Robert Rauschenburg

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Information about Robert Rauschenburg
Education

Published on September 22, 2008

Author: mjarry

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 1: Robert Rauschenberg Born Milton Ernest Rauschenberg in Port Arthur, Texas, in 1925. Began his formal art education following his discharge from the United. States Navy in 1945 He studied with former Bauhaus master Josef Albers At Black Mountain College, near Asheville, North Carolina. It was also there that he solidified friendships with the composer John Cage and the dancer/choreographer Merce Cunningham. Between 1949 and 1954, Rauschenberg introduced the mediums, materials, and motifs that have continued to occupy him. He worked in photography, made monoprints, and became involved in performance, participating in Cage's Theater Piece #1 in 1952. Early paintings, sculptures, and drawings already reflected what would become his long-standing commitment to extracting materials and images from his immediate environment Slide 2: Robert Rauschenberg, Untitled (Night Blooming series), ca. 1951. Oil, tarmac and gravel on canvas, 209,6 x 97,5 cm. Robert Rauschenberg White Painting (Three Panel) 1951 painting  oil on canvas 72 in. x 108 in. (182.88 cm x 274.32 cm) Slide 3: In his white and black paintings, Rauschenberg further explored the Abstract Expressionist mode but deviated from its pictorial purity with references beyond the canvas. Pebbles and dirt were impressed into the dark pigment of the Night Blooming paintings (1951); the uninflected White Paintings (1951) became screens for light and shadow, responding to the conditions around them; and newspaper collage formed the ground of the black paintings (1951-53). Robert Rauschenberg, Untitled (Night Blooming series), ca. 1951. Oil, tarmac and gravel on canvas, 209,6 x 97,5 cm. Robert Rauschenberg White Painting (Three Panel) 1951 painting  |  oil on canvas 72 in. x 108 in. (182.88 cm x 274.32 cm) Slide 4: For Rauschenberg there was a natural progression from the Red Paintings to Combines, as two-dimensional collage and eventually three-dimensional objects came to the fore. The celebrated Combines, which begun in the mid 1950s brought real-world images and objects into the realm of abstract painting and countered sanctioned divisions between painting and sculpture. These works established the Rauschenberg’s ongoing dialogue between mediums, between the handmade and the readymade, and between the gestural brush stroke and the mechanically reproduced image. Robert Rauschenberg, Untitled (Red Painting), ca. 1953. Oil, fabric, and newspaper on canvas, with wood, 79 x 33 1/8 inches. Slide 5: Bed1955Combine painting6'2" x 31 1/2" x 6 1/2" Slide 6: Bed1955Combine painting6'2" x 31 1/2" x 6 1/2" Bed is one of Rauschenberg's first Combines, his own term for his technique of attaching cast-off items. In this case he framed a well-worn pillow, sheet, and quilt, scribbled them with pencil, and splashed them with paint, in a style derived from Abstract Expressionism. In mocking the seriousness of that ambitious art, Rauschenberg predicted an attitude more widespread among later generations of artists—the Pop artists, for example, who also appreciated Rauschenberg's relish for everyday objects. "Painting relates to both art and life. . . . (I try to act in that gap between the two)." Although the materials here come from a bed, and are arranged like one, Rauschenberg has hung them on the wall, like a work of art. So the bed loses its function, but not its associations with sleep, dreams, illness, sex—the most intimate moments in life. Critics have also projected onto the fluid-drenched fabric connotations of violence and morbidity. Slide 7: RAUSCHENBERG, Monogram,1955-9, Freestanding combine42 x 64 x 64 1/2 in Slide 8: RAUSCHENBERG, Monogram,1955-9, Freestanding combine42 x 64 x 64 1/2 in One of Rauschenberg's first and most famous combines was entitled "Monogram" (1959) and consisted of an unlikely set of materials: - a stuffed angora goat, - a tire, - a police barrier, - the heel of a shoe, - a tennis ball, and paint. This pioneering altered the course of modern art. The idea of combining and of noticing combinations of objects and images has remained at the core of Rauschenberg's work. Slide 9: RAUSCHENBERG, Brace,1962Oil and silkscreen ink on canvas152.4 x 152.4 cm Slide 10: RAUSCHENBERG, Brace,1962Oil and silkscreen ink on canvas152.4 x 152.4 cm He coined the term "Combine" to differentiate these works of art from traditional painting; they were neither painting nor sculpture, but rather a mixture of the two. While the term Combine technically refers to works made between 1954 and 1962, Rauschenberg continued throughout his career to produce series of Combine-style works that deployed this strategy of radical collage and combination. This breakdown of traditional genres permitted another important aspect of Rauschenberg's work to flourish - the re-examination of high and low culture - the works marry the painterly gestures of fine art to everyday objects. Slide 11: Visitation II  1965Lithograph on paperimage: 765 x 564 mmon paper, print Slide 12: RAUSCHENBERG, RobertEstate1963Oil and silkscreen ink on canvas243 x 177 cm Slide 13: Almanac  1962Oil, acrylic and silkscreen on canvasframe: 2450 x 1535 x 25 mm support: 2469 x 1552 x 45 mmpainting Slide 14: Almanac  1962Oil, acrylic and silkscreen on canvasframe: 2450 x 1535 x 25 mm support: 2469 x 1552 x 45 mmpainting Rauschenberg began making silkscreen paintings in 1962. He would screenprint images from books and magazines, along with his own photographs, onto the canvas, then apply painterly brushstrokes reminiscent of Abstract Expressionism. His intention was 'to escape the familiarity of objects and collage'. Like all these works, Almanac has no specific meaning or narrative. The images are organised in a loose, poetic manner, creating an impression of visual flux that allows the viewer to free-associate. Slide 15: erased de kooning drawing, 1953 "the simultaneous unmaking of one work and the creation of another" Slide 16: erased de kooning drawing, 1953 "the simultaneous unmaking of one work and the creation of another" The drawing de Kooning selected was executed in heavy crayon, grease pencil, ink, and graphite. Rauschenberg spent a month on the work, erasing it completely. Then he placed the de Kooning drawing in a gold leaf frame and hand-lettered the date and title on the drawing: "Erased de Kooning Drawing, 1953". Rauschenberg had not only erased de Kooning's work, but he had also exhibited the "erasure" as his own work of art. Traces of ink and crayon remain on the paper. Slide 17: erased de kooning drawing, 1953 "the simultaneous unmaking of one work and the creation of another" In an interview with art critic Calvin Tomkins, Rauschenberg said: "I had been working for some time at erasing, with the idea that I wanted to create a work of art by that method. Not just by deleting certain lines, you understand, but by erasing the whole thing. Using my own work wasn't satisfactory . . . I realized that it had to be something by someone who everybody agreed was great, and the most logical person for that was de Kooning. . . . finally he gave me a drawing, and I took it home. It wasn't easy, by any means. The drawing was done with a hard line, and it was greasy too, so I had to work very hard on it, using every sort of eraser. But in the end it really worked. I liked the result. I felt it was a legitimate work of art, created by the technique of erasing." Slide 19: Portrait of Iris Clert Alternatively, in 1961, Rauschenberg took a step in what could be considered the opposite direction by championing the role of creator in creating art's meaning. Rauschenberg was invited to participate in an exhibition at the Galerie Iris Clerk, where artists were to create and display a portrait of the owner, Iris Clert. The project slipped Rauschenberg's mind until the day before the exhibition, so, in a panic, he sent a telegram to the gallery declaring "This is a portrait of Iris Clert if I say so." Slide 20: 1984Robert Rauschenberg (art director) for Speaking in Tongues performed by Talking Heads

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