robo wk 4 controls

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Published on January 7, 2008

Author: BAWare

Source: authorstream.com

Robotics Sensors & Controllers :  Robotics Sensors & Controllers Sensors collect all the information a robot needs to operate and interact with its environment. What are sensors? What are Controllers? Controllers interpret all the input from the sensors and decide how to act in response. Robotics Sensors & Controllers:  Robotics Sensors & Controllers What are sensors for? The control of a manipulator or industrial robot is based on the correct interpretation of sensory information. This information can be obtained either internally to the robot (for example, joint positions and motor torque) or externally using a wide range of sensors. Robotics Sensors & Controllers:  Robotics Sensors & Controllers Since sensors are any device that provide input of data to the robot controller a wide verity of sensors exist. Some basic types of sensors are shown including: Light sensors which measure light intensity. Heat Sensors which measure temperature. Touch sensors which tell the robot when it bumps into something. Ultra Sonic Rangers which tell the robot how far away objects are. And gyroscopes which tell the robot which direction is up. Types of Sensors Robotics Sensors & controllers:  Robotics Sensors & controllers The bumper skirt on this robot is an example of a touch sensor. When the robot runs into a wall the bumper skirt hits a micro switch which lets the robot controller know that the robot is up against a wall. Other types of touch sensors are used internally to let the robot know when an arm is extended to far and it should be retracted or when the robots other physical limits are reached. Robotics Sensors & controllers:  Light sensors are used to detect the presence and Intensity of light. These can be used to make a light seeking robot and are often used to simulate insect intelligence in robots. Robotics Sensors & controllers Robotics Sensors & controllers:  Heat sensors help robots determine if they are in danger of overheating. These sensors are often used internally to make sure that the robot’s electronics do not breakdown. Robotics Sensors & controllers Robotics Sensors & controllers:  Ultra Sonic Rangers are used to determine how far a robot is away from an object. They are often used by robots that need to navigate complicated terrain and cannot risk bumping into anything. Robotics Sensors & controllers Robotics Sensors & controllers:  Gyroscopes are used in robots that need to maintain balance or are not inherently stable. Gyroscopes are often coupled with powerful robot controllers that have the processing power necessary calculate thousands of physical simulations per second. Robotics Sensors & controllers Robotics Sensors & controllers:  Use transistors as a switch to control power to motors, relays and lamps. Current and power handling capability is pretty much dictated by package size. The bigger the package, the more power. Transistors Robotics Sensors & controllers Robotics Sensors & controllers:  Basic Stamp II The Basic Stamp II is a small, self-contained computer controller manufactured by Parallax Inc. This easy-to-use system is programmed using a Basic-like language called PBasic. Programs are written on an IBM-style PC then downloaded to the Basic Stamp II for execution. Large libraries of programs can be created and saved. Controllers Robotics Sensors & controllers Robotics Sensors & controllers:  Tiny custom microchips like these give "vision" to a toy car by processing images and telling the vehicle how to respond. Controls Robotics Sensors & controllers Robotics Sensors & controllers:  Motion control is the process of computer controlled kinetics-- the foundation of robotics. CNC (computer numeric control) is an antiquated term for this process, recalling an era when programmers entered the numeric commands and coordinates for each machine move. Motion Control Robotics Sensors & controllers Robotics Glossary:  Robotics Glossary Au-ton-o-mous adj. Not controlled by others or by outside forces; independent: an autonomous judiciary; an autonomous division of a corporate conglomerate. Independent in mind or judgment; self-directed. Independent of the laws of another state or government; self-governing. Of or relating to a self-governing entity: an autonomous legislature. Self-governing with respect to local or internal affairs: an autonomous region of a country. Click here to return to Slide 10 Robotics Glossary:  android \An"droid\ ([a^]n"droid), A machine or automaton in the form of a human being. Possessing human features. n. An automaton that is created from biological materials and resembles a human being. Also called humanoid. Robotics Glossary Click here to return to Slide 4

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