Roger Stough and Cheng

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Published on October 16, 2007

Author: Marigold

Source: authorstream.com

The Pattern and Magnitude of China’s Outward FDI in Asia :  The Pattern and Magnitude of China’s Outward FDI in Asia Shaoming Cheng Roger Stough ICRIER Project on Intra-Asian FDI Flows New Delhi, India April 25-26, 2007 Outline:  Outline Why China’s outward FDI? Theories on outward FDI from developing countries History and development of China’s outward FDI Data sources and qualifications Characteristics and geographic distribution Pulling and pushing factors Conclusions Research Background:  Research Background China is known as: Tremendous amount of FDI inflows Top FDI destination in the world Global manufacturing hub But, China has not been recognized as an important FDI exporting country By 2004, $15B cumulative outward FDI in 150 countries In 2005 alone, $11B outward FDI Theories:  Theories Lecraw (1977): labor-intensive tech Wells (1983): different sources for OLI advantages Lall (1983) and Tolentino (1993): cultural similarity Dunning (1981, 1986): investment development path Asset-seeking FDI: Cantwell, 1989; Dunning, 1998; Porter, 1990, 1998; Wesson, 1993 History and Development:  History and Development Political opposition and emergence of China’s outward FDI Ideological bias Small scale of FDI Political acceptance and early boom Part of “economic reform” Political enthusiasm and rapid expansion “going abroad” strategy Data Sources:  Data Sources State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE) “Balance of payments” financial data Aggregated Ministry of Commence (MOFCOM) Approved overseas investment Disaggregated by country and industry Focus on MOFCOM data Data Qualifications:  Data Qualifications Approval is required or not Approval vs. execution (when, how much…) Initial approval vs. reinvested earnings Non-trade FDI only Imposed FDI patterns through the approval process Unauthorized and illegal capital outflows HK and Macau as “foreign” destinations Characteristics:  Characteristics Rapid growth, particularly after the “going abroad” strategy in 2001 Lack of correlation between China’s FDI outflows and GDP growth Lack of correlation between China’s FDI outflows and FDI inflows FDI and GDP:  FDI and GDP FDI Outflows and Inflows:  FDI Outflows and Inflows Geographic Distribution:  Geographic Distribution Geographic Distribution (Cont.):  Geographic Distribution (Cont.) Geographic Distribution in Asia:  Geographic Distribution in Asia Average Project Scale:  Average Project Scale Average Project Scale in Asia:  Average Project Scale in Asia Pulling Factors:  Pulling Factors Resource-acquiring FDI Natural resources and energy ASEAN countries Market-expanding and efficiency-improving FDI Intertwined and complemented Avoid trade barriers ASEAN countries Asset-seeking FDI Local innovation capabilities Korea Pushing Factors:  Pushing Factors Increasing domestic competition, excess production capacity and sliding profit margins Abundant foreign exchange reserves Huge and still rising demands for natural resources Chinese governments’ determination and associated “going abroad” policy and financial support Conclusions:  Conclusions Tremendous growth Concentration in Asia Increasing role of Korea and Southeast Asian countries Strong pulling and pushing factors Continued outward FDI growth China emerges as a large FDI sourcing country

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