ROBOTICs1

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Published on October 1, 2014

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Robotics: Robotics PHIL LOMBOY Historical Overview of Robot Development: Historical Overview of Robot Development 1801 Joseph Jacquerd invents a textile machine that is operated by punch cards 1892 In the US Seward Babbit designed motorized crane with gripper to remove ingots from a furnace Historical Overview of Robot Development: 1921 First reference to the word robot appears in a play opening in London entitled “ Rossums Universal Robots”. The play was written by Czechoslovakian Karel Capek introduces the word robot from the Czeck robota meaning serf or subservient labor 1939 Isaac Asimovs science fiction writing introduces robots designed for humanity and work safely. He formulates the “Three Laws of Robotics” Historical Overview of Robot Development Historical Overview of Robot Development: 1921 First reference to the word robot appears in a play opening in London entitled “ Rossums Universal Robots”. The play was written by Czechoslovakian Karel Capek introduces the word robot from the Czeck robota meaning serf or subservient labor 1939 Isaac Asimovs science fiction writing introduces robots designed for humanity and work safely. He formulates the “Three Laws of Robotics” Historical Overview of Robot Development Historical Overview of Robot Development: Historical Overview of Robot Development 1939 Isaac Asimovs science fiction writing introduces robots designed for humanity and work safely. He formulates the “Three Laws of Robotics” 1946 George David patents a general purpose playback device for controlling machines. Historical Overview of Robot Development: Historical Overview of Robot Development 1948 Norbert Wiener, a professor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT) publishes Cybernetics, a book that describes the concept of communications and control in electronic, mechanical and biological systems. 1951 A tele -operator equipped articulated arm is designed by Raymond Goertz for the Atomic Energy Commisison . Historical Overview of Robot Development: Historical Overview of Robot Development 1954 The first programmable robot is designed by George Devol who coined the term universal automation. Devol is joined by Joseph Engelberger in 1956 and shorten the name to Unimation and form the first successful robot manufacturing company. What is a Robot?: What is a Robot? A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move parts, materials, tools or special devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of different tasks. These multi-purpose machines are generally designed to carry out repetitive function and be adapted to other functions . “Three Laws of Robotics”, Asimov: “Three Laws of Robotics”, Asimov A Robot may not injure a human being,or through inaction,allow a human being to come to harm A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the first law. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the first and second law. Components of a robot: Components of a robot Communicator A unit transmitting information and receiving instructions from a remote operator Components of a robot: Components of a robot Control Computer/Controller (Brain) The central computer that integrates the activity of several microprocessors brain of the robot Components of a robot: Components of a robot End Effectors (Hands) Device at the end of the manipulator arm that performs the actual work. Gripper, hooks, scoops Components of a robot: Components of a robot Manipulator (Arm) Mechanism consisting of several segment or arms which provides the necessary motion to move the tool or part into proper position. Components of a robot: Components of a robot Power Supply Generally some energy storage device such as battery for a mobile unit otherwise hook up to the power grid. Components of a robot: Components of a robot Sensor (Eye) Usually a transducer of some kind whose inputs are physical phenomena and whose outputs consists of electronic signals. Components of a robot: Components of a robot Actuator Serves as the muscle of the system, produces the motion with power supplied electrically, pneumatically or hydraulics. Robot’s Drive Systems/Actuators: Robot’s Drive Systems/Actuators Pneumatic Drive Reserved for smaller robots which are limited to simple, fast cycle and pick and place operation. Have two to four degrees of freedom Quick response Lower initial and operating cost than a hydraulic system Accurate positioning and velocity control are impossible (requires mechanical stops) Weak force capability Robot’s Drive Systems/Actuators: Robot’s Drive Systems/Actuators Hydraulic Drive Used in larger robots Generally heavy and require large floor space and heavy floor loadings Great force capability Great holding strength when stopped (will not sag) Intrinsic safe in flammable environments such as paintings Accurate servo type positioning and velocity control can be achieved Messy-tends to leak oil even in the periods when the robot is not in motion High initial and operating costs Robot’s Drive Systems/Actuators: Robot’s Drive Systems/Actuators Electric Drive Good for robots in light duty, precision applications but does not offer the speed and strength of a hydraulic drive. Used in electronic assembly where precision is required Clean-no oil leaks Lower initial and operating cost compared as compared to hydraulic and pneumatic drive Less force capability as compared to hydraulic system Degrees of Freedom: Degrees of Freedom Refers to different axes of motion of robotic arm The movement about one axis is hardware independent of movement about any other axis. Degrees of Freedom: Degrees of Freedom Total number of locations P = 2 exp n where: P – number of possible locations n – degrees of freedom Degrees of Freedom: Degrees of Freedom Waist motion or Arm sweep Motion of the entire arm about the fixed base Shoulder or Vertical Motion Movement above the waist Degrees of Freedom: Degrees of Freedom Elbow extension Wrist Motion Pitch – up and down Yaw – side to side Roll - \rotation of the wrist about the axis of the forearm Robots Wrist Rotation: Robots Wrist Rotation Pitch Axis Describes the wrists rotational movement up and down Robots Wrist Rotation: Robots Wrist Rotation Yaw Axis Describes the wrist angular movement from the left side to the right side. Robots Wrist Rotation: Robots Wrist Rotation Roll Axis Describes the rotation around the end of the wrist. Robot’s Axes Control: Robot’s Axes Control Non-Servo Control Movement of the robots axes is stopped by a hard mechanical stop placed in the travel path Non-self correcting and not-self regulating Robot’s Axes Control: Robot’s Axes Control Servo Control The servo control allows the mechanics of the robot to communicate with the electronics of the controller Equipped with the feedback sensors so that the controllers knows the exact position of the end effector at all times Self correcting and self regulating CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According to Control Fixed/Variable Sequence Pick and place robots Point to point movement CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According to Control Playback Robot Robots that memorizes and records the path and sequence of motions and can repeat them continuously without the guidance from the operator. CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According to Control Numerically Controlled Robot Programmed and operated much like a numerically controlled machine. Numerically Controlled Robot Servo-controlled by digital data CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According to Control Intelligent (Sensory) Robot Equipped with a variety of sensors with visual and tactile capabilities. Controlled by powerful computers Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry: Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry Work Envelope refers to the space with which the robot can use its wrist. Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry: Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry Cartesian Coordinates uses three perpendicular slides to construct the X,Y and the Z axes Rectangular work space or work envelope. Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry: Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry Cylindrical Coordinates Cylindrical configurations uses a vertical column and a slide that moves up and down the column The work space is approximately a cylinder Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry: Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry Polar Coordinates Uses a telescoping arm that can be lowered or raised about a horizontal pivot which is mounted on a rotating base. Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry: Robots Manipulator Arm Geometry Articulate Coordinates This configuration consists of two straight components mounted on a vertical pedestal. A rotary joint connects one of the straight components to the pedestal while another joins the straight components. A wrist is attached to the end of the straight component and provides several additional joints. CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According to Movement Rectilinear / Cartesian Works with Cartesian manipulator arm geometry Movement is three directions only up/down, left/right, front/back. CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According to Movement Cylindrical Robot Robot whose work envelope is cylindrical Robot’s arm swings around its base in circular or polar motion. (up and down, front end) CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According to Movement Spherical Robot Robot whose work envelope is spherical in shape and obviously is has spherical manipulator arm geometry. With polar articulation for waist and shoulder and rectilinear motion for reach. The base moves in circular motion (up to 210 degrees) while its main arm moves up and down and in and out (extension and retraction) CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According to Movement Spherical Robot CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According to Movement Fully Articulated Robot CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According to Movement Fully Articulated Robot Robot with polar articulation for all degrees of movement One example is the SCARA (Selective Compliance Assembly Robotic Arm) which has six axes therefore increases its degrees of freedom. Used in welding, painting, laser cutting and water jet cutting. CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According To Program Used Positive Stop Produces only 2 position motion Limited sequence or Bang – bang motion CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According To Program Used Point to Point Ability to move a robot axis to any position within its range CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS: CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS According To Program Used Continuous Path Like point to point Destination points are very closed together.   SELECTION OF ROBOTS: SELECTION OF ROBOTS Work Volume Speed and acceleration Repeatability Resolution Accuracy Economics Safety   MODERN USES OF ROBOTS: MODERN USES OF ROBOTS Exploration Full of danger or deep ocean Industry Repetitive Work Medicine Operation (making medicines) Military and Police Bomb disposal, spying, entering enemy bases Entertainment   SCARA ROBOT: SCARA ROBOT Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Arm Assembly 4-axis robot with rotating elements that move in a single plane. Similar to a shoulder-elbow-wrist combination movement with the addition of an up-down component SCARA ROBOT: SCARA ROBOT Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm Applications Assembly Packaging Sorting Screw driving QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 111. A user-program that has the ability to move a robot axis to any position within its range Pick-to-place Point-to-point Positive stop Continuous stop QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 112. It is a robot which is capable of decision making and has memory Pick and place manipulator Voltes V Intelligent Robot Roborat QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 113.The total weight that a robot arm can carry Burden Capacity Payload Gripper Power QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 114. It is considered as the robot’s hand Chain Knuckle Sensor End Effector Chip QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 115. One advantage of hydraulic actuator type of an industrial robot is_____ Intrinsically safe in flammable environment such as painting Clean no oil leaks Lowest Operating Cost Lowest Initial Cost QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 116. The ______ are two of the most common mechanical configurations of industrial robots Spherical and pneumatic Articulated arm and cylindrical Spherical and hydraulic Jointed-arm and electric QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 117. _____includes two of the actuator types used in industrial robots Pneumatic and Jointed-arm Hydraulic and Pneumatic Electric and Spherical Hydraulic and Cylindrical QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 118. What is the reason why pneumatic robot actuators have lesser capabilities than electric or hydraulic robot actuators? It has quick response It always has all or nothing motion It has low initial cost It has high initial cost QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 119. It is considered as the robot’s eye Chain Knuckle Sensor End Effector Chip QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 120. It is considered as the Robot’s brain Chain Knuckle Sensor End Effector Controller QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 121. A movement of the wrist of the robot pivoting around the vertical axis running from top to bottom Yaw Roll Pitch Slide QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 122. A robot that has the approximate appearance of a human being Android Cyborg Nemic Inhumanoid QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 123. A short term meaning a human being with artificial limbs or organs Android Cyborg Nemic Inhumanoid QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 124. The operational basis for a machine, computer or mechanism to perform some function normally associated with human intelligence Intelligence Artificial Intelligence Knowledge Heuristics QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 125. A robot that performs tasks in the home Household robot Robomaid Domestic robot Buddy robot QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 126. A program written by Joseph Weizenbaun to meet Turing’s definition of artificial intelligence MACBETH ELIZA AMJ PARALLAX QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 127. The desirable characteristic for handling the robots are Good pay load capacity Large work space/robot size ration Simple point to point control All of the above QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 128. SCARA robots are specifically designed for _________ operations Handling Welding Assembly Machining QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 129. Robot classification is usually based on Its manipulating anatomy Its controller design Its suitable for production tasks All of the above QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 130. Which of the following country maintains the highest ratio of robot worker to human worker? USA UK Japan Germany QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 131. A modern industrial robot is _______ multi-functional Servo-controlled Programmable Has great degree of freedom All of the above QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 132. Any solid object has a maximum ______ degrees of freedom 3 4 5 6 QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 133. Programming of a continuous path robot is normally carried out by a method called _____ through Lead Drive Walk Run QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 134. The Essential features of a non-servo controlled robot is that It requires programming logic controller Each of its axis can move only between hardware stops It is small It is used for heavy loads QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 135. The word “Robot” was coined by Kondratieff Karel Capek Cyril Walter Kenward Phil Lomboy QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 136. ________ robot is primarily used for machining processes Cincinatti T3 DEA PRAMA ADEPT One Jolly 80 QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 137. Serves as the muscle of the system, produces the motion with power supplied electrically, pneumatically or hydraulically. Communicator Control Computer Actuator Manipulator QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 138. The arm assembly of the robot End effector Manipulator Actuator Controller QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 139. __________is a device connected to the wrist’s flange of the manipulator’s arm. It is used in many different situations in the production area End effector Manipulator Actuator Controller QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 140. Refers to the movement of the base of the robot Actuation Walk Travel Precission QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 141. What is the other name for the axes found on the manipulator? Appendage Cycle time Degrees of freedom Actuator QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 142. Describes the wrist’s angular movement from the left side to the right side Pitch Roll Rotation Yaw QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 143. It is a high level computer language developed by Robotronic Corporation to make commanding a personal robot easier. Androtext ARMBASIC AML HELP QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 144. It is considered as the Robot’s brain Chain knuckle Sensor End effector Controller QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 145. This is used to program and teach positional information for the manipulator Operator’s panel Computer control Manual data input panel Teach pendant QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 146. It is a robot software that produces only two position motion Pick and stop programs Point to point programs Continuous path program Positive stop programs QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 147. A user program that has ability to move a robot axis to any position within its range Pick and place Point to point Positive stop Continuous path QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 148. What are the basic categories of industrial robot? Fast and slow Mechanical and electrical Autobots and decepticons Pick and place manipulator and intelligent robot QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 149. It is a robot which is capable of decision making and has memory Pick and place Expert robot Continuous robot Intelligent robot QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 150. It is a robot structure wherein the body can pivot vertically and horizontally and the arm moves radially Polar structure Pivotal Cylindrical structure Roborat QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 151. The total weight that a robot arm can carry Burden capacity Payload Gripper Power QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 152. Which is not the usual power source that steers the arm of the robot? Thermionic Hydraulic Pneumatic Electric QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 152. The ______ are two of the most common mechanical configurations of industrial robots Spherical and pneumatic Articulated arm and cylindrical Spherical and hydraulic Jointed-arm and electric QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 153. A system in which the precise movement of a large load is controlled by a relatively weak signal Hydraulic Electro Synchro Servo QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 154. A limited robot sequence is______ pick and place Point to point Continuous path Robots QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 155. The first patent for an industrial robot was developed in 1954 by______ Asimov Maniko Devol Hitachi QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 156. The operational space of a robot is _____ Coordinate system Dead zone Degrees of freedom Work envelope QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 157. The individual sections of the robot arm between the joints are____ Arms Branches Links Axes QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 158. The control system for spot welding is .Point to point Pick and place Continuous path Point to multi-point QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 159. __________ is a type of actuator of industrial robots that has great force capability and great holding strength when stopped Pneumatic Steam Hydraulic Electric QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 160. ________ a professor at MIT publishes cybernetics, a book which describes the concept of communications and control in electronic, mechanical and biological systems. Williard Polard Seward Babbit John Mauchly Norber Wiener QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 161. Stanford Research Institute (SRI) built and tested a mobile robot with vision capability is called ____ Unimate Universal Automation Cybernetics Shakey QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 162. Riochard Hohn for Cincinnati Milacron Corporation develops the first commercially available minicomputer controlled industrial robot. The robot is called the” ______the Tomorrow Tool” T3 Universal Automation Versatran Shakey QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 163. Joseph Engelberger starts Transition Robotics, later named ______ to develop service robots. Helpmates Playmates Classmates Servicemates QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 164. The ability of a robot to produce meaningful speech output Speech Synthesis Speech Detection Speech Refinement Speech Recognition QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS 165. The length of time in years required for a robot to pay for itself through the savings it provides Propagation period Delay period Payload period Payback period THE END: THE END HAPPY REVIEW!! By:Mark Jolly R. Omadto

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