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rivers2

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Published on January 8, 2008

Author: Davide

Source: authorstream.com

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Fluvial Landforms:  Fluvial Landforms Chapter 7 Floodplains:  Floodplains Areas adjacent to channel inundated during floods Floodplains are built by lateral accretion on point bars and bend cut-off overbank deposition Floodplain of meandering river may be dominated by abandoned bends:  Floodplain of meandering river may be dominated by abandoned bends ridges on former floodplains: “accretion topography” standing water in some abandoned channels: “oxbow lakes” Abandoned bend is now part of floodplain:  Abandoned bend is now part of floodplain Overbank deposition:  Overbank deposition General over-topping of banks and deposition can result in formation of natural levees Break in levee (crevasse) can result in fan-shaped deposit on floodplain (crevasse splay deposit) Slide6:  Breach in channel bank results in overbank flow Crevasse splay deposit in sandstone -- Pakistan:  Crevasse splay deposit in sandstone -- Pakistan Photo by B. Willis River Terraces:  River Terraces Flat-topped, steep-sided benches elevated above floodplain Form due to relative base level fall (e.g. uplift; eustatic sea level fall) change in discharge:sediment yield Fig. 7.12:  Fig. 7.12 Paired terraces commonly result from rapid incision Unpaired terraces result from lateral erosion and migration Deltas:  Deltas Discrete shoreline protuberances formed where a river empties into ocean or lake Form from sediment deposition; delta grows if deposition rate is greater than rate at which coastal processes can redistribute sediment Delta progradation deposits coarser nearshore sediments over finer offshore deposits.:  Delta progradation deposits coarser nearshore sediments over finer offshore deposits. Morphology of a Delta:  Morphology of a Delta Delta top (subaerial channels and bays) Delta Front (subaqueous, steeply inclined) Prodelta (offshore marine, low slopes) Influences on Delta Morphology:  Influences on Delta Morphology River influence -- sediment load; deposition rate Wave influence -- moves sediment along shore Tidal influence -- river mouths become funnel-shaped Nile delta -- wave dominated; Mississippi delta -- river dominated:  Nile delta -- wave dominated; Mississippi delta -- river dominated River-Dominated Delta:  River-Dominated Delta Distributary channels Leeves Bays Wave-Dominated Delta:  Wave-Dominated Delta Wave-driven longshore drift redistributes sediment along the coast. Tide-Dominated Delta:  Tide-Dominated Delta Indus Delta Tidal channels and flats Tidal channels widen toward sea Wave- & Tide-Influenced Delta:  Wave- & Tide-Influenced Delta Cyclic sedimentation on deltas:  Cyclic sedimentation on deltas Deltas prograde as river brings sediment in, builds delta lobe Avulsion causes river to change course; delta lobe shifts to new location Abandoned lobe subsides Avulsion -- major shift in river course during large flood:  Avulsion -- major shift in river course during large flood Deltaic Sandstone over Marine Shale:  Deltaic Sandstone over Marine Shale Foresets in Frewens Sandstone:  Foresets in Frewens Sandstone

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