Published on March 6, 2014
INTRODUCTION PROPERTIES FACTORS AFFECTING THE SELECTION OF ROOFING MATERIAL TYPES OF ROOF COVERING
Roofing tiles are used to cover sloping roofs. Supported on wooden reapers or light gauge steel or steed rods are also used. Normally these tiles are having curved surface having ribbed sections, so that with thin section they are sufficiently strong to resist the load. Some times flat tiles are used under curved/ribbed tiles.
1. They should not absorb moisture more than 20 per cent by weight. 2. They should give pleasing look. 3. They should be capable of taking load of a man safely, after they are supported on reapers. 4. They should be durable. 5. They should be uniform in shape and size. 6. warpage should not exceed 2% along the edges and 1.5% along the diagonal.
• • • • • • • • Type of building Type of framework Initial cost Maintenance requirements Fabrication facilities Appearance and special features of locality Availability of material Climate of locality
• SLATE ROOFING TILES • ALLHABAD TILES • BURNT CLAY TILES • CONCRETE TILES
• Extremely low water absorption index, less than 0.4%, which makes its resistant to frost damage. • Consists of bituminous slates called eternit (generic term for fiber cement). • Available in three colours-grey,black and red. • SIZE- 12’’x6’’, 6mm thickness • COST- 25-30/Sq.ft
Slates are obtained from quarries as blocks Reduced to slabs after dividing into sections using diamond or circular saw. Each slab is divided into thin laminate or slate by using splitters
Slates roofs tiles are usually fixed either with nails or with hooks. Fixing is typically with double nails onto timber battens or nailed direclty onto timbersarking boards. nails are made up of alloy and stainless steel. 3/6/2014
LAYING • Laid such that each slate overlaps a slate in the next course below it. • Two holes are made from the bed of the slab at the centre or head so • Slates are fixed to battens by copper or zinc nails. • The spacing of battens i.e,gauge is determined as gauge=(length of slatelap)/2 • A layer of felt is used below slate to exclude rain water and moisture. Battens SLATES OVERLAP
• Allahabad tiles are generally laid side by side and the joints are covered with half round tiles. • It consists of flat broad bottom undertile that alternate with convex curved overtile. • Unfertile is flat,tapered,with flanges at the side. • The overtile is half round and tapered in plan with diameter tapering from 16 cm at tail to 12 cm at the head. • The taper in the overtile allow the tile in next course to fit in. • Vertical battens of size 2.2cmx7.5cm are fixed between sides of adjacent undertiles and to these half round overtiles. • Overtiles are fixed to vertical battens with 75 mm nails. • Cost- 55-145 Sq.ft
BURNT CLAY TILES
Clay roofing tile is a good choice for homes with a southwestern, Italian, or Spanish Mission design, or even for homes with a modern, clean look. Tile lasts a long time Burnt clay tile roofs are only used for sloping roofs between about 20° and 50° inclination of rafter. Clay tiles are heavy, requiring a strong substructure and closely spaced battens. SIZES- 2’’x6’’ 3’’x 8’’(Max) COST-45-65/ sq.ft
ADVANTAGE Tile won't rot or burn, and it can't be harmed by insects. The color of a clay tile is not affected by exposure to the elements, it can easily last for 100of years. DISADVANTAGE A major problem of clay tiles is the immense loss due to cracking and breakage. Clay tile production is a traditional village craft in many regions, but uniform shapes and qualities are difficult to achieve.
Special properties- Durable, waterproof cladding for sloped roofs Economical aspects -Low to medium costs Resistance to earthquake- Low Resistance to hurricane- Medium to good Resistance to rain- Very good Resistance to insects -Very good Climatic suitability- All climates, but most common in humid areas
PROCESS USED TO CREATE OBJECTS OF A FIXED, CROSSSECTIONAL PROFILE
Burnt clay tiles requires inspections at least twice a year so as to last for further years. They often develop cracks with years. A cracked tile needs to be replaced or repaired in place. Mix up a small amount of mortar and carefully fill in the crack. Be sure to wet the tile with plenty of water to help the mortar set up properly. Tiles will be slippery when wet
Plain tiles, pantiles, Roman tiles, interlocking tiles, and ridge, hip and valley tiles are made of this material. pantiles The mixture is composed of normal Portland cement and clean well-graded sand. ridge The body treated with mineral granules which have been coated with color. Roman tiles
Durability estimates range from 30 to 50 years. Weigh between 9 1/2 and 12 pounds(1 pound =.45 gram) per square foot. Size is 265mm by 165 mm and 12mm thick. Require low maintenance Offer good fire protection and are resistant to rot and insects. COST- INR 150 to INR 300/ Sq.ft
The usual lap for plain tiling is 65mm, for pitched roof at 37 degree. For pitches up to 60 degree the tiles should be twice nailed in every third course to once nailed in each course. For pitches exceeding 60 degree all tiles should be nailed twice. The nails are usually 38 mm long and may be either galvanized wrought iron, zinc, copper or composition.
M A N U F A C T U R I N G PROCESS USED TO CREATE OBJECTS OF A FIXED, CROSS-SECTIONAL PROFILE
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Übersetzung für roof im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch dict.cc. ... Links auf dieses Wörterbuch oder einzelne Übersetzungen sind herzlich willkommen!