Rogers

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Information about Rogers

Published on February 27, 2014

Author: FranBangor

Source: slideshare.net

Self-actualisation An individual‟s „ideal self‟ takes into account how the individual would like to be. This is congruent with their actual behaviour, Carl Rogers indicates this is „self-image‟. If our actualisation is limited it may result in psychological problems. According to Rogers „the organism has one basic tendency and striving to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism‟ (Rogers, 1951, p.487). Carl Rogers believed that an individual‟s potential depends on their personality traits. However this concept doesn‟t take into account the deterministic nature of psychoanalysis as Rogers claimed that only the individual can know and perceive themselves better than those observing. An individual who achieves actualisation is referred to as a fully functioning person. Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Fully functioning person: 1. Open to experience – Billy auditions and is accepted into the Royal Ballet school regardless of the negative stigma. 1. Existential living – Billy does not prejudge what is about to happen, he is living in the moment, the here and now. Ryan Thompson, Ellie Scholes-Lawrence, Rhiannon Hawkes, Katy Gibson, Louisa Allemann and Younes Guerroumi 1. Trust feeling – Billy trusts that his choice to participate in ballet is the right choice for him. 1. Creativity – Ballet is a new experience and a potential risk if it does not work out. 1. Fulfilled life – Billy is now happy and satisfied with his life and has the challenge of performing in Swan Lake. Incongruent Case study – Society/Billy Elliot Billy Elliot lives in County Durham, northeastern England with his father, Jackie, older brother, Tony and Nan. Billy is 11 years old and lost his mother when he was younger. Although money is scarce, Jackie is able to pay for Billy to go to the gym and have boxing lessons. Billy does not enjoy boxing, however regularly attends as this is what his father wants him to do. Jackie is a tough man and participates in violent strikes; Jackie and Tony hold traditional values regarding class and gender roles. Billy starts staying behind after boxing to attend ballet lessons, this is not known by his father. Billy even practices in the bathroom where he cannot be seen by anyone, as he knows that both his brother and father would disapprove, as they both partake in masculine sports and see ballet as a feminine sport. The dream of becoming a professional ballet dancer and the confounding need to be accepted by his family confuses Billy. Jackie finds out that Billy has been secretly taking ballet lessons and forbids him from doing it again. Failing to listen to his father, Billy carries on with the dancing. Mrs. Wilkinson attempts to persuade his father to allow Billy to perform and study at the Royal Ballet School in London. After some time, Jackie allows Billy to audition, yet is still not convinced due to his lack of knowledge and life experience, he does not see London as a place of opportunity as there are no mines there. Billy misses the audition due to Tony striking and his subsequent arrest. Jackie secretly watches Billy dancing and notices how good he is, discovering he cannot prevent Billy from following his dream he will now do whatever he can to help him. Fourteen years later, Billy is happy and performing on stage with a lead role in Swan Lake. Jackie, Tony and Michael all watch and love him for what he has become. Idealself Congruent Selfimage Conditional positive regard I am worthy if I am boxing Selfimage Unconditional positive regard When a person is accepted and loved for who they are. This results in the person feeling free to try new things and make mistakes, even though this may lead to getting it worse at times. People who are able to self-actualise are more likely to have received unconditional positive regard from others, especially their parents in childhood. E.g. “You have done something bad but you are not a bad person. I still love you”. However, Rogers claimed that unconditional positive regard is rare because we mainly experience conditional positive regard. Conditional positive regard When a person learns that they are loved more when they behave in a way that others want them to. Hence the child is not loved for the person he or she is, but on condition that he or she behaves only in ways approved by the parent(s). At the extreme, a person who constantly seeks approval from other people is likely only to have experienced conditional positive regard as a child. Experiences of feelings that we have disappointed our parent‟s helps us learn how to get positive regard in the future – this is conditional positive regard. Conditions of worth The need for positive regard leads us to acquiring conditions of worth. These can prevent us from self-actualizing because we find ourselves doing things that we don‟t really want to do. E.g. Billy didn‟t really want to go boxing but his dad wanted him too so he did. Conditions of worth impact on our self concept because as children become socialised they develop a sense of who they are as people this can be problematic because we do things that keep us from meeting our real needs. The greater the conditions of worth associated with an individual‟s self-concept, the less psychologically healthy they are according to Rogers. Idealself Unconditional positive regard I am worthy no matter what Congruence and Incongruence Someone‟s ideal self may not be the same as the actual life and experiences of the person. Therefore there may be a difference in the ideal self and actual experience of the person. This is incongruence as the ideal self and self-image may occasionally be overlapped but usually it is not enough of an overlap. However when a person has their ideal self and actual experience being very similar then congruence occurs. Carl Rogers stated that to have both the self image and the ideal self crossing over then it means that the person is happy within their life and higher their sense of self-worth. We prefer to seen in a way that is consistent with our self-image so in order to feel less threatened by our considerably less desirable feelings. In the case of Billy Elliot, at the start and middle of the film, Billy is feeling incongruent as his love of dance is who he is but is not aloud to express this due to fearing his dad will get angry at him. However at the end of the film when his dad sees him performing his ideal self and self-image are more congruent so he is a happier person. Person –centered therapy The aim is to reduce the gap between the ideal self and self-concept so that the individual becomes more accepting of who they are. Individuals can rediscover their actualizing tendency and their true selves, rather than living up to the conditions of worth from others, we know ourselves better than anyone else – phenomology.

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