moisture – don’t over-water  Place where plants get good air circulation © Project SOUND 21

11/2/2013 Avens: an important medicinal plant In summary, we’ve learned that there are many native members of the Rose family  poultice of smashed or boiled leaves for cuts, boils;  decoction of roots for stomach pain, acid;  tea from roots and chewed leaves during labor, childbirth  tea made of plant material can also be gargled to sooth sore gums.  An eyewash was also prepared from the leaves.  The Haida boiled the roots to make a steambath to treat rheumatism. © 2010, Ron Bockelman © Project SOUND We’ve learned some common traits shared by members of the Rose family Holodiscus discolor  Woody stems, often with prickles, or trailing stems with runners  Simple or compound leaves, often evergreen  Stipules at the base of the leaf  Large flowers with five petals or clusters of tiny flowers with five petals – flowers in ‘parts of five’  Many stamens  Often woody trees, shrubs or climbers © Project SOUND Oceanspray © Project SOUND Some are surprisingly drought tolerant, while others like water & shade © 2010, Ron Bockelman © Project SOUND 22

11/2/2013 * Western Chokecherry – Prunus virginiana var. demissa We’ve only just gotten started with the edible members of the Rose family – but that will have to wait for another lecture Topics for 2014 – some good ones  Climate change & the home garden  Edible fruit plants  Life-friendly pest management  And much, much, more http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=23962 © Project SOUND Plant Sale: CSUDH Nov. 9th, 14th © Project SOUND Other fun activities - November  Potpourri from Native Plant Trimmings – 11/9 & 11/10 – Mother Nature’s Backyard  Pruning workshops:  Gardena Willows – 11/16  Mother Nature’s Backyard – 11/16 afternoon  Garden of Dreams (CSUDH) – 11/15 & 11/22 – e-mail me if coming  Natural Dyes Go to ‘Native Plants at CSUDH’ blog for more details, plant list © Project SOUND  11/10 – exhibit – Mother Nature’s Backyard  11/17 – show & tell meeting ‘South Bay Natural Dye Circle – Madrona, 1:00-4:00 © Project SOUND 23

11/2/2013 So, get out and do something fun this month © Project SOUND And take some time to smell the roses © Project SOUND 24

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