Rocks & the Rock Cycle

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Information about Rocks & the Rock Cycle
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Published on December 5, 2008

Author: rotolop

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ROCKS & THE ROCK CYCLE : ROCKS & THE ROCK CYCLE 1. ROCK CYCLE 2. IGNEOUS ROCK 3. SEDIMENTARY ROCK 4. METAMORPHIC ROCK CHEMISTRY 101 : CHEMISTRY 101 ELEMENT: A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means ROCKS 101 : ROCKS 101 Mineral: Solid, natural, inorganic substance with definite chemical properties 1. ROCK CYCLE : 1. ROCK CYCLE The surface of the Earth is made of rock ROCK is a collection of one or more minerals, mixed together into a solid substance Rock Cycle : Rock Cycle The Series of processes in which rock forms and changes from one type to another by geological processes. PROPERTIES OF ROCKS : PROPERTIES OF ROCKS BOWEN’S REACTION SERIES: The pattern that shows how minerals form crystals when they cool based on their chemical make-up and melting point EARTH’S ROCKS : EARTH’S ROCKS THREE BASIC ROCK TYPES A. IGNEOUS: GREEK for “Made from Fire”. Igneous rocks are melted minerals that cool to form solid substances. Most igneous rocks are crystalline (made of crystals). IGNEOUS ROCK : IGNEOUS ROCK FORMATION OF MAGMA Three things affect whether a rock will melt 1. Temperature: is it hot enough? 2. Pressure: Is there too much pressure for the rock to melt? 3. Fluids: Are fluids present in the rock? TEMPERATURE : TEMPERATURE Different rocks melt at different temperatures. The melting temperature is determined by the chemical composition of the rock. Ie: Sodium in a rock means it will melt at a lower temperature than one with Calcium. PRESSURE : PRESSURE Any substance that is under pressure will not melt as easily as one that has no pressure upon it. Molecules in the substance are held together in the solid state by the pressure and are unable to flow like a liquid. LIQUIDS : LIQUIDS When a liquid is present there is room for expansion so the molecules of heated rock can spread apart and flow like a liquid. PARTIAL MELTING: Since different minerals melt at different temperatures, rock melts in pockets and its chemical composition changes as the substances melt out. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION: Different minerals solidify at different times and magma changes as those minerals solidify out. TEXTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCK : TEXTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCK COARSE GRAINED Crystals are obvious and can be seen with the naked eye TEXTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCK : TEXTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCK FINE GRAINED Crystals are present but they are too small to be seen with the naked eye COMPOSITION OF IGNEOUS ROCKS : COMPOSITION OF IGNEOUS ROCKS FELSIC: High concentrations of SILICA. Light in color, Light in density. Can contain trapped gasses. Associated with explosive volcanic eruptions. MAFIC: High concentrations of Iron & Magnesium. Dark in color. Heavier in density. Gasses are not usually present. Associated with non-explosive eruptions FELSIC & MAFIC ROCKS : FELSIC & MAFIC ROCKS WHERE DO THEY FORM? : WHERE DO THEY FORM? INTRUSIVE: Formed inside the Earth A. Batholith: “Deep Rock” Largest underground formation. (Think Bathtub) may form the core of a mountain B. Stock: Smaller more vertical intrusion Batholith, Laccolith, Stock, Sill, Dike : Batholith, Laccolith, Stock, Sill, Dike INTRUSIVE FORMATIONS : INTRUSIVE FORMATIONS C. Laccolith: “Lake of Rock” Push domes upward on the surface. D. Sill: Horizontal intrusion pushed between layers of rock E. Dikes: Flows through cracks, cuts across layers of rock EXTRUSIVE FORMATIONS : EXTRUSIVE FORMATIONS Formed outside of the Earth A. Volcano: A vent through which magma can reach the surface. B. Lava Flow: Flat masses of hardened lava. C. Lava Plateau: Series of flows that cover vast areas of land. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS : SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Rocks made from particles of minerals that have been forced together by various means. HOW THEY FORM : HOW THEY FORM TWO PROCESSES Compaction: Sediment is squeezed by layers above Cementation: Sediment is “glued” together by liquified minerals 3 TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK : 3 TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK CHEMICAL: Forms when mineral solutions evaporate leaving behind mineral “glue” HALITE (Rock Salt) 3 TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK : 3 TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK Marble Coral ORGANIC: Forms from the remains of living creatures that have been compacted together. 3 TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK : 3 TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK CLASTIC: Formed when particles of rock are compacted or cemented together TRANSPORTING SEDIMENTS : TRANSPORTING SEDIMENTS Sediments are transported by four basic agents A. ICE B. WATER C. WIND D. GRAVITY CHARACTERISTICS : CHARACTERISTICS Sorting: The apparent arrangement of sediments according to size. A. Well sorted: Most particles are about the same size. B. Poorly sorted: Particles are of different sizes mixed together. CHARACTERISTICS : CHARACTERISTICS ANGULARITY: Sediments are initially jagged and rough. As they are transported further from their source, they tend to become more rounded and smooth. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS : DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS WHERE DO SEDIMENTS FORM? A. RIVERS B. DELTAS C. BEACHES D. OCEANS Each area creates a specific structure through which they can be identified FEATURES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK : FEATURES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK STRATIFICATION: Layering of sediments in “beds” CROSS BEDS & GRADED BEDDING Cross beds are slanted layers that often form in sand dunes and rivers Graded bedding is where different sized materials are deposited in stratified layers Slide 31: RIPPLE MARKS: Left behind by the actions of wind or streams MUD CRACKS: From a dried lake bed Slide 32: FOSSILS: The imprints of the remains of ancient life CONCRETIONS: Nodes of different rock trapped inside a sedimentary deposit 7 FORMATIONS : 7 FORMATIONS Stratification Cross Beds Graded Bedding Ripple Marks Mud Cracks Fossils Concretions Slide 34: Section 3 Choose the correct response by selecting the appropriate button. Rocks Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Terms of Use 1. Space being squeezed out of mud is an example of Erosion Weathering Compaction Cementation 2. Which of the following rocks is a sedimentary rock that formed from the remains of marine organisms? garnet schist shale organic limestone rock salt 3. Which of the following objects is an example of a rock that was composed from the shells of tiny, one-celled marine organisms? coral fossils breccia chalk 4. Conglomerate and shale are examples of ____________ sedimentary rock. clastic organic chemical fossiliferous 5. What is the most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock? stratification fissures felsic layers effects of heat and pressure 6. ____________ is the layering of sedimentary rock. Erosion Deposition Stratification Fossilization 7. Sedimentary rocks can become a record of Earth's history through ripple marks that are made by a flowing stream and are preserved when the sediments left behind become rock. clam shells that collect on the ocean floor and eventually become rock. the Colorado River, which carves through layers of rock over millions of years and reveals strata. All of the above 8. ____________ occur when different sizes and shapes of sediment are deposited within one layer. Massive beds Cross-beds Graded bedding Ripple marks

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