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Published on December 28, 2007

Author: parker


ROLE OF INDIGENOUS CATTLE GENETIC RESOURCES IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND LIVELIHOOD SECURITY IN KENYA:  ROLE OF INDIGENOUS CATTLE GENETIC RESOURCES IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND LIVELIHOOD SECURITY IN KENYA Cleopas Okore Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development Kenya E-mail: This presentation will probably involve audience discussion, which will create action items. Use PowerPoint to keep track of these action items during your presentation In Slide Show, click on the right mouse button Select “Meeting Minder” Select the “Action Items” tab Type in action items as they come up Click OK to dismiss this box This will automatically create an Action Item slide at the end of your presentation with your points entered. Introduction :  Introduction General statistics about Kenya Area of the Country 586,000 Sq. Km Area under cultivation 8 Mill. Ha Rangeland for grazing 30 Mill. Ha National Parks 2 Mill. Ha Forests 1Mill. Ha Human Population 35 Mill. Cont.:  Cont. Diversified topographic conditions -Mt Kenya (5199m asl) -Coastal Strip (100 m asl) Within this diversity climatic conditions vary -Arid and Semi-Arid -The wet highlands Cont.:  Cont. Different livestock species have evolved over time They have become adapted to ecological conditions of their habitat Smallholder farmers and pastoralists keep several livestock species on their farm Some communities are turning to the emerging livestock e.g crocodiles, guinea fowls, quails etc Contribution of Livestock In ASALs Of Kenya:  Contribution of Livestock In ASALs Of Kenya Over 80% of the country is ASAL Over 13 Million people (36%) live in ASAL Own 50% of the national livestock population Pastoral livelihoods make major contributions to national economic activities Estimated Cattle Population in Kenya:  Estimated Cattle Population in Kenya Distribution of Indigenous Cattle:  Distribution of Indigenous Cattle Kenya’s Indigenous Cattle GR:  Kenya’s Indigenous Cattle GR In Kenya the indigenous zebu cattle belong to the Small East Africa Short-horn zebu cattle characterised by a well developed hump in the cervico-thoracic position. The Boran has been derived from the large zebu and they are found in the drier parts of Eastern and North Eastern provinces Characteristics IC:  Characteristics IC Drought tolerance Resistance to most diseases - Orma boran resistant to Trypanosomosis Hardy (can walk long distances) Utilise rough pasture Production Systems:  Production Systems Smallholder mixed farming systems in high and medium potential areas Communal pastoral systems in semi-arid and arid areas Individual or group ranches Smallholder farmers and communal pastoralists keep a diversity of livestock species to minimise risks in case there is a disease outbreak or severe drought Values of IC :  Values of IC Economic Values Mainly kept for subsistence Food production - Improved nutrition Source of income Employment (indirectly) - Transport/trekking of animals Cont.:  Cont. Inputs for crop production - Manure - Draught Social and cultural relationships - Dowry - Gifts - Funerals Poverty Alleviation Indigenous Cattle products – (2006):  Indigenous Cattle products – (2006) Threat to livestock species:  Threat to livestock species Population pressure on land has led to limited forage and livestock keeping Stiff competition with more productive breeds being introduced from other countries. Insecurity and cattle rustling Role of Indigenous cattle GR in Organic Agriculture:  Role of Indigenous cattle GR in Organic Agriculture Organic farming produce is becoming increasingly popular among consumers worldwide. Organic cop farming is more developed than in livestock in Kenya. Livestock Organic farming is mainly in dairy and poultry both being exotic AnGR Cont.:  Cont. However, in some indigenous livestock production systems they practice - Natural grazing - Management of parasites and diseases in a natural way - Natural Breeding - Proper handling Cont.:  Cont. These factors make it easy to convert these production systems into organic farming – the opportunity is great Organic Resource Management:  Organic Resource Management Derive organic resources from their farms Different by-products produced from different farm enterprises These by- products are important resources and if well processed result in much more efficient nutrient re-cycling and livestock crop interaction Slide20:  Farmers must mobilise labour and knowledge required to collect, transport, process, store and apply the resources on the farm Case Study (Smallholder Farmer):  Case Study (Smallholder Farmer) Farm size 1.5 Ha Mixed enterprise agriculture Dairy, Poultry, Crop Production and Agro- Forestry, Small Scale milk processing. Farmer has established dairy and poultry units, grows vegetables, fodder, maize, bananas and trees. Slide22:  Dairy and poultry generate useful organic wastes and income Integrates cop production and agro-forestry in order to utilise wastes arising from dairy and poultry enterprise as useful inputs. Chicken waste – Feed cattle, cow dung for fuel for heating – vegetables, milk eggs and broilers are sold to generate income. Opportunities for organic farming in indigenous cattle:  Opportunities for organic farming in indigenous cattle The main Meat processing facility in the country has been advertising for ‘organic beef’ - Non use of anabolic steroids - Non use Antibiotics - Only normal vaccinations Demand is already growing for organic Beef, Milk, Butter etc in the local market. Way Forward (Organic farming):  Way Forward (Organic farming) The East African Organic Standard is being developed (Final Draft) Need to create awareness amongst the livestock keepers on the importance of organically bred livestock There is need for certification of these livestock keepers so that they follow the set standards Slide26:  Thank you

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