Roosevelt and Latin America

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Published on October 22, 2007

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10th American History:  10th American History Unit II- Becoming a World Power Chapter 7 Section 3 Roosevelt and Latin America Roosevelt and Latin America:  The Main Idea The United States began to exert its influence over Latin America in the wake of the Spanish-American War. The Main Idea How did the United States govern Cuba and Puerto Rico? Why and how was the Panama Canal built? What was the Roosevelt Corollary? How did Presidents Taft and Wilson reshape U.S. diplomacy? Roosevelt and Latin America The United States in Cuba:  The United States in Cuba President William McKinley set up a military government in Cuba. Advances were made to eliminate yellow fever. U.S. Army doctors Walter Reed and William C. Gorgas proved Cuban doctor Carlos Juan Finlay’s theory that mosquitoes spread yellow fever. Standing water was eliminated in Cuba, and yellow fever was virtually eliminated in Havana within six months. U.S.-appointed Governor of Cuba Leonard Wood oversaw the drafting of a new Cuban Constitution in 1901. U.S. forced Cuba to include the Platt Amendment. This limited Cuba’s ability to sign treaties with other nations and gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and set up military bases. This led to the establishment of the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay. Amendment also made Cuba a U.S. protectorate – a country under the control and protection of another country. The United States in Puerto Rico:  The United States in Puerto Rico President McKinley also set up a military government on this island. The United States governed Puerto Rico as a territory. Foraker Act of 1900 established that the U.S. would appoint a governor and upper house of legislature. Puerto Rican voters elected the lower house. A 1917 law granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship and ability to elect all legislative representatives. In 1952, Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth, with power over most of its domestic affairs. The U.S. still controls interstate trade, immigration, and military affairs. Cuba and Puerto Rico:  Cuba and Puerto Rico How did the United States govern Cuba and Puerto Rico? What benefits did the United States receive as a result of the Platt Amendment? How did Puerto Rico become a U.S. territory, while Cuba became a protectorate? Preparing for the Panama Canal:  Preparing for the Panama Canal Panama was a part of the Republic of Colombia. Revolutionaries were plotting to break free of Colombian rule. President Theodore Roosevelt supported the revolution and quickly recognized the new government, the Republic of Panama. A new treaty with the government gave the United States complete control of the 10-mile-wide Canal Zone. U.S. Interest The United States bought the rights to build the canal from the French in 1902. Panama’s Revolution Building the Panama Canal:  Building the Panama Canal American work began in May 1904. Harsh working conditions, material shortages, malaria, and the yellow fever hampered construction. President Roosevelt appointed John F. Stevens as chief engineer and architect. Dr. William C. Gorgas focused on sanitation and health concerns. By draining standing water and encouraging spiders, ants, and lizards to breed, malaria was almost eliminated by 1913. After the resignation of Stevens in 1907, Lt. Col. George W. Goethals took over the job of building the canal. Progress continued, and in August 1914 the SS Ancon became the first ship to pass through the canal. Panama Canal:  Panama Canal 1878- French company tries building a canal across Panama- Paid Columbia for rights. French Failed and gave up 1898- U.S. government buys up the French rights and equipmentto the canal for $40 million. The United States and the new state of Panama signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty, by which the United States guaranteed the independence of Panama and secured a perpetual lease on a 10-mile strip for the canal. Panama was to be compensated by an initial payment of $10 million and an annuity of $250,000, beginning in 1913. The U.S. helped Panama gain its independence from Columbia. Canal Construction:  Canal Construction Length- 51 miles 11.5 to Gatun Locks 40 miles across Lake Gatun to the Pedro Miguel locks The Pedro Miguel locks lower ships 9.4 metres, then on to the Miraflores Locks which lower ships 16 metres to sea level at the canals Pacific terminus in the bay of Panama. The Panama Canal was constructed in two stages. The first between 1881 and 1888, being the work carried out by the French company headed by de Lessop and secondly the work by the Americans which eventually completed the canals construction between 1904 and 1914. Roosevelt and the Canal:  Roosevelt and the Canal Roosevelt ordered army engineers to start digging. Thousands of workers sweated in the malarial heat. They tore up jungles and cut down mountains. Insects thrived in muddy, stagnant pools. "Mosquitoes get so thick you get a mouthful with every breath," a worker complained. The mosquitoes also carried yellow fever, and many fell victim to the deadly disease before Dr. William Gorgas found a way to stop it. Some Americans did not approve of Roosevelt's behavior. "There was much accusation about my having acted in an 'unconstitutional' manner," Teddy shrugged. "I took the isthmus, started the canal, and then left Congress -- not to debate the canal, but to debate me. . . . While the debate goes on, the canal does too; and they are welcome to debate me as long as they wish, provided that we can go on with the canal.” Roosevelt liked to repeat an old African saying: "Speak softly, and carry a big stick. You will go far." In Panama, Teddy proved to the world that he was willing to use his big navy as a stick to further American interests Slide18:  Panama Canal French Connection Columbia Building the Canal Purpose- Why? Problems and Solutions Roosevelt Corollary Failed attempt- 1878 – Paid Columbia for the rights. Builder of Suez Canal in charge Money problems, disease, and construction problems. 1898- sold their rights and equipment to the U.S. for $40 million. Columbia owned Panama Columbia had made a deal with the French to build the canal. U.S. offered Columbia $10 Million, but they want $30 million Revolution for Independence in Panama, aided by U.S. warships- who would not let Columbian ships land troops. U.S. sends wawrships to Panama to protect U.S. lives Helps Panama with the Revolution and Independence. Panama now makes a deal with the U.S. for a 10 mile wide strip of land. $10 million and $250,000 lease per year. Hay-Bunen-Verilla Treaty. Commerical Reasons: Transportation Cost lower All-water route is shorter. Military Reasons- Navy needs to be able to move from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean for defense. Across Panama was the shortest route. Began in 1909 Expenses for the U.S.- $352 Million Total- 51 mile, locks. 34 years to build Opened 1914- Treaty ratified 1921 80,000 workers and 30,000 deaths Yellow Fever- Dr. Gorgas and the Mosquito. Columbia- $26 million American Foreign policy under T. Roosevelt. Addition to Monroe Doctrine. U.S. has the right to intervene In Latin American affairs. International police force. “Walk Softly and carry a big stick.” Great White Fleet. Slide19:  Building the Canal Purpose- Why? Problems and Solutions Roosevelt Corollary French Connection Columbia Panama Canal The Panama Canal :  The Panama Canal Why and how was the Panama Canal built? What was the first attempt to build a canal? How did the U.S. secure rights to build the Panama Canal? What obstacles did the U.S. face in building the Panama Canal, and how were they handled? The Roosevelt Corollary:  The Roosevelt Corollary Background The Monroe Doctrine, proclaimed in 1823, declared the Western Hemisphere off-limits to European nations. After the Spanish-American War, presidents backed up the Monroe Doctrine with military strength. In 1904, the Dominican Republic could not pay back European lenders. To prevent Europeans from using force to collect the debt, Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary. The Roosevelt Corollary The United States pledged to use force to prevent European countries from seizing Dominican territory. The United States took control of collecting Dominican customs duties. The Corollary was issued without seeking approval from any Latin American nation. The Roosevelt Corollary succeeded in bringing more stability to the region. Roosevelt Corollary:  Roosevelt Corollary “Big Stick” Policy of TR. Addition to Monroe Doctrine United States would intervene as a last resort to keep other powers out and ensure financial stability United States increasingly used military force to restore internal stability to nations in the region United States might "exercise international police power It did serve as justification for U.S. intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic The Roosevelt Corollary :  The Roosevelt Corollary What was the Roosevelt Corollary? What proverb inspired President Roosevelt’s corollary to the Monroe Doctrine? What financial situation made Latin American nations particularly vulnerable to forceful takeover. Why were European lenders so eager to invest in Latin America? U.S. Diplomacy:  U.S. Diplomacy President William H. Taft promoted advancing U.S. interests in other countries through dollar diplomacy, a policy of promoting American economic interests in other countries and using that economic power to achieve American goals. By 1914, Americans had bought out European loans, resulting in an American investment of more than $1.6 billion in Latin America. Some resentment was caused. In 1912, President Taft sent in U.S. troops to stop an uprising against authorities. President Woodrow Wilson, who succeeded Taft in 1913, favored moral diplomacy, which used persuasion and American ideals to advance the nation’s interests in other countries. President Wilson also used military troops to stop civil unrest in Haiti in 1915 and the Dominican Republic in 1916. The U.S. Marines occupied the countries for years. Dollar Diplomacy- Taft:  Dollar Diplomacy- Taft 1909-1913 Goal of diplomacy was to create stability and order abroad that would best promote American commercial interests Extensive U.S. interventions in the Caribbean and Central America, especially in measures undertaken to safeguard American financial interests in the region U.S. to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power. Wilson’s Moral Foreign Policy:  Wilson’s Moral Foreign Policy A policy that made the US the conscience of the world. He hoped to spread democracy, condemn colonialism, and promote peace. Every international conflict would be solved by a third party and the countries would remain peaceful while the conflict was resolved. Japan? Wilson protested the Japanese demands on China following the beginning of World War I.? Japan eased off, pretty much making China a protectorate, but remained bitter towards the US. Latin America? Wilson hoped to promote democracy and ensure the security of the Panama Canal in Latin America. Wilson answered upheavals in Haiti and the Dominican Republic with troops. Wilson plans to aid Latin American nations and prepare them for democracy inspired hatred rather than friendship. Mexican Civil War? In 1911 General Huerta seized power in Mexico and favored the wealthy landowners. Venustiano Carranza led the resistance to the Mexican regime. When Huerta declared himself military dictator of the regime, then Wilson banned arms shipment to Mexico and refused to recognize the defacto government. Carranza defeated Huerta. Bandit Fransisco Pancho Villa revolted against Carranza and attacked US border towns. The US sent General John Pershing down to find Pancho, but the 10,000 men trekking 300 miles into Mexico caused unrest in the Mexican Government. Reshaping U.S. Diplomacy:  Reshaping U.S. Diplomacy How did President’s Taft and Wilson reshape U.S. diplomacy? How did President Taft use dollar diplomacy? Why did President Wilson send troops into Haiti and the Dominican Republic?

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