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Published on January 2, 2008

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Computational Model of Water Movement in Plant Root Growth Zone:  Computational Model of Water Movement in Plant Root Growth Zone Brandy Wiegers University of California, Davis Angela Cheer Wendy Silk 2005 World Conference on Natural Resource Modeling June 17, 2005 http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/labs/plantanatomy.htm Research Motivation:  Research Motivation http://www.wral.com/News/1522544/detail.html http://www.mobot.org/jwcross/phytoremediation/graphics/Citizens_Guide4.gif Presentation Outline:  Presentation Outline Plant Biology Existing (Osmotic) Root Growth Model New (Internal Source) Model Future Work Presentation Outline:  Presentation Outline Plant Biology Existing (Osmotic) Root Growth Model New (Internal Source) Model Future Work Root Biology:  Root Biology http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/waterflow.gif http://www.resnet.wm.edu/~mcmath/bio205/ http://home.earthlink.net/~dayvdanls/root.gif Slide6:  Photos from Silk’s lab How do plant cells grow?:  How do plant cells grow? Expansive growth of plant cells is controlled principally by processes that loosen the wall and enable it to expand irreversibly (Cosgrove, 1993). http://www.troy.k12.ny.us/faculty/smithda/Media/Gen.%20Plant%20Cell%20Quiz.jpg What are the rules of plant root growth?:  What are the rules of plant root growth? Water must be brought into the cell to facilitate the growth (an external water source). The tough polymeric wall maintains the shape. Cells must shear to create the needed additional surface area. The growth process is irreversible http://sd67.bc.ca/teachers/northcote/biology12/G/G1TOG8.html Growth Variables:  Growth Variables g : growth velocity, mm/hr K : hydraulic conductivity, cm2/(s bar) L : relative elemental growth rate (REG) , 1/hr  : water potential, bar Silk and Wagner, 1980 Hydraulic Conductivity, K:  Hydraulic Conductivity, K Measure of ability of water to move through the plant Inversely proportional to the resistance of an individual cell to water influx Typical values: Kx ,Kz = 8 x 10-8 cm2s-1bar-1 Value for a plant depends on growth conditions and intensity of water flow Relative Elemental Growth Rate, L(z):  Relative Elemental Growth Rate, L(z) A measure of the spatial distribution of growth within the root organ. L(z) = ▼ · g Erickson and Silk, 1980 Water Potential, w:  Water Potential, w w gradient is the driving force in water movement. http://www.soils.umn.edu/academics/classes/soil2125/doc/s7chp3.htm Presentation Outline:  Presentation Outline Plant Biology Existing (Osmotic) Root Growth Model New (Internal Source) Model Future Work Existing (Osmotic) Model Assumptions:  Existing (Osmotic) Model Assumptions The tissue is cylindrical, with radius x, growing only in the direction of the long axis z. The distribution of  is axially symmetric. The growth pattern does not change in time. Conductivities in the radial (Kx) and longitudinal (Kz) directions are independent so radial flow is not modified by longitudinal flow. Boundary Conditions (Ω):  Boundary Conditions (Ω)  = 0 on Ω Corresponds to growth of root in pure water Δx = Δz = 0.1 mm Xmax = 0.5 mm Zmax = 10 mm xmax zmax Solving for :  Solving for  Known: L(z), Kx, Kz,  on Ω Unknown:  L(z) =▼·(K·▼) (1) L(z) = Kxxx+Kzzz+ Kxxx + Kzzz (2) Results:  Results *Remember each individual element will travel through this pattern* Distribution of Water Fluxes Growth Sustaining  Distribution Analysis of Results:  Analysis of Results Empirical Results No radial  gradient Longitudinal  gradient does exist Model Results Presentation Outline:  Presentation Outline Plant Biology Existing (Osmotic) Root Growth Model New (Internal Source) Model Future Work Phloem Source:  Phloem Source Adds internal known sources Doesn’t change previous matrix: L = [Coeff]  Gould, et al 2004 Model Results:  Model Results Preliminary Results New (Internal Source) Existing (Osmotic) New Model Assumptions:  New Model Assumptions The tissue is cylindrical, with radius x, growing only in the direction of the long axis z. The distribution of  is axially symmetric. The growth pattern does not change in time. Conductivities in the radial (Kx) and longitudinal (Kz) directions are independent so radial flow is not modified by longitudinal flow. http://home.earthlink.net/~dayvdanls/root.gif Presentation Outline:  Presentation Outline Plant Biology Existing (Osmotic) Root Growth Model New (Internal Source) Model Future Work End Goal…:  End Goal… Computational 3-d box of soil through which we can grow plant roots in real time while monitoring the change of growth variables. Do you have any further questions?:  Do you have any further questions? Brandy Wiegers Graduate Group of Applied Mathematics (GGAM) University of California, Davis Email: wiegers@math.ucdavis.edu This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant #DMS-0135345 References:  References John S. Boyer and Wendy K. Silk, Hydraulics of plant growth, Functional Plant Biology 31 (2004), 761:773. C.A.J.Fletcher, Computational techniques for fluid dynamics: Specific techniques for different flow categories, 2nd ed., Springer Series in Computational Physics, vol. 2, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991. Cosgrove DJ and Li Z-C, Role of expansin in developmental and light control of growth and wall extension in oat coleoptiles., Plant Physiology 103 (1993), 1321:1328. Ralph O. Erickson and Wendy Kuhn Silk, The kinematics of plant growth, Scientific America 242 (1980), 134:151. Nick Gould, Michael R. Thorpe, Peter E. Minchin, Jeremy Pritchard, and Philip J. White, Solute is imported to elongation root cells of barley as a pressure driven-flow of solution, Functional Plant Biology 31 (2004), 391:397. Jeremy Pritchard, Sam Winch, and Nick Gould, Phloem water relations and root growth, Austrian Journal of Plant Physiology 27 (2000), 539:548. J. Rygol, J. Pritchard, J. J. Zhu, A. D. Tomos, and U. Zimmermann, Transpiration induces radial turgor pressure gradients in wheat and maize roots, Plant Physiology 103 (1993), 493:500. W.K. Silk and K.K. Wagner, Growth-sustaining water potential distributions in the primary corn root, Plant Physiology 66 (1980), 859:863. T.K.Kim and W. K. Silk, A mathematical model for ph patterns in the rhizospheres of growth zones., Plant, Cell and Environment 22 (1999), 1527:1538. Hilde Monika Zimmermann and Ernst Steudle, Apoplastic transport across young maize roots: effect of the exodermis, Planta 206 (1998), 7:19.

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