robson reusability guidelines

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Published on June 20, 2007

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Reusability Guidelines for Authors, Designers and Repositories:  Reusability Guidelines for Authors, Designers and Repositories Robby Robson Eduworks Corporation This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs-NonCommercial License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd-nc/1.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. Learning Goals:  Learning Goals Recognize andamp; Analyze Factors that affect the reusability Apply Design techniques Interoperability standards Reusability guidelines Appreciate Policy issues Technical issues No more ADDIE, We’re cool with RAAA You’re Invited …:  You’re Invited … Submit 1-2 sentence reuse scenarios Example: I am giving a PowerPoint presentation next week and will tweak my old slides. These all seem pretty simple, but .. More Examples:  More Examples Example: An applet simulates a supermarket cash register. Our new espresso stand division wants to use it in their training. Example: My students want to use stuff from NASA for a class Web site on Mars. Example: I am creating a directory of learning objects for my department (academic or corporate). What do I need to think about? Meanwhile … let’s talk about reuse:  Meanwhile … let’s talk about reuse Adoption: 'as is' Requires Access Rights Adaptation: with modification Requires: Ability to modify Rights to modify Structure that can be modified Reuse andamp; Repurposing: Using the same content in different settings and different contexts. The Value of Reuse:  The Value of Reuse Authors / Designers Adapt content Re-publish content Instructors / Learners Adopt content Instructors may adapt The IQ of reuse Larger audience More ROI Justifies more I Leads to more Q I knew there was a use for reuse! The Spectrum of Granularity:  The Spectrum of Granularity *From work of Robert Horn **With Slight Modifications Expectations of Reuse:  Expectations of Reuse Content Asset Information Object Learning Object Learning Component Learning Environment Adopt and put in another Context Adaptable andamp; Adoptable What You See is What You Use Use part or disaggregate Adaptation – not at content level Granularity (or Aggregation Level) Determines How a Resource is Reused. Scenario Discussion / New Poll:  Scenario Discussion / New Poll What are the biggest barriers to reuse? Technology Presentation Audience Instructional Design Rights and permissions Framework for Reuse:  Framework for Reuse Granularity (or aggregation level) Content Asset Information Object Learning Object Learning Component Interoperability Technical Standards Layers Context Pedagogy Structure Content Presentation Rights Copyright and Terms of Use Attribution Modifiability Will there be a quiz summative assessment on this? ------ Interoperability:  Interoperability Extent to which a digital learning resource will 'plug and play' on different platforms. Ease with which two software components (or systems) can exchange and correctly interpret each others’ data. Approaches to Interoperability:  Approaches to Interoperability 'Real' Standards* Meters, HTML, 802.11b, SCORM . . . Dominant Products / Industry Standards PPT, PDF, FLASH . . . Least Common Denominator I bet he never met an acronym he didn’t like! *See http://www.reusablelearning.org/index.asp?id=77 and http://www.masie.com/standards/S3_Guide.pdf Interoperability for Assets:  Interoperability for Assets Text / pure HTML are standardized formats HTML usually not standards conformant XHTML is an improvement Stick to common formats and tools Java™ – maybe, maybe not Plug-ins can be a problem IMS Question andamp; Test Interoperability format (QTI) for assessments Interoperability for Learning Objects:  Interoperability for Learning Objects SCORM, AICC, IMS XML When it comes to authoring tools, Dr. Interop says 'It’s the output, stupid!' For tracking, need LMS, LCMS, Course Management System, … I warned you about the acronyms! Standards & Reusability:  Standards andamp; Reusability Content Assets | …… | Learning Objects | …… |Learning Environments Lower Higher Reusability in a Learning Context Learning Authoring BUT …:  BUT … To Interoperate is human To design is divine Learning Resources Have Layers:  Learning Resources Have Layers Context & Reusability:  Context andamp; Reusability Isolate or eliminate: Culture dependencies Cross-references Design for disaggregation Include metadata Context is the friend of learning and the enemy of reuse Layers Should be “Separated”:  Layers Should be 'Separated' Less Reusable Embedded previous and next buttons Referring to a classroom throughout a resource Using Elementary School Styles More Reusable External Sequencing andamp; Navigation Isolating components that require specific educational settings Addressing as wide an audience as possible Slide20:  Importance of Layers :  Importance of Layers Content Assets Context Pedagogy Structure Content Presentation Information Objects Learning Objects Learning Components Learning Environments Context Pedagogy Structure Content Presentation Context Pedagogy Structure Content Presentation Context Pedagogy Structure Content Presentation Context Pedagogy Structure Content Presentation Rights & Modifiability:  Rights andamp; Modifiability Rights Copyright andamp; Terms of Use Attribution Modifiability Modifiability Rights and ability to modify For Adaptation Source needed Perspectives on rights Author, Developer, Copyright Owner Collection / Intranet Reuser Reusable Design Guidelines:  Reusable Design Guidelines Version 1.0 – academic Modeled after W3C Web Accessibility Initiative Instructions Go to site http://www.reusablelearning.org/guidelines Study Together Return Here Guideline Summary:  Guideline Summary Grant Permissions (Licenses / Access) Design for a Diverse Audience (Context) Create Self-Contained Learning Experiences (Learning Objects) Provide Metadata and Documentation Separate Presentation, Content and Navigation (XML) Make Modifications Possible (Source Code) Use Standard Formats (Standards) Applying the guidelines to …:  Applying the guidelines to … Vote for a site! Jules Verne Jr. (exploring our planet) Hearing Conservation (Environmental Safety andamp; Health). PowerPoint 2000: Introduction: Working with ClipArt, Tables, and WordArt The Josephus Problem (A math problem) We don’t need no education. We don’t need no thought control. Instructions:  Instructions Look at site together Come back here Discuss reusability Can I reuse these instructions? Did the Site meet Guidelines?:  Did the Site meet Guidelines? Probably Probably not No opinion I’m still playing with the Pink Floyd stuff Feel free to make comments Guideline Summary (Reused):  Guideline Summary (Reused) Grant Permissions (Licenses / Access) Design for a Diverse Audience (Context) Create Self-Contained Learning Experiences (Learning Objects) Provide Metadata and Documentation Separate Presentation, Content and Navigation (XML) Make Modifications Possible (Source Code) Use Standard Formats (Standards) Policy Issues for “Collections”:  Policy Issues for 'Collections' Ensuring content interoperability Requiring content to meet guidelines Education andamp; Training of users Managing rights Providing access to source content Questions and Answers?:  Questions and Answers? Is it really called SumTotal? Does SCORM 2004 come with passenger side air bags? Do I need to go through an elearning apprenticeship to join the elearning guild? Did she say 'refusable learning object?' Is that like 'just say know?' rrobson@eduworks.com

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