Role of Race and Ethnicity

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Information about Role of Race and Ethnicity
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Published on January 14, 2008

Author: Donato

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Understanding the Role of Race and Ethnicity on Family Values and Parenting :  Understanding the Role of Race and Ethnicity on Family Values and Parenting Jennifer Best Iowa State University Extension What this presentation is NOT:  What this presentation is NOT A value judgment about the best family values A universal truth about what families act like, think like, or value A statement about what families should act like, think like, or value What this presentation IS:  What this presentation IS A starting place for understanding A tool for discussion A framework in which to think about your own values and biases A opportunity to critically evaluate your programming What do the statistics say?:  What do the statistics say? The United States has become increasingly diverse in the last century.  According to the 2000 U.S. Census, approximately 30 percent of the population currently belongs to a racial or ethnic minority group.  The Census Bureau projects that by the year 2100, non-Hispanic whites will make up only 40 percent of the U.S. population. Immigration Patterns:  Immigration Patterns The 21st Century saw a change in the places where most new immigrants originated. 19th Century Immigration:  19th Century Immigration Germans Irish English African 20th Century Immigration:  20th Century Immigration Polish Slavic Italian Sicilian Greek 21st Century Immigration:  21st Century Immigration Chinese Japanese Korean East Indian Mexican Caribbean Central American South American Over-Riding Factors:  Over-Riding Factors Immigrants move to the United States as a result of two kinds of factors: Pull Factors: Individuals leave their country-of-origin in search of more opportunities, increased education or a better life somewhere else. Push Factors: Individuals leave their country-of-origin because they have been pushed out by war, famine, persecution, chaos, etc. Over-Riding Factors:  Over-Riding Factors Regardless of your culture, you will arrive in your new home differently depending on whether you left your country-of-origin based on PUSH factors or PULL factors. PULL Characteristics:  PULL Characteristics What are likely characteristics of those individuals or families who leave their country-of-origin due to “pull factors?” PUSH Characteristics:  PUSH Characteristics What are likely characteristics of those individuals or families who leave their country-of-origin due to “push factors?” Cultural Choices of Ethnic Minorities:  Cultural Choices of Ethnic Minorities Assimilation The process by which a person or group is absorbed into the social structure and cultural life of another person, group or society. Cultural Choices of Ethnic Minorities:  Cultural Choices of Ethnic Minorities Rejection The process of a person or group ignoring or being openly hostile toward the social structure and cultural life of the majority. Cultural Choices of Ethnic Minorities:  Cultural Choices of Ethnic Minorities Acculturation The process of cultural change and adaptation that occurs when groups with different cultural norms come into contact with each other. Identification :  Identification It is generally accepted that “first generation” immigrants have the most connection to their culture’s traditional values. It is generally accepted that the further away one is from being “first generation” the more assimilated or acculturated they become. Traditional Latino Family Values:  Traditional Latino Family Values Orgullo Personal dignity and self-respect that are achieved primarily through understanding, accepting and following the social norms of tradition. Orgullo is about the self-esteem that comes from following social mores. Traditional Latino Family Values:  Traditional Latino Family Values Simpaticos Good manners, common courtesy, avoidance of conflict and conformity to expectations and societal value systems Simpaticos is about acting appropriately and doing what is expected of you. Principles of Simpaticos:  Principles of Simpaticos Individuals must be liked. Individuals must be attractive. Individuals must be fun. Individuals must be easy-going. Individuals must be flexible, but conformist. Individuals must behave with dignity and respect toward others. Individuals must avoid negative behaviors. Traditional Latino Family Values:  Traditional Latino Family Values Familismo: centrality of family Affords flexible definitions of family Affords social, emotional and logistical availability to family members Affords a network of privileges and obligations Traditional Latino Family Values:  Traditional Latino Family Values Respeto y Obediencia: respect and obedience Children are to defer to parental judgment. Adults are to be given respect simply because they are adults. Traditional Latino Family Values:  Traditional Latino Family Values Traditional gender roles Men are expected to be protective and even somewhat aggressive. Men are responsible for the welfare and honor of the family. Women are responsible for child-rearing. Women are expected to provide for the comfort of their husbands. Traditional Latino Family Values:  Traditional Latino Family Values How might traditional Latino family values be viewed in middle-class, Caucasian United States? Traditional Asian Family Values:  Traditional Asian Family Values Chiao shun Training and teaching children in socially acceptable behaviors Guan To govern within a supportive, loving, caring relationship Traditional Asian Family Values:  Traditional Asian Family Values High Parental Monitoring Very concerned with negative peer influences Likely to ask lots of questions and watch youth very carefully Tend to avoid confrontation with their children, but try to persuade youth to see things from their point of view Traditional Asian Family Values:  Traditional Asian Family Values Value educational attainment Typically will commit whatever resources are necessary to a child’s education Encourage high achievement, even in non-academic endeavors Traditional Asian Family Values:  Traditional Asian Family Values Self-sufficiency Fulfillment of obligations Respecting elders Personal responsibility Family harmony Privacy Emotional control Traditional Asian Family Values:  Traditional Asian Family Values Male dominated Women are looked upon favorably for taking blame and accepting sacrifice and suffering. Females have primary responsibility for maintenance of the household. Traditional Asian Family Values:  Traditional Asian Family Values Individual goals are secondary to family needs Collective identification Traditional Asian Family Values:  Traditional Asian Family Values How might traditional Asian family values be viewed with middle-class, Caucasian United States? Traditional Native American Family Values:  Traditional Native American Family Values Harmony with every object, animal, and person; all things are connected High respect for the desires and wishes of children; maximum opportunity for self-expression Everyone in the kinship system is responsible for teaching and guiding children. Traditional Native American Family Values:  Traditional Native American Family Values Respect for individual’s abilities and positions with the community Traditions and ceremonies are honored Nonverbal communication and silence are a form of interpersonal etiquette. Traditional Native American Family Values:  Traditional Native American Family Values Collective Identification Present-oriented Traditional Native American Family Values:  Traditional Native American Family Values How might traditional Native American family values be viewed with middle-class, Caucasian United States? Traditional African American Family Values:  Traditional African American Family Values Self-respect, confidence, dignity and assertiveness in heritage Strict/authoritarian parenting style Traditional African American Family Values:  Traditional African American Family Values Flexible family roles and boundaries Shared emotional attachment Tangible assistance Long-term relationships Traditional African American Family Values:  Traditional African American Family Values Churches and elders play an important role in the socialization of children Egalitarian relationships within the household Collective identification Emotive (emotional expressiveness through words, tone, body language) Traditional African American Family Values:  Traditional African American Family Values Many sociologists believe that traditional African American values have been distorted by the social forces on their communities. In fact, many believe that African American systems can only be understood in relationship to their exposure to and interaction with prejudice and discrimination. Traditional African American Family Values:  Traditional African American Family Values How might traditional African American family values be viewed with middle-class, Caucasian United States? Traditional Middle-Eastern Family Values:  Traditional Middle-Eastern Family Values Spirit of entrepreneurship. Many Arab-Americans own their own businesses. High value placed on educational attainment. Respect for authority, especially based on professional status. Traditional Middle-Eastern Family Values:  Traditional Middle-Eastern Family Values High value on family support. The family is the main social and survival unit. Many Arab-Americans have multiple generations of families working in a family-owned business. Close family relationships, living near each other and spending much of their time together. Support of extended family members. Traditional Middle-Eastern Family Values:  Traditional Middle-Eastern Family Values Value children. Collectivism. The needs of the family and community come before the needs and goals of the individual. Modesty, morality and honor. (Many countries base the honor of the family on the conduct of the females in the family.) Hospitality to guest. Traditional Euro-American Family Values:  Traditional Euro-American Family Values Emphasis on planning for the future Future-oriented Traditional Euro-American Family Values:  Traditional Euro-American Family Values Children are expected to develop autonomy and separation from parents as they get older. Emphasis on independence and individuality Emphasis on competitiveness and “getting ahead” Traditional Euro-American Family Values:  Traditional Euro-American Family Values Importance of accumulation of money and materials Social status is important Traditional Euro-American Family Values:  Traditional Euro-American Family Values How might ethnic minorities view traditional Euro-American family values? What to do?:  What to do? The National Extension Parenting Educators’ Framework (NEPEF) outlines the critical skills and practices of parenting educators. (visit NEPEF online at http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/NEPEF/ Process five is EMBRACE. EMBRACE:  EMBRACE Embrace means recognizing, respecting, and responding to ethnic and cultural diversity, different family forms, and multiple environmental contexts of families raising children. Embrace means reaching out to parents and caregivers who differ in preferred communication and learning approaches, sexual orientation, English language proficiency, access to basic resources, and levels of literacy. How to EMBRACE:  How to EMBRACE Locate, customize or create programs that fit family values, strengths and needs. Support diversity by recruiting parent leadership for programs and consulting with a diverse group of parents about the relevance and appropriateness of materials and activities. How to EMBRACE:  How to EMBRACE Consider the relationship between the parent educator’s identity and that of participants, minimizing power differences, cultivating connections and relationships within and across cultural characteristics. How to EMBRACE:  How to EMBRACE Include discussions and celebrations that honor the pertinent cultural or family history, spiritual or secular values, communication styles, and current challenges of all participating groups. How to EMBRACE:  How to EMBRACE Facilitate access to family support and social services that are culturally appropriate for families who need and want them. How to EMBRACE:  How to EMBRACE Make programs accessible to different groups by adapting schedules, forms or locations for different groups. Know yourself:  Know yourself What are your stereotypes? What are your preconceived ideas? How much of your cultural and ethnic identity shapes your work with families? Is your “right way” everyone’s “right way?” Know your audience:  Know your audience ASK, ASK, ASK. LISTEN, LISTEN, LISTEN. Understand ethnicity as ONE characteristic that makes up a family, but not as THE FAMILY themselves.

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